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of the coins of this series must feel that they owe a debt of grati-
tude to Dr. Haeberlin for publishing the results of his studies. With
the help of his work on " the Metrological foundation of the Middle-
Italian Systems of Money ", we may draw up tables of w^eights
which are in harmony with the older Eastern systems from which
they were derived, but the weights of the coins themselves vary so
much and the various writers who have treated the subject differ so
widely that we cannot hope to arrive at any satisfactory result
without more trouble than most students are willing to take. Perhaps
we are wrong in expecting the precision of modern work in the
systems of men so recently emerging from barbarism.

Dr. Haeberlin has shewn in his work " Die Metrologischen Grund-
lagen der altesten Mittelitalischen Miinzsysteme " published in the
" Zeitschrift fiir Niimisfuatik'' (XXVll Band) that there were six
different weights called Asses, Libr£e or Pounds, in Middle and
Southern Italy, a long time before the introduction of money in
Rome and the other territories of Central Italy.

He has named them : i) the Oscan, 2) the Xeo-Roman, 3) the
Phoenician or East Italian, 4) the Italian, 5) the Umbrian, and 6)
the Sicilian Pounds.

It is interesting to notice that all these systems are of Babylonian
or of Phoenician origin, and were brought from the East by the
Phoenician traders. The figures given in the following tables are
the exact proportions aimed at rather than those attained, for the
coins preserved to our day in perfect condition seldom weigh
exactly what they should do according to the Tables. The process
of coining copper and silver was rude in comparison with modern
methods, but the gold coins were more carefully treated and are of
good weight.


I The Osco-Latin 272.875 = 1/120 32745. Light Bab. JR..

Common Norm.
II The Neo-Roman 327.45 =1/100 —
III The Italian 34110 ^ i/ioo 34110. Light Bab. JK.

Royal Norm.

— 90 —

IV The Phoenician 379.00 ^=1/100 37900. Phoenician heavy

JR.. Royal Norm.
^' The Umbrian 255.82 =1/120 30698. 44LightBab. weight

Royal Norm.
\l The Sicilian 218.30 =1/100 21830. Light Phoen. JK.

Common Norm.

N°^ I and II differ only in dividing the same Talent in different
ways. No I into a Mina of 1/60 and No II into a Mina of 1/50.

The division into 1/60 is earlier than that into 1/50.

Out of the Common Norm there arose three heightened or
Royal Norms of the original Talents :

That raised by 1/20 = the Royal Norm A;

That raised by 1/24 ^= the Royal Norm B ;

That raised by 1/36 = the Ro3'al Norm C.

The Talents of Nos III, IV and V are all of the Royal Norm B.

The introduction of the Babylonian and Phoenician weight
systems into Central Italy has been treated by D'' Haeberlin in the
Berliner Mun:^jlatter of 1908, in an article entitled " Roms Eintritt
in den Weltverkehr ".

In this article Dr. Haeberlin shews that three different weight
systems were introduced, and on these the systems of weighing gold,
silver and copper were founded.

I. The double system of the Light Babylonian Silver Talent.

a) The light Babylonian Silver Talent of the Common Norm ot

32745 gi"-

b) The light Babylonian Silver Talent of the Royal Norm of
341 10 gr.

II. The Heavy Phoenician Silver Talent of the Royal Norm of
37900 gr. derived as 5/6 of a Talent of 4580 gr.

III. The light Bahvlonian Weight Talent of the Royal Norm of
30698.44 gr.

The Sicilian litra is i/ioo of the Common Norm of the light
Phoenician Silver Talent of 21830 gr.


The Tzuo Light Babylonian Silver Talents.

I. The Talent of the Common Norm of 32745 gr. spreading
to South Etruria, Rome, Latium, Campania from which was derived
in Bronze two Libra! As systems.

a) The Osco-Latin Pound of 272.375 gr. = 1/120 of the Talent.
The Roman reduction to half the weight.

b) The Neo-Roman Pound of 327.45 gr. = i/ioo of the Talent.
Pounds Nos I and 11.

— 91 —

2. The Talent of the Royal Norm B of 34110 gr. spread as
No 1, Apulia and Samnium.

A. In gold and silver.

a) The heavy Etruscan Silver system with a stater of 11.37 R''-
Litra of 1.137 gr. = scriptulum ; gold of 1/4 stater and lighter.

b) The Romano-Campanian Six scruple system. Silver and gold
Didrachms and Drachms of 6.82 and 3.41 gr.

