Allen Wilson Porterfield.

An outline of German romanticism, 1766-1866 online

. (page 1 of 22)
Online LibraryAllen Wilson PorterfieldAn outline of German romanticism, 1766-1866 → online text (page 1 of 22)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project
to make the world's books discoverable online.

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover.

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the
publisher to a library and finally to you.

Usage guidelines

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for
personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it.

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About Google Book Search

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web

at http : //books . google . com/|



Digitized by V^OO^lC

1^






Z>L^^r



r^



"fVlJA



Ks



\



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google .4



Digitized by



Google



MORITZ VON SCHWIND'S DES KNABEN WUNDERHORN '



Digitized by



Google



AN OUTLINE OF
GERMAN ROMANTICISM

1766—1866



BY



ALLEN WILSON PORTERFIELD

INSTRUCTOR IN GERMAN, BARNARD COLLEGE
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY



GINN AND COMPANY

BOSTON . NEW YORK • CHICAGO • LONDON



Digitized by



Google






COPYRIGHT, 1914, BY ALLEN WILSON PORTERFIELD
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED



FT

.? G
\^ \ -A

Co o^ \



»« «t>cn«ii«i 9tt»M

CINN AND COMPANY ■ PRO-
PRIETORS • BOSTON • U.S.A.



Digitized by



Google



TO

TEACHERS WHO TEACH

AND STUDENTS WHO STUDY

GERMAN ROMANTICISM



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



PREFACE

This outline was prepared for the benefit of advanced
students and those who teach advanced students. Suggested
by unforgetable experience, it is the outgrowth of an im-
pelling desire to enrich the efforts of those who give and
to clarify the labors of those who receive. An attempt
has been made to compile a textbook, a sort of literary
almanac, that would cost but little in money and would
save much time.

Neither history nor prophecy can point to a century so
abounding in spiritual phenomena as the one between 1766
and 1866, and the middle half of it is the richest. And the
period from 1790 to 181 5, the age of systematic Roman-
ticism, admits of so many different methods of approach,
that unless the master is able to eliminate the conventional,
the scattered facts about which there is no dispute, the dis-
ciple will not be able to assimilate the essential, the mean-
iiig of the literature itself, about which there is so much
discussion and on which, incidentally, the course is really
supposed to be given. Data are as important in literature
as in science ; fancy always starts from facts. But when a
teacher of literature is giving facts, he is giving what can
be derived from many other sources, he is being unoriginal.
When he is giving his own interpretation of the literature,
he is giving, even though he may have written a book on the
same subject, otherwise inaccessible material, he is being

[V]



Digitized by



Google



OUTLINE OF GERMAN ROMANTICISM

original. Originality is as indispensable in the teaching
of literature as in the writing of it. This outline contains
the facts ; the interpretation of the literature that grew out
of these must come from him who uses the outline. There
is every reason to believe that such interpretation will
come more easily and abundantly by using it. There is
even reason to believe that with the help of this outline
the course on German Romanticism can be begun where
it would otherwise almost stop.

Though the first of its kind, this outline is not in-
tended as a contribution to literature, but to the teaching
of literature. It is original only in conception and selection
and arrangement. The greater part of the information
it contains can be found in the **Allgemeine deutsche
Biographic," biefem gro^en griebl^of beutfd^en ®eifte^Ie6en§,
in Goedeke's ** Grundriss," in various manuals — Meyer,
Nollen, Bartels — and in some histories of German litera-
ture — Meyer, Riemann, Koch, Kluge, Konig, Kummer,
and especially Kummer. But for the student, and even
the teacher, of the Romantic period, there is always some-
thing wrong with these works. They are sold at a prohib-
itive price, or they are, for this and that reason, not at hand,
or they contain a good deal of ungermane, unavailal^e
and ungrouped material. The matter must be systematized,
the writers must be coordinated, if the student is to get a
clear conception of the parts to the whole and of the whole
as a movement. It disconcerts the beginner, and a depress-
ing majority of "advanced" students in America are be-
ginners, to find Brentano treated on the same page with
Novalis, Arndt discussed before Kleist, Lenau lifted out
of the movement and placed in a chapter on pessimism,

[vi]



Digitized by



Google



PREFACE

Grillparzer made a Romanticist, and so on. And as to
inaccessible books, Goedeke is replete with references to
works unattainable in this country and difficult of access
in Germany. Any general history of German literature of
about five hundred pages discusses about eight hundred
different writers. Manifestly in such a work facts and
interpretation must walk lock-step, so that it is impossible
to make the one complete by condensation or the other
definitive by elaboration. But by giving undisturbed atten-
tion to a single phase of a single period, it is possible to
settle one thing : it is possible to reduce the Philistinism
of the course to a minimum and thereby enable the students
to spend their limited time on that which is eternally worth
while, on the literature pure and simple.

