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pamphlet compiled by Earl Dean Howard, chief deputy for the firm, and
Sidney Hillman, chief deputy for the garment workers.]

The conditions upon which the strikers returned to work, as defined in
the agreement dated January 14, 1911, summed up, were:

1. All former employés to be taken back within ten days.

2. No discrimination of any kind because of being members, or not
being members, of the United Garment Workers of America.

3. An Arbitration Committee of three members to be appointed; one from
each side to be chosen within three days; these two then to select the

4. Subject to the provisions of this agreement, said Arbitration
Committee to take up, consider and adjust grievances, if any, and to
fix a method for settlement of grievances (if any) in the future. The
finding of the said Committee, or a majority thereof, to be binding
upon both parties.

The Arbitration Committee, or Board, consisted of Mr. Carl Meyer,
representing the firm, and Clarence Darrow, representing the employés.
The office of chairman was not filled until December, 1912, when Mr.
J.E. Williams was chosen. The Board settled the questions around which
the dispute had arisen, and an agreement for two years between the
firm and the workers was signed. For some time the Board continued to
handle fresh complaints, but it gradually became apparent that the
Board, composed of busy men, could not hear all the minor grievances.
The result of a conference was the organization of a permanent body,
the Trade Board, to deal with all such matters, as these arose, or
before they arose, reserving to both parties the right of appeal to
the Arbitration Board. The plan can be judged from the following
clauses in the constitution of the Trade Board:


The Trade Board shall consist of eleven members who shall, if
possible, be practical men in the trade; all of whom, excepting the
chairman, shall be employés of said corporation; five members thereof
shall be appointed by the corporation, and five members by the
employés. The members appointed by the corporation shall be certified
in writing by the corporation to the chairman of the board, and the
members appointed by the employés shall be likewise certified in
writing by the joint board of garment workers of Hart Schaffner &
Marx to said chairman. Any of said members of said board, except the
chairman, may be removed and replaced by the power appointing him,
such new appointee to be certified to the chairman in the same manner
as above provided for.


The representatives of each of the parties of the Trade Board shall
have the power to appoint deputies for each branch of the trade, that
is to say, for cutters, coat makers, trouser makers and vest makers.


In case either party should desire to appeal from any decision of the
Trade Board, or from any change of these rules by the Trade Board,
to the Board of Arbitration, they shall have the right to do so upon
filing a notice in writing with the Trade Board of such intention
within thirty days from the date of the decision, and the said Trade
Board shall then certify said matter to the Board of Arbitration,
where the same shall be given an early hearing by a full Board of
three members.

The Trade Board was accordingly organized, with Mr. James Mullenbach,
Acting Superintendent of the United Charities of Chicago, as chairman.

When the time approached for the renewal of the agreement, the closed
or open shop was the point around which all discussions turned.
Eventually, neither was established, but instead the system of
preference to unionists was adopted. It was thus expressed:

1. That the firm agrees to this principle of preference, namely,
that they will agree to prefer union men in the hiring of new
employés, subject to reasonable restrictions, and also to prefer
union men in dismissal on account of slack work, subject to a
reasonable preference to older employés, to be arranged by the
Board of Arbitration, it being understood that all who have worked
for the firm six months shall be considered old employés.

2. All other matters shall be deliberated on and discussed by the
parties in interest, and if they are unable to reach an agreement,
the matter in dispute shall be submitted to the Arbitration Board
for its final decision.

Until an agreement can be reached by negotiation by the parties in
interest, or in case of their failure to agree, and a decision is
announced by the Arbitration Board, the old agreement shall be
considered as being in full force and effect.

This came in force May 1, 1913.