B. In Bronze an As system according to the Italian Pound ol
341.10 gr. = i/ioo Talent.

Pound No III.


The Talent of 37900 gr. =^ the Phoenician reduced Talent (5/6
of the heavy Phoenician Silver Talent of the higher Norm B of
45480 gr.)." ! . . .

This was spread over Campania, Apulia, Vestini, Picenum,
Eastern Etruria, and in the North West to Volterra.

1. In Silver the Phoenician Didrachms and Drachms of 7.58 and
3-79 gr.

2. In Bronze two As systems. Pound No iv.

a) According to the East Italian, Picenian or Phoenician Pound
of 379 gr. = i/ioo of the Talent.

b) According to 1/5 of the heavy Mina of 758gr. = 151.60 gr.,
the As weight.


The Talent of 30698,44 gr. = Light Babylonian Weight Talent,
heightened Norm B.

1. In Silver the light Etruscan Silver system. Stater of 8.53 gr.

2. In Bronze two As systems.

a) According to the pound of 255.82 gr. ^= 1/120 Talent.

b) According to 1/5 of the heavy Mina of 1023.28 gr. Pound
No V. 204.66. As weight.


A. To the first of the three systems belong the Pounds of 272.875
gr., 327.45 gr. and 341.10 gr. numbered I, II and III in our list ol
the six pounds.

I. Talent of )2J4J gr.

i) Divided in 60 Minas of 545.75 gr., roo Half Minas of
272.875 gr. (Oscan-Latin Pound).

2) Divided in 50 Minas of 645.90 gr., 100 Half Minas of
327.45 gr. (Neo-Roman Pound).

II. Talent of 341 10 gr.

Divided in 50 Minas of 682.20 gr., 100 Half Minas of 341.10 gr.
(Italian Pound). To these belong the following Libral - As Series :

— 92 —

To I, I ; the Roman Series (of the " urbs ") with the prow,
circa 335-286 B.C.

The light Roman-Latin Series (cast hy Romans at Capua for the
use of the Latins, circa 312-286 B.C.) :

a) The Latin Wheel-series.

b) The Series with the head of Roma without symbols, or with
the club on botli sides.

c) The light Mercury and Janus series with the sickle on reverse.

d) The light Apollo series with bunch of grapes on both sides ;
the Kantharos series of the Roman Colony at Cales, after 312 B.C,.
a certain portion of the autonomous Aes grave ot Central-Italy ; at
last the Roman Reduction : As in weight of the Libral-Semis =
136.44 gr., between 286 and 268 B.C.

To I, 2 ; the Heavy Mercury and Janus series without symbols,
286-268 B.C., another portion of the autonomous Aes grave of
Central Italy.

(In the year 268 B.C. the pound of 327.45 gr. was introduced
also in the Capital ; it is the basis of the new bimetallic system ;
Sextantal-As = 1/6; Denarius = 1/72, Quinarius ■= 1/144,
Sestertius = 1/288 of this pound).

To II; the heavy Apollo series without symbols, circa 286-268
B.C. in Apulia the Libral series of Luceria and of Venusia ;

The Romano-Campanian silver and gold struck by Rome since
the year 312 B.C. Didrachm 6.82 gr. = 1/50, drachm 3.41 gr.
= i/ioo of the Pound of 341 gr.

The heavy Etruscan silver standard : Stater of 11.37 gr. and its
Litra or the scripulum of 1. 137 gr. ; since circa 400 B.C., vide p. 10.

B. The second system Talent of 37900 gr. :

i) Divided in 50 Minas of 758 gr., 100 Half Minas of 379 gr.

2) Divided in 50 Minas of758gr., 250 As of 15 1.60 gr.

In regard to i) The Phoenician silver Standard, Didrachm
7.58 gr. = 1/50, Drachm 3.79 = i/ioo of the Pound ; in Cam-
pania various autonomous cities, and the older Roman-Campanian
silver (335-312 B.C.), in Apulia = Arpi, Teate.

The heavy Libral series (As of 379 gr.) : Vestini, Hatria, (Pice-
num), Ariminum (Umbria), after 300 B.C.

In regard to 2) The light Etruscan As series (As of 151.60 gr.
•= 1/5 Mina), after 300 B.C.

