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THE GODS

OP

NORTHERN BUDDHISM



OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

LONDON EDINBURGH GLASGOW NEW YORK
TORONTO MELBOURNE BOMBAY

HUMPHREY MILFORD M.A.

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY



THE GODS

OF

NORTHERN BUDDHISM

THEIR HISTORY, ICONOGRAPHY AND PROGRESSIVE

EVOLUTION THROUGH THE NORTHERN

BUDDHIST COUNTRIES

BY

ALICE GETTY

li

WITH A GENERAL INTRODUCTION ON BUDDHISM

TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH OF

J, DENIKER

DOCTEUR ES SCIENCES

ILLUSTRATIONS FROM THE COLLECTION OF
HENRY H. GETTY



OXFORD
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

1914



T



o v-



* • * - ,•*



AUTHOR'S PREFACE

It is difficult for those who are unacquainted with the iconography of the gods
of the Mahayana Pantheon to realize the degree of interest that may be attached
to even a crude representation of a Northern Buddhist divinity.

To the uninitiated the images of these deities are only of value as works of art,
or as grotesque curios, with their various heads and many arms ; but to the initiated,
apart from their artistic merit, they furnish an almost inexhaustible fund for study
and research.

The most accurate source of information in regard to the Northern Buddhist
divinities has been found in the sadhana, or texts of invocations of the gods, in which
they are described with much detail. Unfortunately, sadhana of all the gods of
the Mahayana Pantheon have not as yet been discovered, and there remain a number
of deities about whom very little is known. At any moment, however, a flood of light
may be thrown on these obscure divinities, for, among others, Mr. Ekai Kawaguchi
(a Japanese Buddhist priest who spent three years in Tibet disguised as a Chinese
monk) is translating some valuable manuscripts which he succeeded in carrying out
of Tibet.

The study of the iconography of the Northern Buddhist deities is therefore in its
infancy. With the exception of a few erudite books, little has been written on the
subject, and it is only by persistent research, and by a comparative study of the
examples in the museums of Europe, India, and Japan, as well as in the temples of the
Northern Buddhist countries, that one can arrive at a comprehensive knowledge
of these gods and of their evolution during the process of transmission from India via
Chinese Turkestan (and later, through Tibet) to China, Mongolia, and Japan.

The Tibetan and Mongolian lamas, from whom one would expect to get
much valuable information, are, unfortunately, with few exceptions, more versed
in the tenets of their religion than in the iconography of their gods : and as Tibet is
still 'a forbidden land', intercourse with the Tibetan lamas in their own country
is practically impossible. Among the Japanese Buddhist priests, however, there are
some very learned men.

Through the kindness of the late Professor Arthur Lloyd, whose death has
recently deprived Japan of one of its greatest authorities on Japanese Buddhism,
I was put into communication with Mr. S. Tachibana, Buddhist priest and Sanskrit
scholar, who has kindly made many researches for me. I have also to thank Sramana
Kawaguchi of Benares, Sramana Jeshu Oda, Rector of the ChomojiMonastery atNagoya,
and Mr. Hanazono of Tokyo, for their help in making certain researches possible.



3G0426



vi AUTHOR'S PREFACE

I owe special thanks to M. A. Foucher for his kindness in reading through
my manuscript and, as I am not a Sanskrit scholar, in revising the marking of
the letters in the Sanskrit words used in the text. I am also much indebted to
him, as well as to Sir Aurel Stein, explorer in Central Asia, to Herr von Le Coq,
explorer in Chinese Turkestan and attached to the Museum fur Volkerkunde, Berlin,
as well as to Mr. E. Denison Ross, officer in charge of the Records of the Government
of India, and philological secretary of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, for their kindness
in giving me opportunities of studying Buddhist temple paintings, frescoes, and
miniatures which are not accessible to the general public.

My initiation into the intricacies of the Mahayana system I owe to M. J.
Deniker, whose general study on the vast and complicated doctrine of Buddhism in
its various ramifications will form a sufficient introduction to the subject for the
general reader, and will enable him to approach with a fair measure of equipment the
detailed discussion of the individual deities, their symbols and characteristics, found
in the following pages.