The chairman of the Arbitration Board, making a statement, three
months later, in August, 1913, after defining the principle to be
"such preference as will make an efficient organization for the
workers, also an efficient, productive administration for the
company," went on:

In handing down the foregoing decisions relating to preference
which grew out of a three months' consideration of the subject,
and after hearing it discussed at great length and from every
angle, the Board is acutely conscious that it is still largely
an experiment, and that the test of actual practice may reveal
imperfections, foreseen and unforeseen, which cannot be otherwise
demonstrated than by test.

It therefore regards them as tentative and subject to revision
whenever the test of experiment shall make it seem advisable.

The Board also feels that unless both parties coöperate in good
faith and in the right spirit to make the experiment a success,
no mechanism of preferential organization, however cunningly
contrived, will survive the jar and clash of hostile feeling or
warring interests. It hands down and publishes these decisions
therefore in the hope that with the needed coöperation they
may help to give the workers a strong, loyal, constructive
organization, and the Company a period of peaceful, harmonious and
efficient administration and production which will compensate for
any disadvantage which the preferential experiment may impose.

The published pamphlet, under date January 28, 1914, concludes:

There have been no cases appealed from the Trade Board to the
Board of Arbitration since January, 1913. During the last six
months of 1913 there were not more than a dozen Trade Board Cases.
So many principles have been laid down, and precedents established
by both of these bodies, that the chief deputies are in all cases
able to reach an agreement without appeal to a higher authority.
A gradual change has taken place in the method of dealing with
questions which present new principles, or which represent
questions never before decided. The Board of Arbitration has
appointed Mr. Williams as a committee to investigate and report,
with the understanding that if an agreement can be reached by both
parties without arbitrators, or, if the parties are willing to
accept the decision of the Chairman, then no further meeting of
the Board of Arbitration will be required. This method has proved
to be exceedingly satisfactory to both sides and has resulted in a
form of government which has gradually taken the place of formal
arbitration. In most cases, the Chairman is able by thorough
sifting of the evidence on each side, to suggest a method of
conciliation which is acceptable to both parties.

A further experience of the System up till July, 1915, only confirms
the above statement.



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ADDAMS, JANE. The Spirit of Youth in City Streets. New York, 1909.

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in America. New York, 1914.

- - and BLISS, W.P.D. History of Women in Trade Unions in the United
States. Vol. X of the United States Report on the Condition of Women
and Child Wage Earners.

BEBEL, AUGUST. Woman in the Past, Present and Future (Trans.). New
York, 1885.

BOWEN, LOUISE DE KOVEN. Safeguards for City Youth at Work and at Play.
New York, 1915.

BRANDEIS, L.D. _Curt Miller_ v. _The State of Oregon_. Brief for
defendants. Supreme Court of the United States. New York, 1908.

- - _Frank C. Stettler and others_ v. _The Industrial Welfare
Commission of the State of Oregon_. Brief and arguments for the
defendants in the Supreme Court of the State of Oregon. Consumers'
League, New York, 1915.

- - and GOLDMARK, JOSEPHINE. Brief and Arguments for appellants
in the Supreme Court of the State of Illinois. National Consumers'
League, New York, 1909.

BRECKINRIDGE, SOPHONISBA P. Legislative Control of Women's Work.
_Journal of Political Economy_. XIV. 107-109.

BROOKS, JOHN GRAHAM. The Social Unrest. New York, 1903.

BROWN, ROME G. The Minimum Wage. Minneapolis, 1914.

BUSBEY. Women's Trade Union Movement in Great Britain. U.S. Department
of Labor. Bul. No. 83.

BUTLER, ELIZABETH B. Saleswomen in Mercantile Stores. New York, 1913.

- - Women in the Trades. New York, 1909.

CANADA. Department of Labor. Report of Royal Commission on Strike of
Telephone Operators. Ottawa, 1907.

CLARK, SUE AINSLIE, and WYATT, EDITH. Making Both Ends Meet. New York,

CLARK, VICTOR S. The Labor Movement in Australia. New York, 1907.

COMMONS, JOHN R. Races and Immigrants in America. New York, 1907.