C. To the third system, Talent of 30698.44 gr.

i) Divided in 60 Minas of 511.64 gr., 120 Half-Minas of 255.82
gr. (Pound).

2.60 double Minas of 1023.28 gr. divided each in 5 Asses of
204.66 gr.

In regard to i) the light Etruscan silver standard, Didrachm
8.53 gr. ■— 1/60 Mina, since circa 450 B.C. the Libral series of Tuder
(Umbria), As of 255.82 gr., circa 300 B.C.

93 —

In regard to 2) the heavy Etruscan As series (As of 204.66 gr.
= 1/5 of the heavy Mina), after 300 B.C.

/. e. the heavy Etruscan As of 204.66 gr. is not to be regarded
as 2/5 of the Hght Mina of 51 1.64 gr. but as 1/5 of the heavy Mina
of 1023.28 gr.


This is sometimes called the older light Roman Pound. The
weight of this pound was 272.875 gr. and its origin was from the
Light Babylonian Silver Talent of the Common Norm.



Half Mina


Half Stater


545.75 ^^ 1/60 ot the Talent
272.875 = 1/120 —
10.915 = 1/50 of the Mina
5.458 i/ioo

This pound, we know from Dionysius of Halicarnassus, was in
use in Rome as early as 477 B.C.

It was likewise the Pound of Southern Etruria, of Latium, and
of the Oscan part of Campania. On this pound was founded the
libral As series of Rome, and the As reduced to one half.

The division of the Libral series was duodecimal.


Libra! As and Duodecimal divisions.



625 gram, or

12630.12 grains


272.875 —

8420.08 -
4210.04 —



•44 —

2105.02 —




90.96 —
68.22 -^
45.48 —

1403.34 —
1052.31 —

735- —


1 1

•74 —
•37 —

350.92 —
175.46 —

mi-libral As and D

ecimal divisions.




1364.40 gram.

409.31 - 6315.06 grains
272.875 - 4210.04 —


Semis or 5/10


2105.02 —
- 1052.51 —

Triens or 4/10


~ 842

Quadrans or 3/10
Sextans or 2/10



421 —

Uncia or i/io


— 210.50 —

Semiuncia or 1/2C



- 105.25 —

Quartuncia or 1/40

3.41 -

— 52.62 —

— 94 —

The names for parts of the decimal As, Quincunx, Teruncius,
Biunx were not used in Rome, only in Eastern Italy.

The relative value of silver to bronze was i : 120. The reduced
As was divided decimally because it was the copper equivalent of
the silver unit, the scripulum, and silver was reckoned decimally.

Since the Aerarium was obliged to exchange each reduced As for
a silver scripulum the weight of the As was gradually diminished,
but even the lightest As of 50 gr., or even less, had the value of the
full semilibral standard. Of the Libral system the Triple and Double
Asses occur onlv in the Roman Latin Wheel series while durine; the
period of the Reduction the Decussis, Tressis and Dupondius were
also cast in the Capital, but not of full weight, because they were
not cast at the beginning of the period.


The weight of this pound was 327.45 gr.

It was adopted by Rome in the year 286 B.C. as her coinage
for Latium and is represented by the Heavy Janus and Mercury
series. It is the half Mina of the common norm of the light Babylo-
nian Silver Talent of 32745 gr. This talent is the centumpondium
of the Pound.

Talent, 32745 gr.

Mina, 1/50 Talent 654.90 gr.

Half Mina, 1/ 100 Talent 327.45 = the Pound or As.

The various proportions of the As.

As 3-7-45 grammes or 5050 grains.

Semis 163.72 — 2525

Triens 109.15 — 1684 —

Quadrans 81.86 — 1262 —

Sextans 54-58 842 —

Uncia 27.29 — 421 —

Semuncia 13.64 ^ 210.5 —

In the year 268 B.C. this new Pound was introduced also into
the Capital, and was the basis of the bimetallic system.

JR.. Denarius X 4.548 grammes = 4 scripula = 10 Asses

Quinarius V 2.274 — =2 scripula =5 —

Sestertius IIS 1.137 — = i scripulum = 2 1/2
JE. Sextantal AS = 54.58 grammes or 8^2 grains.
Semis 27.29 — -|2i

Triens 18.19 — 280 —

— 95 —

Quadrans i v64 — 2io —

Sextans 9.09 — 1^0 —

Uncia 4-548 — 70.2 —

One Denarius = 120 uncise, each of the same weight as the
Denarius, so silver was to bronze i : 120.