I place my book under the protection of the goddess Sarasvati. May she inspire
her consort Manjusn to draw his sword of Wisdom and ' cleave the clouds of
Ignorance ' so that in time the West may come to a clearer understanding of the East.

A. GETTY.

Paris, March 1913.





CONTENTS




Author's Preface .........


PAGE
V


Introduction .


.


xvii


I.


Adi-Buddha .


.


1


II.


Buddhas


.


8


III.


Dhyani-Buddhas .




25


IV.


Dhyani-Bodhisattva


.


42


V.


Vajrapani


.


47


VI.


AvalokitesVara


.


52


VII.


Kwan-shi-yin .


.


67


VIII.


Kwan-non




77


IX.


Mafijusri


.


95


X.


Feminine Divinities




102


XI.


Yi-dam .


*


123


XII.


Dharmapala .


.


130


XIII.


Kuvera .




138


XIV.


Minor Gods .


.


147


XV.


Historical Personages deified


.


147


Ts'ogs-


Sin (Tsok-shin)


.


160


Chronological Table ....


.


163


Explanations of the Sanskrit, Tibetan, Chinese, Mongolian, and
Japanese words used in the Text . . . . .


164


Bibliography ....:.....


183


Index






187



II.


a.




b.




c.




d.


III.


a.




b.




c.




d.


IV.


a.




b.




c.




d.


V.


a.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PLATE FACING PAGE

Temple banner: Ts'ogs-sin or assembly of divinities. (In colours.) Tibetan.

Frontispiece. (Key to the Ts'ogs-sin facing p. 162.)
I. Gautama Buddha. Bronze gilt ; height 27 in. Presented to Henry H. Getty

by H.R.H. Prince Damrong of Siam. (In colours.) .... 1

Dai-nichi-nyorai. Wood, lacquered ; height 10 in. Japanese.

Vajradhara. Copper gilt ; height 6 in. Tibetan.

Akshobhya. Bronze, silver inlaid ; height 6J in. Tibetan.

Akshobhya. Copper gilt ; height 6 in. Tibetan ...... 2

Amitayus. Clay ; height 4 in. Found in the Honan, China.

Gautama Buddha. Clay ; height 4£ in. Presented to Henry H. Getty by

H.R.H. Prince Damrong of Siam.
Vajradhara. Wood, lacquered ; height 5^ in. Tibetan (?).

Maiijusri. Clay ; height 4^ in. Found in the Honan, China ... 2

Kongosatta. Wood ; height 6 in. Japanese.
Kongosatta. Wood, painted ; height 7 in. Japanese.
Vajrasattva. Bronze ; height 4 in. Tibetan.

Esoteric Buddha. Ivory ; height 2 in. From Gyantse, Tibet ... 6
Samvara](?) in a shrine. Wood, painted, exterior gold lacquer; height 4 in.

Japanese.

b. Aizen-myo-o in a pocket shrine. Sandal-wood, cover red lacquer ; height 2 in.

c. Kwan-non on a lion, Kongosatta on an elephant, pocket shrine. Sandal-

wood painted, exterior gold lacquer ; height 3£ in. Japanese . . 6

VI. a, Gautama Buddha seated on a five-headed serpent. Steel ; height 3f in. Cam-
bodia. Presented to Henry H. Getty by H.R.H. Prince Damrong of Siam.

b. Gautama Buddha. Bronze ; height 4J in. Singalese.

c. Dipankara Buddha. Bronze ; height 20 in. Siamese.

d. Gautama Buddha speaking his first words. Bronze ; height 6 in. Chinese (?). 9
VII. Gautama Buddha (first bath given by the Nagas). Bronze gilt ; height

11 in. Chinese 10

VIII. a. Gautama Buddha. Wood, carved with gold leaf; height 11 in. Siamese.

b. Gautama Buddha. Wood, covered with gold leaf ; height 22 in. Burmese (?).

c. Gautama Buddha. Gold lacquer ; height 23 in. Burmese.