- - ANDREWS, JOHN B., SUMNER, HELEN L., and OTHERS. Documentary
History of American Industrial Society. Cleveland, 1910.

- - and OTHERS. Trade Unionism and Labor Problems. Boston, 1905.

COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA. Legislative Regulation of Wages. Year Book,
No. 5, 1901-1911. pp. 1065-1069.

COOLEY, E.G. See publications of Commercial Club of Chicago on
vocational education.

DEVINE, EDWARD T. Social Forces. New York.

DEWEY, JOHN. Schools of Tomorrow. New York, 1915.

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DORR, RHETA CHILDE. What Eight Million Women Want. Boston, 1910.

ELY, RICHARD T. The Labor Movement in America. New York, 1905.

GILMAN, CHARLOTTE P. Concerning Children. Boston, 1900.

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HAMILTON, CICELY. Marriage as a Trade.

HARD, WILLIAM. The Women of Tomorrow. New York, 1911.

HENDERSON, CHARLES RICHMOND. Citizens in Industry. New York, 1915.

HERRON, BELVA M. Progress of Labor Organization Among Women.
University of Illinois studies, Vol. 1, No. 10. Urbana, 1908.

HILLMAN, SIDNEY, and HOWARD, EARL DEAN. Hart, Schaffner and Marx Labor
Agreements. Chicago, 1914.

HOBSON, JOHN A. Evolution of Modern Capitalism. London, 1904.

- - Problems of Poverty, London, 1906.

HOURWICH, ISAAC A. Immigration and Labor. New York, 1912.

HUMPHREY, J.R. Proportional Representation. London, 1911.

ILLINOIS STATE FEDERATION OF LABOR. Report of Committee on Vocational
Education, 1914.

JACOBI, ABRAHAM. Physical Cost of Women's Work. New York, 1907.

KELLEY, FLORENCE. Modern Industry in Relation to the Family. New York,

- - Some Ethical Gains Through Legislation. New York, 1906.

KELLOR, FRANCES A. Out of Work. New York, 1915 ed.

KERCHENSTEINER, G.M.A. Idea of the Industrial School (Trans.). New
York, 1913.

- - Schools and the Nation (Trans.). London, 1914.

KEY, ELLEN. The Woman Movement (Trans.). New York, 1912.

KIRKUP, THOMAS. History of Socialism. London, 1906.

LAGERLÖF, SELMA. Home and the State (Trans.). New York, 1912.

LEAVITT, FRANK M. Examples of Industrial Education. Boston, 1912.

LEVINE, Louis. Syndicalism in France. New York, 1914.

MACLEAN, ANNIE MARION. Wage Earning Women. New York, 1910.

MAROT, HELEN. American Labor Unions. New York, 1914.

MASON, OTIS T. Woman's Share in Primitive Culture. 1894.


MATTHEWS, LILLIAN R. Women in Trade Unions in San Francisco.
University of California, 1913.

MITCHELL, JOHN. Organized Labor. Philadelphia, 1903.

Minimum Wage. New York.

NEARING, SCOTT. Wages in the United States, 1908 to 1910. New York,

OLIVER, THOMAS. Dangerous Trades. London, 1902.

PATTEN, SIMON N. The New Basis of Civilization. New York, 1907.

PEIXOTTO, JESSICA B. Women of California as Trade Unionists.
_Association of Collegiate Alumnae_, Dec., 1908.

PRESCOTT and HALL. Immigration and Its Effects. New York, 1900.

PUTNAM, EMILY JAMES. The Lady. New York, 1910.

RAUSCHENBUSCH, WALTER. Christianity and the Social Crisis. New York,

- - Christianizing the Social Order. New York, 1912.

RHINELANDER, W.S. Life and Letters of Josephine Shaw Lowell. New York,

RICHARDSON, DOROTHY. The Long Day. New York, 1905.

ROGERS, J.E. THOROLD. Six Centuries of Work and Wages.