This outline aims always at general thoroughness, never
at specific completeness. The works listed fall into two
classes : Literature and treatises on Literature. Of the
latter, no one has ever read them all ; it would be a loss of
time to do so since they repeat more or less. But some are
in one library, some are in another. The striking features
of the writer have, in each case, been kept rigidly in mind
in making the selection ; each work is listed but once, where
it most logically belongs ; and the number of pages is always
given. Haym's classic treatise consists of 951 pages, while
Born's excellent monograph on the Romantic School in
Germany and France has only 23. Jean Paul's ** Titan '!
is a novel with a short title and consists of 1287 pages,
while Kleist's ** Das Bettelweib von Locarno '* is a sort of
novel with a longer title and consists of 3 pages. The
student should be warned as to the size of his impending
task. The biographical resumes are omitted when not

[vii]



Digitized by



Google



OUTLINE OF GERMAN ROMANTICISM

relevant ; they are short when the author bears a somewhat
indirect relation to the movement, otherwise they are fuller
but, for good and sufficient reasons, in s)nioptic form ; while
they are written out in the case of Tieck and Novalis,
Arnim and Brentano, Kleist and Heine. Abbreviations are
not used. There is no doubt but that ©ttjgIS® can stand
for ©tubien jur t)er9leid^enben Siteraturgefd^id^te, but, to the
American student at least, seven such consonants look
cryptic and repel. German orthography has not been
modernized (the Romanticists delighted in archaic forms)
unless the old form was unpleasantly conspicuous. The
theologians and scientists and philosophers are given but
little space ; they did not write literature, nor did they write
directly about it. They are, however, important ** facts,"
to which attention should be called. The musicians and
painters are given a little more space, for they were
artists expressing their ideas in sounds and colors rather
than in vocables. A course is attached for the benefit of
the college student as over against the university student.
It contains those works with which the graduate student
should be familar at the beginning of his course.

All references to *' Warner's Library," to the **Biblio-
thek der deutschen Klassiker," to Kiirschner unless there
is no other reference, to the ** Allgemeine deutsche Bio-
graphic," to texts in German and English, valuable as these
sometimes are, to ©rlauterungen and their like, and to
Klopstock and the ©fittinger §ain at the beginning and
to Grillparzer at the end have been omitted; so has all
reference to Richard Wagner, bom two years before
Robert Franz. Popularly speaking, these things and these
men belong here ; accurately speaking, they do not.

[ viii ]



Digitized by



Google



PREFACE

Despite these omissions and the unbroken silence as to
Romanticism in England and France, this outline contains
those basic facts the existence of which is indisputable and
the importance of which is undeniable. But they are only
collected and prefaced. To go one step further would be
to encroach upon the independence of the instructor, to
enter into the interesting but infinite realm of interpreta-
tion, about which there will always be differences of opinion
and for which time and space and an audience are indis-
pensable. It is therefore plain that, though some of this
outline has been composed, more of it has been compiled.
To compile accurately is difficult, especially when the
sources differ, and there may be some errors in this com-
pilation. Notices of such (with the proofs), from mis-
spelling to bad judgment, will be gratefully received and
promptly utilized. It is at present my happy privilege to
acknowledge my sincere indebtedness to the proofreaders
of the Athenaeum Press, and to Mr. Gunther Keil, A.B.,
who read the manuscript with extreme care and made a
number of helpful suggestions pertaining both to form

and to content.

A. W. P.

New York



[ix]

y Google



Digitized by'



Digitized by



Google



\



CONTENTS
PART ONE

PAGE

INTRODUCTION xv

SECTION

I. THE WRITERS OF BEST SELLERS 3

C. F. Nicolai, J.J. Engel, J. H. Voss, A. H. J. Lafontaine,
Iffland, Kotzebue, K. Pichler, J. F. Rochlitz, Clauren,
Tromlitz, Raupach



II. STORM AND STRESS 8

Herder, Goethe, Schiller, J. G. Hamann, J. K. Lavater,
F. H. Jacobi, H. W. von Gerstenberg, J. M. R. Lenz,
F. M. von Klinger, Leisewitz, H. L. Wagner, Fr. Miiller,
J. J. W. Heinse, C. Stolberg, F. L. Stolberg, C. F. D.
Schubart