d. Gautama Buddha. Silver ; height 4^ in. Siamese ..... 11
IX. Gautama Buddha. Bronze ; hair and draperies, silver ; mouth, eyes and ears,

enamel ; height 8£ in. Tibetan (?) 14

X. a. Gautama Buddha, ascetic. Wood ; height 3 in. Japanese.

b. Gautama Buddha, ascetic. Wood ; height 4 in. Japanese.

c. Gautama Buddha, ascetic. Bronze ; height 2£ in. Japanese.

d. Gautama Buddha, ascetic. Bamboo-root ; height 4 in. Japanese . . .16

1884 b



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



PLATE

XI. a.
b.



XII. a.

b.

c.
XIII. a.



c.



XIV.
XV. a,
L
e.
d.
XVI.
XVII.
XVIII. a.
b.
c.
d.
XIX. a.
b.
c.



XX.

XXI. a.

b.

c.
d.
XXII.
XXIII. a.

b.
c.
d.



FACING

Suddha. Bronze ; height 15£ in. Jain.

Gautama Buddha seated on a seven-headed Naga. Slate ; height 8 in. Cam-
bodian.

Head of Gautama Buddha, Gandhara School. Slate ; height 2£ in. Indian.
Presented to the author by Mme. Michel.

The Parinirvana of the Buddha. Wood, gold lacquer, and painted shrine ;
height 10 in. Japanese.

Manjusri. Wood ; height 1£ in. Stand and cover of flaming pearl, gold
lacquer. Japanese.

Juntei Kwan-non. Wood, gold lacquer, painted shrine ; height 10 in. Japanese .

StQpa containing prayers. Wood, painted ; height 18 in. From the Horyuji
temple, Nara. One of the miniature stupas ordered by the Empress
Koken Tenno in the twelfth century and presented to the temple.

Gautama Buddha. Clay plaque with Chinese characters at the back, ninth
century.

StQpa. Stone ; height 8 in. Presented to Henry H. Getty by the Mahant of
Bodh'-Gaya,

The Parinirvana of the Buddha. Stone j height 10 in. Fragment from Bodh'-
Gaya .......••••••

Maitreya on a Lion Throne. Bronze gilt ; height 10 in. Tibetan

Maitreya. Bronze with turquoise ornaments ; height 3 in. Tibetan.

Maitreya. Bronze ; height 3 in. Tibetan.

Maitreya. Bronze ; height 5 in. Tibetan.

Amitayus. Bronze ; height 5 in. Tibetan .......

Mandala (Garbhadhatu) . . . .' . •

The Thirteen Shin-gon Buddhas. Bronze ; height 7 in. Japanese

Amida. Wood, gold lacquer ; height 3£ in. Japanese.

Amida. Wood, gold lacquer ; height 5 in. Japanese.

Amitayus. Bronze gilt, turquoise ornaments ; height 9 in. Tibetan.

Amitayus. Bronze gilt ; height 3^ in. Tibetan ......

Naga lamp. Bronze ; height 11 in. Indian.

Amitayus. Bronze ; height 10 in. Tibetan.

MafijnsrT (or Avalokita ?). Bronze gilt with turquoise ornaments ; height 11 in.
Nepalese.

Buddhist emblematic vase. Copper gilt with mother-of-pearl ornaments ;
height 15 in. Tibetan ..........

Dogmatic form of Avalokitesvara. Bronze gilt with jewel ornaments ; height
30 in. Tibetan or Nepalese .

Avalokitesvara. Bronze gilt ; height 3 in. Tibetan.

Avalokitesvara. Bronze ; height 8 in. Chinese, with inscription at the back
too effaced to decipher.

Avalokitesvara. Bronze gilt ; height 4 in. Tibetan.

Avalokitesvara. Bronze lacquer, face painted ; height 6 in. Tibetan .

Avalokitesvara with twelve emanations. Bronze ; height 10 in. Tibetan

Avalokitesvara. Copper gilt : height 10^ in. Tibetan.

Avalokitesvara (?). Bronze ; height 5 in. Tibetan.

Avalokitesvara (Amoghapasa). Bronze gilt ; height 14 in. Tibetan.