ROMAN, F.W. Industrial and Commercial Schools of the United States and
Germany. New York, 1915.

ROSS, EDWARD ALSWORTH. Sin and Society. Boston, 1907.

RUSSELL, CHARLES EDWARD. Why I Am a Socialist. New York, 1910.

RYAN, JOHN A. A Living Wage in Its Ethical and Economic Aspects. New
York, 1906.

SALMON, LUCY M. Progress in the Household. Boston, 1906.

SCHREINER, OLIVE. Woman and Labour. London and New York, 1911.

SIMONS, A.M. Social Forces in American History.

SNEDDEN, DAVID M. Problems of Educational Readjustment. New York,

- - The Problem of Vocational Education. Boston, 1910.

SNOWDEN, PHILIP. The Living Wage. London and New York, 1912.

SOMBART, WERNER. Socialism and the Social Movement (Trans.). New York,

SPARGO, JOHN. Socialism. New York, 1909. Syndicalism, Industrial
Unionism and Socialism. New York, 1913.

- - and ARNER, G.B.L. Elements of Socialism. New York, 1912.

SPENCER, ANNA GARLIN. Woman and Social Culture. New York, 1913.

SUMNER, HELEN L. History of Women in Industry in the United States.
Vol. IX of the United States Report on the Condition of Women and
Child Wage Earners. 1910.

THOMAS, W.I. Sex and Society. University of Chicago Press, 1907.

VAN KLEECK, MARY. Artificial Flower Making. Women in the Bookbinding
Trade. Russell Sage Foundation publications, 1912.

VAN VORST, BESSIE and MARIE. The Woman Who Toils. New York, 1903.

WARD, LESTER F. Pure Sociology (especially Chapter XIV). New York.

WEBB, SIDNEY. Economic Theory of a Legal Minimum Wage. _Journal of
Political Economy_, Vol. 20, No. 12., Dec., 1912.

- - and BEATRICE. History of Trade Unionism. London, 1907.

WELLS, H.G. New Worlds for Old. New York, 1909.

WEYL, WALTER E. The New Democracy. New York, 1910.

WILLETT, M.H. Employment of Women in the Clothing Trades. Columbia
University. New York, 1902.

WILSON, JENNIE L. Legal and Political Status of Women in the United

WINSLOW, CHARLES H.; Editor. Twenty-fifth Annual Report of the United
States Bureau of Labor, Industrial Training.

WOLFE, F.E. Admission to Labor Unions. Johns Hopkins University Press.

MINIMUM WAGE, THE CASE FOR. By Louis D. Brandeis, M.B. Hammond, John
A. Hobson, Florence Kelley, Esther Packard, Elizabeth C. Watson,
Howard B. Woolston. _The Survey_, Feb. 6, 1915.

_Periodicals and Reports_

_American Federationist, A.F. of L. Newsletter_, and other
publications of the American Federation of Labor. Washington, D.C.

_American Legislation Review_ and other publications of the American
Association for Labor Legislation. New York.

_Annals of the American Academy of Political Science_. Philadelphia.

_Child Labor Bulletin, The_ (National), and other publications of the
National Child Labor Committee, New York.

Commercial Club of Chicago. Publications on Vocational Training.

_Crisis, The_. New York.

_Economic Review_.

_Forerunner, The_. New York.

_Immigrant in America Review, The_. New York.

_Journal of Political Economy, The_. University of Chicago Press.

_Journal of Sociology, The_. University of Chicago Press.

_Labour Leader, The_. Manchester, England.

_Labour Woman, The_, and other publications of the National Women's
Labour League. London.

_Life and Labor_, and other publications of the National Women's Trade
Union League of America. Chicago; and of the local leagues in Boston,
Chicago, New York and elsewhere.

_Masses, The_. New York.

National Consumers' League, Publications of. New York.

National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education,
Publications of. New York.

_New Republic, The_. New York.