Weighing 341.10 gr. This pound is i/ioo of the light Bab3-Io-
nian Silver Talent of the royal norm of 3410 gr., heavier 1/24 than
the same talent of the common norm of 32745 ; therefore both
talents are in the proportion of 24 to 25.

In the original Babylonian division into 60 Minas we hnd this
talent in Etruria, then in Campania divided in 50 Minas.

Etruscan division :

Talent 34 no gr.

Mina, 1/60 Talent 568.49

Half Mina, 1/120 — 284.25

Stater, 1/50 Mina ii-37

1/2 Stater, i/ioo — 5-685

i/ioStater, 1/500 — (scripulum) 1.137

Roniano-Canipanian division :

Talent 34^ 10 gr.

Mina, 1/50 Talent 682.20

HalfMina, i/ioo (Pound) 341.10
Didrachm, 1/50 Pound 6.82

Drachm, i/ioo — 3.41

Scripulum, 1/300 — 1-137

The Stater of 11.37 P'- i^'' ^^'^^ stater of the heavy Etruscan silver
system from about 400 B.C.; in this system the value of 2.274 t^^'-
viz. the heavy or the double scripulum is the silver equivalent of the
Oscan-Latin copper pound of 272-875 gr. and therefore of great
importance for Rome, whose system of libral aes grave was founded
on this pound. Rome herself in the reform of her Campanian silver
currency in the year 312 B.C. instead of the didrachm of 7.58 gr.
(Phoenician standard) issued the didrachm of 6.82 gr., with the
drachm of 3.41 gr. and divided the drachm in three scripula of
1. 1 37 gr. After this time the scripulum was the silver unity of
Rome and remained as such a unit also in the denarius-currency
under the name of " sestertius ". Being the silver equivalent of the
libral Oscan Semis of 136.44 gr. the scripulum had such an influence

- 96 -

on the bronze currency of the Capital, that the Roman Libral As
of 272.375 gr. was reduced to the Half (136.44 gr.), so that the
Semi-libral As and the scripulum represented the same value in
bronze and in silver. That is the beginning of the Roman bimetallic
system, which we find continued also in the denarius-currency during
the sextantal and uncial currency of the As. The types of the six-
scruple didrachms are the following :

a) in the second period (312-286 B.C.) :

Head of Roma in Phrygian helmet and Victoria ROMANOM ;

Head of Apollo and his horse, ROMA;

Head of Mars and club, and Horse and club ROMA ;

Head of Mars and Horse's bust, sickle ROMA;

b) in the third period (after 286 B.C.) :

Head of Janus and Jupiter in quadriga ROMA (Quadrigatus).
Together with the introduction of the quadrigati at Capua in
the Capital begins the Semilibral-Reduction with the division of
the As in 10 ounces, so that the 10 ounces of the reduced As are of
the same value as the 10 bronze libellae ' of the quadrigatus struck
in the following pieces all with the inscription Roma :

Roman reduced ounces.

4 Libellae = Head of Juno, etc. 34-58 gr. = 4

3 — Head of Heracles, etc. 40-93 = 3

2 — Eagle, etc. 27.29 = 2

I — Head of Sol, etc. 13-64 =1

1/2 — Female head turreted and

horseman 6.82 =1/2

The six-scruple Didrachm of 6.82 gr. contains 6 X 20 = 120
1/2 libellae of 6.82 gr., silver to copper also at Capua = i : 120.

In the aes grave we find the pound of 341.10 gr. as well in the
west as in the east of Italy.

a) In the west in one of the two heavy Roman Latin series, the
heavy Apollo series, with division of the As in 12 ounces (circa 286-
268 B.C.).

b) In the east applied by two Apulian cities, Luceria and Venusia,
(Latin Colonies) as part of a decimal system (circa 300 B.C.).


As weighing 341.10 grammes or 5264 grains.

Semis, 1/2 — 170.55 — 2632 —

Triens, 1/3 — ii3-70 — 1754-6 —

I. B. The libella is i/io of the scripulum, 1/60 of the quadrigatus ; the quadri-
gatus of 6,82 gr. therefore contains 60 Hbells of 13.64 gr. or 120 hbellse of
6.82 gr.