Avalokitesvara. Bronze gilt ; height 17 in. Tibetan .....



PAGE



18



22



24
25



30
32

34



38



40
46



48
50



56



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



XI



PLATE

XXIV.
XXV.



XXVI.
XXVII.



XXVIII.
XXIX.

XXX.

XXXI.

XXXII.

XXXIII.

XXXIV.

XXXV.



XXXVI.
XXXVII.



XXXVIII.
XXXIX.



a.
b.
c.
d.
a.
b.
c.
d.
a.
b.
c.
d.
a.
b.
c.
d.

a.
b.
c.

(I.



a.
b.
c.



64
66



70



74



80



82



FACING PAGE

Avalokitesvara ' 22,000 arms '. Copper gilt ; height 16 in. Tibetan . . 58

a. Padmapani. Bronze gilt ; height 5 in. From the Honan, China.

b. Kwan-non. Bronze gilt ; height 5^ in. Japanese.

e and d. Padmapani. Bronze gilt ; height 6 in. From the Honan, China

Kwan-yin (Sung-tse). Porcelain ; height 15 in. Chinese. ....

a. Kwan-yin (Sung-tse). Porcelain; height 13 in. Chinese.

b. Kwan-yin. Porcelain ; height 8 in. Chinese.

c. Kwan-yin. Porcelain ; height 8 in. Chinese.

d. Kwan-yin. Porcelain ; height 5£ in. Chinese

Sho Kwan-non (Padmapani). Wood, face and breast covered with gold leaf,

glory painted ; height 20 in. From Nara, Japan .....

a. Ratnapani. Wood, gold lacquer ; height 8J in. Japanese.

b. Kwan-yin (Sung-tse). Biscuit ; height 9^ in. Chinese.

c. Kwan-yin (Sung-tse). Ivory ; height 4 in. Chinese.

d. Kwan-yin. Bronze ; height 6 in. Chinese ......

Kwan-non. Bronze gilt ; height 13^ in. Japanese. Small statue belongs

to the Imperial Treasures of Japan ......

Kwan-non (Gyo-ran or ' fish basket '). Wood, carved and painted ; height

29 in. Japanese ........... 86

Ki-shi-mo-jin. Wood ; height 8 in. Japanese.

Koyasu Kwan-non. Wood ; height 9 in. Japanese.

Ba-to Kwan-non. Wood, painted ; height 28 in. Japanese.

Ba-to Kwan-non. Bronze ; height 4 in. Japanese ..... 88

Jizo (Kshitigarbha), in a shrine. Silver ; height 9 in. Japanese.

Jizo. Wood, lacquered and painted ; height 12 in. Japanese.

Kshitigarbha. Bronze ; height 8 in. Tibetan.

Jizo. Wood ; height 12 in. Japanese . . . . . .94

Pu-h'ien (Samantabhadra). Bronze ; height 5 in. Chinese.

Wen-shu (ManjusrT). Bronze ; height 5 in. Chinese

Monju (ManjusrT). Wood, lacquered and painted ; height 31 in. Japanese.

Kwan-yin. Bronze gilt and painted ; height 9 in. Chinese. ... 96

Manjusn. Bronze gilt ; height 4 in. Tibetan.

ManjusrT. Copper gilt ; height 6 in. Nepalese.

Manjusn. Copper gilt ; height 4 in. Tibetan.

Simhanada-Lokesvara. Bronze ; height 6J in. Tibetan .... 98

White Tara ' of the seven eyes '. Painting ; height 12 in. Tibetan (in colours) 104

Tara. Bronze ; height 7 in. Tibetan.

Tara (Simhanada). Agglomerated material, lacquered ; height 10 in. Tibetan.

Tara. Copper gilt and yellow jade ; height 4 in. Tibetan.

Tara. Copper gilt with jewel ornaments ; height 14 in. Tibetan . . . 106

Tara. Bronze with traces of gilding and jewel ornaments ; height 28 in.