New York State Factory Investigation Commission, Reports. New York.

_New York Sunday Call, The_. New York.

_Political Science Quarterly_. Columbia University.

_Public, The_. Chicago.

_Quarterly Journal of Economics_. Harvard University.

_Survey, The_. New York.

_Union Labor Advocate_. Woman's Department, up to Dec., 1910.

United States Bureau of Education. Bulletins on vocational education.

- - Census of 1910. Occupational statistics.

- - Children's Bureau. Bulletins.

- - Department of Agriculture. Bulletins for Women on the Farm.

- - Department of Labor, Bulletins.

- - Industrial Relations Commission Reports.

- - Women and Child Wage Earners, Report on Conditions of. 19

_Woman's Industrial News, The_. London.

_Woman's Journal, The_. Boston.


Abbé, Mrs. Robert
Abbott, Grace
Abolition movement
Addams, Jane
American Federation of Labor
Anderson, Mary
Andrews, John B.
Anthony, Susan B.
Ayres, Leonard P., quoted

Bagley, Sarah G.
Barry, Leonora
Bean, Alice
Bergson, Henri
Biddle, Mrs. George
Bliss, W.P.D., quoted
Bondfield, Margaret
Borden, Hannah
_Boston Courier_
Brandeis, Louis D.
Brown, Corinne
Burke, Mrs. Mary

Calhoun, William J.
Capital and labor organization compared
Carey, Matthew
Casey, Josephine
Cohn, Fannie
Collective bargaining
Collective grievances
Colored workers
Coman, Katharine
_Commercial Bulletin_
Condon, Maggie
Conservation movement
Consumers' League
Conventions, labor
Coöperative efforts
Cost of living

Daley, Mollie
Dana, Charles A.
Davies, Anna
Democracy, and education
and public ownership
evolution of
Dewey, John, quoted
Dickenson, Fannie
Direct legislation
Domestic science profession
Donnelly, Michael
Donovan, Mary
Dorchester, Mass., early schools of
Dreier, Mary E.

Economic basis of trade union
Economic status of women
Education, according to grade percentage
early, of girls
Glynn, Frank L., on, quoted
in labor questions
of the immigrant
poverty the chief check to
_See also_ Vocational education
"Effective voting"
Efficiency and expectance
Elmira College
Employers' associations
Equal pay
Evans, Mrs. Glendower

Fitzgerald, Anna
Fitzpatrick, John
Flood, Emmet
Franklin, Stella

General Federation of Women's Clubs
Gillespie, Mabel
Goldmark, Josephine
Gompers, Samuel
Graham, Mr.
Grant, Annie
Greeley, Horace
Gutteridge, Helena

Hamilton, Cicely, quoted
Hannafin, Mary
Harriman, Mrs. J. Borden
Harvard University
Health and shorter hours
Henderson, Rose
Home industries, development of
Home-work, and child labor
and Italians
as social anachronism
_See also_ Limitation of hours
Huge Strikes
agreements in
Citizens' Committee in
Huge Strikes, close of
immigrants in
Joint Strike Conference Board in
picketing in
results of
Triangle Shirt Waist Co.
United Garment Workers
Women's Trade Union League in
Hull House
Huntingdon, Arria

Immigrants, Americanization of
discrimination against
domestic policy regarding
education of
employment of
exploitation of
federal and state care of
handicaps of
haphazard distribution of
Juvenile Protective League, quoted, regarding
Immigrants, League for the
Protection of Immigrants
Polish girls as, peculiarly exploited
_Immigrants in America Review_
Immigration, probable causes of
Industrial Relations, Federal Commission on
Industrial rivalry between men and women
Industrial struggle, new forms of the
Industrial Workers of the World
Industry, children and
public ownership the latest development of
standards in
Investigations, by City Club, Chicago
by Federal Commission on Industrial Relations
by Knights of Labor
by New York State Factory Investigating Commission
Federal (Women and Child Wage Earners)
first governmental