>. IIL THE CLASSICISTS OF WEIMAR 15

Goethe, Schiller

N^ IV. THE TRANSITIONALS 22

Richter, Holderlin

\ V. THE WRITERS OF THE BERLIN-JENA GROUP 30
Tieck, Wackenroder, Novalis, A. W. Schlegel, Fr.
Schlegel

VL THE FATE DRAMATISTS 47

Houwald, Milliner, Werner

VIL THE WRITERS OF THE HEIDELBERG GROUP 54
Amim, Brentano, Chamisso, Eichendorff, Uhland

[xi]



Digitized by



Google



OUTLINE OF GERMAN ROMANTICISM



VIII. THE SIDE LIGHTS 72

Alexis, Amdt, Droste-Hulshoff, Fallersleben, Fouqu^
Freiligrath, Geibel, Grabbe, Griin, Halm, Hauff, Heine,
Herwegh, Hoffmann, Immermann, Kerner, Kleist, Kor-
ner, Lenau, Morike, W. Muller, Nestroy, Pl aten, Raimund,
Ruckert, Schenkendorf, E. Schulze, Schwab, Stifter,
Waiblinger

IX. THE WRITERS OF YOUNG GERMANY 139

Vamhagen, Borne, Menzel, Wienbarg, Laube, Mundt,
Gutzkow, Buchner

PART TWO

I. THE BACKGROUND 149

II. SOME DEFINITIONS 172

III. GENERAL TREATISES 188

IV. GENERAL TREATISES ON SPECIAL PHASES . 193

V. SECTIONAL TREATISES IN GENERAL HISTO-
RIES 201

VI. LETTERS OF THE MAIN ROMANTICISTS ... 207

VII. THE ROMANTIC MAGAZINES 211

VIII. FOLLOWERS OF THE BERLIN-JENA GROUP . . 217

IX. FOLLOWERS OF THE HEIDELBERG GROUP . . 220

X. THE PHILOSOPHERS 224

Kant, Fichte, Schleiermacher, Hegel, Schelling, Fries,
Herbart, Schopenhauer, F. E. Beneke, Feuerbach, D. F.
Strauss

XI. THE MUSICIANS 233

Kreutzer, Spohr, Weber, Silcher, Marschner, Lowe,
Schubert, Nicolai, Schumann, Lortzing, Mendelssohn,
Franz



[xii]

y Google



Digitized by'



CONTENTS

SECTION PAGE

XII. THE ROMANTIC PAINTERS 244

K. D. Friedrich, P. O. Runge, Peter Cornelius, Franz Pforr,
Fr. Overbeck, F. W. Schadow, Ph. Veit, J. Schnorr von
Carolsfeld, K. Rottmann, Joseph von Fuhrich, A. L.
Richter, M. v. Schwind, Fr. Preller, W. v. Kaulbach, J. W.
Schirmer, K. F. Lessing, K. Spitzweg, Eduard Steinle,
K. W. Hiibner, Andreas Achenbach, Alfred Rethel

XIII. AN INTRODUCTORY COURSE 255

INDEX 261



[ xiii ]

y Google



Digitized by'



Digitized by



Google



INTRODUCTION

The equitable and unbiased study of a comprehensive
literary movement necessitates calm, disinterested objec-
tivity, which, in turn, is a matter of perspective, of what
Nietzsche may have meant by $patt)Oi§ ber 3)iftanj. We
must see the movement afar off ; it must all be over. And
we must study not only the movement itself but also the
phenomena that provoked it as well as those that it pro-
voked. Systematic German Romanticism is over. Asi a
movement it was of far-reaching consequence, beginning
and ending gradually. It requires, therefore, something
resembling audacity to set up a certain year and say, with
this it began, and then to set up another and say, with
this it closed. Safety, from the standpoint of ultimate
thoroughness, however, prompts the inclusion of an entire
century, while a number of things suggest 1766 and 1866
as the beginning and the end of the movement. In actu-
ality, 1767 would be a trifle better than 1766, but then
1867 would not do, hence a little juggling with dates.