Tibetan 110

Aizen-myo-o in a shrine. Wood, lacquered and painted ; height 5 in. Japanese.
Marlcl in a shrine. Wood, lacquered and painted ; height 3£ in. Japanese.
Buddha, ascetic, in a shrine. Wood ; reliquary with ' Buddha bone ' ; height

5^ in. Japanese.
Juntei Kwan-non in a shrine. Wood, lacquered and painted ; height 6 in.

Japanese ............ 112

ba



Xll



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



PLATE

XL.

XLI. a.
b.
c.
d.
XLII.
XLIII. a.
b.
c.

XLIV. a.

b.

c.

d,

XLV.

XLVI. a.

b.
XLVII. a.

b.

c.

(I.
XLVIII. a.

b.

c.

d.
XL1X.

L. a.

b.

c.

d,

LI.

LII. a.

b.

c.

d.
LIU. a.

b.

c.

d.
LIV.
LV.
LVI. a.

b.

c.

d.



FACING

Marlcl(?) with three small heads behind the central head. Wood, lacquered ;

urna, a pearl ; height 21 in. Japanese .......

Marlcl. Bronze ; height 2 in. Tibetan.

Ushnishavijaya. Bronze gilt ; height 4 in. Tibetan.

Ushnishavijaya. Bronze ; height 10 in. Tibetan.

Kwan-non. Bronze ; height 3 in. Japan se ..... .

Sarasvatl. Painting on a leaf from the Bodhi-tree (in colours)

A Kurukulla. Bronze; height 12 in. Tibetan.

Kurukulla. Agglomerated material, gold lacquered ; height 12 in. Tibetan.

Dakini. Coral, in a shrine, gold lacquered with silver mountings ; height

6 in. Japanese ...........

Hevajra with his sakti. Bronze ; height 4 in. Tibetan.

Hayagrlva. Copper gilt ; height 7 in. Tibetan.

Hayagrlva with his sakti. Bronze gilt ; height 11 in. Tibetan.

Kuvera (Nara-vahana) with his sakti. Copper gilt ; height 3^ in. Tibetan .

Hevajra. Copper gilt with turquoise ornaments ; height 11 in. Tibetan (in

colours) ............

Lhamo. Bronze ; height 8 in. Tibetan.

Samvara on the mule of Lhamo (Lhamo as sakti ?) ; height 8 in. Tibetan

Yama. Bronze ; height 4£ in. Tibetan.

Yama. Agglomerated material, painted and lacquered ; height 27 in. Tibetan

Samvara.

Samvara.

Kuvera.

Kuvera.

Kuvera.

Kuvera.



Bronze ; height 5 in. Tibetan.



From the Talo monastery



The back of the above bronze

Copper gilt ; height 2 in. Tibetan.

Copper gilt ; height 3£ in. Tibetan.

Copper gilt ; height 3£ in. Tibetan.

Mixed metals ; height 3f in. Tibetan
Dharmapfila undetermined. Bronze ; height 12 in

near Punakkha, Tibet .
Mahakala. Bronze ; height 7 in. Tibetan.
Mahakala. Bronze gilt ; height 3 in. Tibetan.
Mahakala. Bronze ; height 5 in. Tibetan.
Mahakala. Bronze ; height 6 in. Tibetan .
Mahakala. Embroidered temple banner ; height 50 in.

(in colours) .........

Yamantaka. Bronze ; height 5f in. Tibetan.

Citipati. Miniature ; height 5 in. Tibetan.

Yamantaka. Agglomerated material, gold lacquered ; height 6 in

Yamantaka. Copper gilt ; height 4 in. Tibetan .

Bishamon. Wood, painted ; height 16 in. Japanese.

Lokapala. Wood, painted ; height 16 in. Japanese.

Bishamon. Wood, painted ; height 16 in. Japanese.

Fudo. Wood, painted ; height 30 in. Japanese .

To-wen (Bishamon). Bronze ; height 16 in. Chinese .

Dakini. Temple banner ; height 25 in. Tibetan (in colours)

Ts'ahgs-pa (?). Bronze, painted ; height 2 in. Tibetan.

Ts'ahgs-pa. Bronze ; height 5 in. Tibetan.

Undetermined. Bronze ; height 3 in. Tibetan.