Japanese laundry workers

Kavanagh, Fannie
Kehew, Mary Morton
Kelley, Florence
Kellogg, Paul
Kellor, Frances A., quoted
Kenney, Mary E.
Kerchensteiner, Georg, quoted
Kingsley, Charles
Knefler, Mrs. D.W.
Knights of Labor

Labor legislation, administration of laws under
needed for stores
objections to
providing for women factory inspectors
women affected by
_See also_ Limitation of hours; minimum wage
Labor movement, backwardness of
development of
Irish in
_Labour Leader_
Lemlich, Clara
Lewis, Augusta
_Life and Labor_
Limitation of hours, and department-store clerks
and elevated railroad clerks
Limitation of hours, declared constitutional
eight-hour law regarding, in California
effects of, on health
first law for, in Great Britain
for public employés
including men and boys
organized women support
relation of, to wages
ten-hour law regarding, in Illinois
Lippard, George
"Living-in" system
Lowell, Josephine Shaw
Lowell, Mass.

Macarthur, Mary R.
Macdonald, Mary A.
McDonald, J. Ramsay, quoted
McDowell, Mary E.
McNamara, Maggie
Mahoney, Hannah (Mrs. Nolan)
Maloney, Elizabeth
Marot, Helen
Marriage, an unstandardized trade
and factory life
and organization
Marriage, and the working-woman
Married woman, as a half-time worker
as a wage-earner
economic status of
incongruous position of
Married women and the labor movement
Matthews, Lillian, quoted
Maud Gonne Club
Maurice, F.D.
Mead, George H.
Merriam, Charles E.
Mill, John Stuart
Minimum wage, employers' objections to
for the immigrant
in Australia
Mitchell, Louisa
Mittelstadt, Louisa
Morgan, T.J.
Morgan, Mrs. T.J.
Mott, Lucretia
Mullaney, Kate
Murphy, John J.

National and other central labor bodies:
Amalgamated Meat Cutters' and Butchers' Workmen of North America
American Federation of Musicians
Boot and Shoe Workers' Union
British Women's Trade Union League
Cigar Makers' International Union
Daughters of St. Crispin
International Brotherhood of Bookbinders
International Glove Workers' Union
International Ladies' Garment Workers
International Typographical Union
Massachusetts Working Women's League
National Industrial Congress
National Labor Congress
National Labor Union
national trade unions, more than thirty from 1863 to 1873
National Trades Union
New England Congress, policies of
railroad brotherhoods
railway unions
Retail Clerks International Union
Shirt, Waist and Laundry Workers' International Union
Trades and Labor Congress of Canada
United Felt, Panama and Straw Hat Trimmers
United Garment Workers
United Mine Workers
United Textile Workers
Women's Department, Knights of Labor
Women's Labor Reform Associations
Women's National Labor League
Women's state labor unions
Women's Trade Union League
Women's Union Label League
Working Women's Labor Union for the State of N.Y.
National Civic Federation
National Consumers' League
National Young Women's Christian Association
Neill, Charles P.
Nestor, Agnes
New York State Factory Investigating Committee
_New York Sun_
Northwestern University

Oberlin College
O'Brien, John
Occupations, and locality
blind-alley trades
boot and shoe workers
button workers
children's employments
department-store clerks
domestic work
employés in state institutions
garment-workers. _See_ sewing trades
house-cleaning developments
laundry workers and laundresses
tobacco-and cigar-workers
O'Connor, Julia
O'Day, Hannah
O'Reilly, Leonora
O'Reilly, Mary
Organization, and minimum wage
craft form of
eventually international
in unskilled trades
industrial form of
of colored races
of department-store clerks
of Italians
of Orientals
of Slavic Jewesses
of women, by men
of women backward

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Online LibraryAlice HenryThe Trade Union Woman → online text (page 23 of 24)