In 1767 A. W. Schlegel, the oldest of the old Roman-
ticists, and W. V. Humboldt, one of the greatest scientists
of the movement, were bom. We do not, however, date
spiritual movements from the birth of the children of
men, but from the birth of the children of the minds of
inen. It was in this same year that Lessing started his
^* Dramaturgic/' anticipating Schlegel in his admiration of

[XV]



Digitized by



Google



OUTLINE OF GERMAN ROMANTICISM

Shakespeare. And more important than this, for Roman-
ticism, was Herder's ** Fragmente,'* strongly influenced by
Lessing's " Literaturbriefe,*' and suggesting, sometimes
in a naive way, Uterally a host of ideas later to be devel-
oped, in a scientific way, by the members of the Romantic
fraternity. These works were conceived in 1766, the year,
incidentally, of Wieland's " Agathon," really the first of
that long series of Romantic Silbung^romane that termi-
nated with Immermann's ** Epigonen " in 1835. German
Romanticism started in 1766.

In 1866 the war between Prussia and Austria was
closed by the Peace of Prague. Riickert, who did more
than anyone else to introduce exotic verse and strophe
forms — Romantic forms — into German literature, died,
leaving only Morike and Geibel, and Herwegh and Fallers-
leben, to perpetuate the tradition. Reuter, Lingg and
Heyse were looming up, and Spielhagen finished " In Reih
und Glied." But one of the most significant happen*
ings of this year was the appearance of Ibsen's *' Brand.**
Though the letter of "Brand" was not translated into
German until 1872, its spirit was transferred to Germany
immediately. Then, Ibsen is German anyhow to a large
degree. And if one wishes to get a clear idea of the differ-
ence between Romanticism alive and dead, let him read,
say, Novalis' " Die Christenheit oder Europa," and Ibsen's
" Brand " with its powerful though blatant defamation of
the Church and its reference to the ecclesiastical Trinity
of Sctd^tftnn, SBal^nfinn and ©tumpfftnn at the end of the
first act. For such works to become predominant. Ro-
manticism must be dead. And concerning Ibsen, Paul
Schlenther wrote : @8 toax cine Suft ju lebctt, f otaitgc ©octl^

[xvi]



Digitized by



Google



INTRODUCTION

unb ©d^iUcr fd^ufen ; eig mar eine Suft ju leben, folangc btc
Slomantit btii^te — nun toax t^ tpieber cine Suft ju Icbcn,
benn mit un^ lebte ein S)id^ter, ber ben Sntiatt unferer Qdi in
eigene §dnbe nal^m. German Romanticism closed in 1866.

And between these two dates we have the Romantic
movement, passing, like a great book-drama, through seven
rather sharply defined stages as follows: Prelude, 1740-
1 766 ; Genesis, 1 766- 1 790 ; Rise, 1 790- 1 798 ; Pros-
perity, 1 798-181 5; Decline, 18 1 5-1848 ; Attenuation,
1848-1866; Postlude, 1866-1890.

The two conflicting parties in this drama were the head
and the heart, reason and fancy, skepticism and mys-
ticism, the objective and the subjective, the natural and
the strange, the plastic and the picturesque, the prescribed
and the elective, the Stoic and the Epicurean, the French
garden and the English garden, the paved road and the
pathless woods, the pond and the race, day and night, the
sun and the stars, and so on and on, for it just happens
that this world is built on a dual plan. It is the existence
of day, for example, that makes night possible. The sig-
nificant events in the five acts of this drama are out-
lined in the body of this book. It remains but to give the
plot of the drama as such and to say a few words about the
phenomena that preceded Romanticism and those that
followed — about the prelude and postlude.

A great stage drama, even one that develops a " Eurip-
idean situation,** and the action of which covers but a
single day, is always preceded by a long, entangling series
of anticipatory events. Romanticism also had its pre-
cursory symptoms, a very few of which were the following :
In 1740 Bodmer published his "Abhandlung von dem

[ xvii ]