Dam-can. Copper gilt ; height 3 in. Tibetan



From Gyantse, Tibet



Tibetan.



PAGE

114



118
120



122

124
125
126

128

134
136

138
142

146



147
148
149



150



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



Xlll



PLATE

LVII.

LVIII.

LIX.



LX.



LXI.



LXII.



LXIII.



a.
6.

c.
a.
b.
c.
d.

a,
b.
a.
b.

c.
4.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

./■
9-



FACING PAGE

Amida with the Ni-o. Shrine, gold lacquered and painted ; height 9 in.

Japanese (in colours) . . . . . . . . . .151

Naga god. Printed mamori or charm from the Enkakuji temple, Kamakura,

Japan 152

Naga. Bronze ; height 1£ in. Japanese.

Garuda. Copper gilt ; height 12 in. Tihetan ...... 153

Najaraja. Agglomerated material, gold lacquered ; height 10 in. Tibetan.

Mi-la ras-pa. Bronze ; height 3 in. Tibetan.

Ts'on-k'a-pa (?). Bronze gilt with turquoise ornaments ; height 4 in. Tibetan.

Man-la. Bronze ; height 6 in. Tibetan.

Undetermined. Bronze; height 6 in. Tibetan . . . . . .154

Two leaves from a Nepalese book (in colours) :
Vasudhara.

Bhrikutl 155

Citipati. Charm-box. Copper gilt ; height 6 in. Tibetan.

Dharmapala. Charm-box. Copper gilt inlaid with turquoise, coral, and lapis

lazuli ; height 6 in. Tibetan.
Skull-cup. Mountings in copper gilt ; height 16 in. Tibetan.
Dai-nichi Nyorai (Vairocana). Silver, in an inro, gold lacquer; height

6 in. Japanese 156

Vairocana. Clay seal ; height 2f in. From the Honan.

Padmapani. Clay seal ; height 2^ in. From the Honan.

Amitabha. Clay seal ; height 2 in. From the Honan.

Gautama Buddha. Clay seal ; height 2\ in. From the Honan.

Tara. Clay seal ; height 2 in. From the Honan.

Mahakala. Bronze gilt ; height 1^ in. Tibetan.

Manjusri. Clay, painted ; height 2\ in. Tibetan ...... 157

Kwan-yin. Illustration, p. 139, A. Kircher, China Monumentis qua Sacris qua

Profanis . . . illustrata. Amstelodami, 1667 ...... 158

Design on the cover : Buddhist wheel with the six syllables of the mantra of Avalokitesvara Om,
mani, padme hum. In the centre is his vija-mantra Hri! E. Schlagintweit, Buddhism in Tibet, Atlas,
Plate xiv.



LXIV.






NOTE

The Tibetan names are written according to the method used in the Dictionary
of Sarat Chandra Das with small modifications, and translated by J. Deniker.

For the Mongolian names, the Rainstedt method has been followed with the
exception of the Greek gamma, which has been replaced by the letters gh. The
translations are by J. Deniker.

The Chinese characters are by Kia Kien Tchou and the English transcriptions
have been made by Professor Bullock.

The Japanese names are transcribed by S. Tachibana.



ADDENDA AND ERRATA

Pages 3 and 27, note 5. Although Amida, in Japan, is one of the five
Dhyani-Buddhas (Grochi Nyorai) the Amida sects do not worship the other four
Dhyani Buddhas.

Page 6. The apparent confusion in Japan in regard to the representations
of Kongosatta and Fugen may be explained by the fact that in the Secret
Doctrine they are identified.

Page 23. Mania may hold in his left hand in dhyana mudra a bowl
resembling a begging-bowl, in which case the medicinal fruit is usually held in
the right hand in vara mudra. In Japan, Yaku-shi also holds the medicine-bowl
in the left hand which, however, is in vara mudra while the right is lifted
in abhaya mudra. If the medicine-bowl is missing, Yaku-shi resembles the
representations of Shaka.

Page 27. The Dhyani Bodhisattva of Vajrasattva is Ghantapani.