— 97 —

Quadrans, 1/4 — 85.27 — 13 16

Sextans, 1/6 — 56.85 — 877.3

Uncia, 1/12 — 28.43 — 438.6

Semiuncia, 1/24 (none issued).




341.10 grammes or




170.55 —




136.44 —




102.33 —




68.22 —




34.11 —




17.6 -




This pound of 379 gr. is the half of a Mina of 758 gr., the 1/60
of the heavy Phoenician Silver Talent of the royal norm weighing
45.480 gr. But since in Italy each pound is accompanied by its
centumpondium, we have reason to believe that in Italy out of
50 Minas of 758 gr. was constructed a " derivated Phoenician"
Talent of 37.900 gr.

Phoenician construction :


45480 gr.


1/60 Talent

758 -

Half Mina,

1/120 —

^79 —


1/50 Mina

15.16 —

1/2 Stater,

i/ioo —


1/4 Stater,

1/200 —

3-79 —

Italian construction :


37900 gr.


1/50 Talent

758 -

Half Mina,

i/ioo Pound

379 —



vacat —


1/50 Pound



i/ioo —

3-79 —

The Didrachm of 7.58 gr. in various autonomous cities of Cam-
pania was already in use before the Roman occupation and was
applied also by Rome in the first period of her Campanian silver


— 98 —

currency, circa 335-312 B.C. The Didrachms struck by Rome during
this period, all with the inscription ROMANO, are :

a) Head of bearded Mars helmeted, horse's bust;

b) Head of Apollo, prancing horse and star;

c) Head of young Heracles, wolf and twins.

The drachm ot 3.79 gr. was not coined, but there exists a rare
litra (i/io didrachm) of 0.76 gr. of the type a. As often in the
later emissions of ancient coins we find a diminution of the weight.
This is seen on Roman brass, and also on the later didrachms of
Cales, Suessa, Teate, Nuceria, etc., which seldom surpass a weight
of 7.20 or 7.30 gr. Of this light weight are also the didrachms ot
two Apulian cities Arpi and Teate.

Of a heavier weight are the drachms of Velia of 3.94 gr. That is
the weight of Phokaea and of Karthago (double elevation of the
common norm = -j- 1/12) and therefore we may distinguish in
Campania three silver standards :
Didrachm of 7.88 gr. =Phokaean or old Campanian standard.

— of 7.58 — = Phoenician or new Campanian standard.

— of 6.82 — = Roman or Romano-Campanian (6 scruple

= standard.)

In the acs orave on the pound of 379 gr. are founded the series

of the Vestini, of Hatria (Picenum), and of Ariminum (Umbria)

all after 300 B.C. Here in the east of Italy the division of this

pound is always decimal.

As = 379 gr. Biunx 75.80 gr.

Quincunx = 189.50 — Uncia 37-90 —

Quatrunx = 151.60 — Semuncia 18.95 —

Teruncius -= 113.70 —

Also the light series of the Etruscan aes grave belongs to the
system of the heavy Phoenician Mina of 758 gr. In Etruria the As
is not identical, as in the other parts ol Central Itah^ with the
market pound ; it is not a copper pound in the sense of a Half of the
light Mina, but is the fifth part of a heavy Mina. The As weight of
the light Etruscan aes grave is 1/5 of the Mina of 758 gr. = 151.60
gr. and therefore the Qiiincussis is the full Mina. The system is the
following :

Quincussis = 5 As 758 — gr. Triens 1/3 As 50.53 gr.

Dupondius ^ 2 — 303.20 — Quadrans 1/4 — 37-90 —

As 151.60 — Sextans 1/6 — 25.27 —

Semis =1/2 75-8o — Uncia 1/12 — 12.63 —

To this system belong the wheel and anchor series ; wheel and
amphora; archaic wheel on both sides; archaic wheel and three

— 99 —

crescents, and the aes grave of Volterra, further the oval series. The
Qiiincussis occur only in the wheel and anchor series. The whole
Etruscan aes grave seems to be not older than 300 B.C.


The Umbrian pound weighed 255.82 gr. It is the Half of the
Mina of the royal Norm B. of the Babylonian weight talent of
30698.44 gr.

Talent 30698.44 gr.