Page 31. The dhyana mudra of Vairocana when in the centre of the
Garbhadhatu mandala differs from the usual mystic gesture in that the tips of
the thumbs touch each other.

Page 33. Myo-ken and not Mio-ken.

Page 39. O-mi-to fo in China has also the usual dhyana mudra of the
Indian representation.

Amaterasu is sun-goddess.

Page 40. Amida, when standing (he may also be seated) has the right hand
in abhaya and the left in vara mudra, and thus resembles Shaka with this
difference that the tip of the thumb touches the tip of the index in both hands,
forming the ' dogmatic ' gesture. The three poses of the hands of Amida :
dhyana, dharmacakra, abhaya and vara, may have three variations, the tips
of the thumbs touching the indexes, second or third fingers. The second
finger is the most popular in Korea. The third is very rare.

Pages 46 and 99. The Buddha in the triad with Fugen and Monju, in
Japan, is always Shaka, although he may resemble Amida when, in the abhaya
and vara mudras, the fingers are somewhat bent. If the second finger is
slightly bent, it indicates the Shingon sect.

Page 150. The writer, in accordance with Satow and other authorities,
has placed Komoku guardian of the South. In the Himitsu-jirin he is made
guardian of the West, in which case, if correct, Zocho would be guardian of
the South.

Getty, Northern Buddhism. Face p. xvi.

July, 1914.



INTRODUCTION

GENERAL SURVEY OF BUDDHISM AND ITS EVOLUTION

' Namo Buddhaya, namo Bharmaya, namo Sahghaya ' : 'I worship Buddha,
I worship the Doctrine, I worship the Community' — such is the formula which
represents the quintessence of the Buddhist religion. It is uttered and repeated
several times a day by numberless Buddhist monks and priests as well as by those
of the laity who are at all instructed in their faith. The others content themselves
with murmuring ceaselessly the magic formula: ' Om, mani padme, tern' ('Oh, the
jewel in the lotus ! ').

Now, to give a general idea of the great religion whose followers form a third
part of the human species, it is sufficient to develop this formula of the three jewels
(Triratna). First we shall examine the life of the sole and unique historical Buddha
(enlightened one), Sakya-muni, founder of the faith ; then we shall summarize briefly
the doctrine preached by him, following its evolution across space and time, in order
that we may see and understand the forms under which it has existed in the various
countries to which it has penetrated ; lastly we shall give a description of the
constitution of the Buddhist clergy (especially the Lamaite), and sketch what may
be called the material side of the religion.

I. Buddha

It is towards the end of the sixth century B.C. 1 that the majority of historians
place the birth of Siddhartha, future founder of Buddhism, the son of Prince
Suddhodana and of his wife Maya. Prince Suddhodana was one of the chiefs of the
tribe of the Sakya in the kingdom of Magadha and belonged to the clan (Gotra) of
Gautama. For this reason the name of Gautama Buddha is often, especially among
the Southern Buddhists, applied to Siddhartha, in the same way as among the
Northern he is generally called S->akya-muni (' muni ' having the significance simply
of ' wise ' or ' saint ' in Sanskrit).

The Buddhist books give as the birth-place of Sakya-muni the garden of Lumbini
near Kapilavastu, the capital of the little principality of which Suddhodana was
chief. It is situated in the north of India at the foot of the Himalaya, near
the present frontier of Nepal. In the literature of Buddhism there is no complete
biography of Sakya-muni, and one is obliged to reconstruct it from fragments
contained in various documents, 2 which have only a single common characteristic —

1 For details see p. 15. and commentaries in the Pali language (a dialect

2 The ' Jataka ' or ' Adventures of Buddha in intermediary between Sanskrit and Prakrit, the
previous Incarnations', with their introduction sacred language of the Southern Buddhists), carry

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I



xviii INTRODUCTION

the sui'rounding of the actual facts by a haze of legends. The life of Sakya
is divided by the Buddhist theologians into twelve ' acts V which can be summarized
according to Northern Buddhists as follows: (I) The Bodhisattva ; Sakya-muni
descends from the higher heaven (Tushita) to earth in the form of a young white



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