Mina 1/60 Talent 511.64 —

Half Mina 1/120 Pound 255.82 —

Stater 1/60 Mina 8.527 —

1/2 Stater 1/120 — 4-264 —

This is the original Babylonian division : Talent := 60 X 60
= 3600 Staters. This Talent was in use in a great part of Etruria
and in the South of Umbria ; but since the pound in the form of
the As only existed in Umbria, this pound was called by Dr. Hae-
berlin the Umbrian Pound.

In Umbria the city of Tuder founded her libral aes grave about
300 B.C. in conformity to this pound, divided into 12 ounces.


255.82 gr.




127.91 — .




85-27 -



In the lucst of Etruria the Stater of 8.53 gr. is the Stater of the
light Etrurian silver system, and there is no doubt that Populonia
commenced this currency at a very early period, about 450 B.C.
The stater is signed with X = 10 litrae, later with X X, when
the litra of 85 gr. was diminished to the half = 4.3 gr.

In the east of Etruria the coins of the heavy series or the Etrus-
can aes grave are founded upon the same system ; they are the fifth
part of the double (heavy) Mina of 1023.28 gr. The As weighing
1/5 = 204.66 gr. This division is duodecimal :

As 204.66 gr. Quadrans 51.16 gr.

Semis 102.33 — Sextans 34- n —
Triens 68.22 — Uncia 17.06

To this system belong (about 300 B.C.), the three heavy wheel
series : wheel on both sides ; wheel and kantharus ; wheel and
bipennis; also the series with sacrificial instruments.

— lOO


This pound is derived from the light Phoenician Silver Talent
weighing 21.830, divided in 50 Minas as in the following Table :

Talent 21830 gr.

Mina 1/50 Talent 436.66 - Attic Mina.

Half Mina i/ioo — 218.30 — Sicilian Copper Pound,

Stater 1/50 Mina 109.15 — Sicilian Copper Litra,

Stater 1/50 Mina 8.732 — Didrachm or Numos,

1/2 Stater I / 100 — 4.366 — Drachm,

i/ioStater 1/500 — 8732 - Sicilian Silver Litra.

The dividing of the Talent into 50 Minas is not Greek ; the Greek
or Attic Talent belonging to this table has a weight of 26.196 gr.
and is constructed out of 60 Minas of 436.66 gr. The Sicilians did
not cast aes grave, but from a very remote time their account was
based on the copper pound, the heavy Litra of 218.30 gr., later on
the light Litra of 109.15 gr. (1/2 = Pound). In the proportion of
1:125 ^he light Copper Litra is the equivalent of a silver weight of
8732 gr., Silver Litra. From the beginning the Sicilian coinage was
in silver, and therefore we find the Litra coined in silver. An excep-
tion is found only in the coinage of the isle of Lipara (circa 400 B.C.)
with its copper Litra of 109.10 gr. (struck, not cast, divided in
2 Hemilitras, 3 Tetras, 4 Trias, 6 Hexas and 12 Oncias). Also the
silver litra. In fact a copper value was divided duodecimally in
12 ounces. The Attic values of Drachm, Didrachm, Tetradrachm
etc., were adopted on the island as being 5 X 10 X 20 X, the Silver
Litra and therefore the Sicilian division of these monies is not the
division in obols (i Attic Drachm = 6 Obols) but the division in

In the proportion of i : 125 a silver quantity of the weight of
the Sicilian pound of 218.30 gr. was the equivalent of 100 Osco-
Latin pounds copper, or 100 Roman Libral-Asses.

— lOI —


The region called Apulia extends along the south-eastern coast of
Italy for about a hundred and forty miles, and is about forty miles
broad from East to West. The northern half, from the river Tifernus
to the Aufidus, consists almost entirely of a great plain, sloping from
the Apennines to the sea ; the hilly and well wooded southern
half was as thinly inhabited in the third century before Christ as it
is now, except for a stretch of fertile plain, about ten miles broad,
and fifty miles long, near the sea shore, which has always been well
populated. On the great northern plains flocks of sheep and herds
of horses were tended, and from these sheep the finest wool in Italy
was supplied. There were three distinct national elements in the
population; the Apulians dwelling in the northern plains, members of
the Oscan or Ausonian race, were always hostile to the Samnites.

The inhabitants of the southern plains were Daunians of Pelasgic
origin, and preserved legends of that race, such as that concerning
Diomed ; thus it was only natural that they should receive Greek

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