Digitized by



Google



OUTLINE OF GERMAN ROMANTICISM

Wunderbaren in der Poesie und dessen Verbindung mit
dem Wahrscheinlichen." Among other things, Bodmer
said : S)er ^ott befummert fid^ nid^t urn boS SBal^rc bc8 SSer^*
ftanbe^ ; er f)at genug an bem SBal^rfd^cinfid^en ; biefe^ ift
SBal^r^eit unter Doraui^gefe^ten Sebingungen ; e^ ift 3Ba^reg,
fof ern afe bte 3)ingc unb bie 5pt)antafte tuatirl^aft ftnb ; t^ ift
Quf bag 3^"9tti^ berfelbcn gebauet. In 1741 Count von
Borgk translated Shakespeare's ** Julius Caesar ** into Ger-
man, and followed it up a few years later with ** Romeo und
Julia," thus anticipating Graf Wolf Baudissin (1789-
1878), Herwegh, A. W. Schlegel, Simrock, Tieck and
Wieland in the study of Shakespeare. In 1743 Bodmer
published his **Abhandlung von den vortrefflichen Um-
standen f iir die Poesie unter den Kaisem aus dem schwabi-
schen Hause,'* and in 1748 and 1758 and 1759 he and
Breitinger published selections from the ** Nibelungenlied "
and the Minnesingers. In 1748 Klopstock brought out
the first three cantos of his " Messias," giving thereby new
life, new possibilities to the German language and creating
interest, in an indirect way, in the great epics of the Middle
Ages. In 1 758 Lessing, whose interest in the first Classical
period was now awakened, said of the Old German songs
that Charlemagne had collected : O, tomn fie nod^ t)or=^
^anben tt)aren ! In 1749 Ewald von Kleist published ** Der
Friihling," endowing nature with a meaning undreamed of
by Lessing. When Kleist greets the unmade pathways of
the forest with S^r bunften einfamcn ®angc, btc i^r baSS)enfcn
erl^cHt, he is anticipating Tieck with a vengeance. Then
came 1762, with Rousseau's " Contrat '* and *' ifemile,'* and
the beginning of Wieland's translation of Shakespeare. In
1763 the Seven Years' War was closed and real German

[ xviii ]



Digitized by



Google



INTRODUCTION

patriotism began. And from then on, men like Bodmer,
Breitinger, Burger, Gleim, Holtz, C. H. Myller and Voss
were at work in the Mediaeval field, either as scholars or
as poets.

In short, in the science of literary history, nationalism,
Mediaeval Germany, nature, mythology, the literatures of
other lands, aesthetics, in all of these interest was being
awakened during the twenty-five years preceding the Storm
and Stress period, an interest so reasonable that one should
neither wonder overmuch at the ultimate elaborateness of
the Romantic programme, nor admire unreservedly and
without retrospection the excellence and apparent origi-
nality of its chief landmarks. " Des Knaben Wunder-
hom " was a real accomplishment ; but the first collector
of Old German songs was C. F. Nicolai, who published in
1777 his ** Feyner, Kleyner Almanach.*' Nothing seems
new except the oldest. The Romanticists did some lasting
work along the line of aesthetics, but as early as 1750
A. G. Baumgarten, professor at Frankfurt on the Oder,
began to publish his " Aesthetica,*' appealing with all his
power, based on long and deep study, for @inbilbung«fraft,
©mpfinbung, ©eful^I, ^rifd^e, ®eftaltenfulle,and not simply for
SBerftanb and SBernunft. And then at the end of it all came
Herder, whom Biese compares with Lessing as follows :
93ei Sefftng tpanbdn tt)ir auf ftd^ercm ®runbc, auf ber ®rbe,
unb crft na6) unb nad) fiffnen fid^ bic 3Beiten bc^ ^immefe ;
bet ^rbcr tuerben tuir freilid^ Don Slugeln in ben ^immel
getragen. . . . Sefftng t)atte iibet bie Sunft unb il^re ®efe^e ge==
bad^t, ^rber taud^t ba§ fd^arf ®ebad^te in fd^tparmerifd^e
©mpfinbung. Lessing died in 1781, Herder twenty-two
years later. The one was the finest type of Rationalist that

[xix]



Digitized by



Google



OUTLINE OF GERMAN ROMANTICISM

Germany ever produced ; the other had an equally superb
type of Romantic mind. When Herder began to publish
his ** Fragmente," German Romanticism began to be.

The first act of the Romantic movement lasted from
1766 to 1790 and may be termed the time of ©ntftel^en.
During this pericki about thirteen young writers, Lenz,
Leisewitz and others like them, starting from Rousseau
and encouraged by Herder, Goethe and Schiller, set out to
revolutionize German literature from the twofold point of
view of form and content.. Following the lead of Kling-
er's notorious drama based on the American Revolution,
Tieck first called them the writers of Storm and Stress,
and the name has adhered to them ever since; there is
no reason why it should not, for its appropriateness defies
refutation. Tired of the gentleness and regularity of the
literature of their native land, they determined to put vim
and vigor into its content, and variety and daring into its
form. They succeeded ; indeed they did a deal of good de-
spite the fact that Karl Moor and Gotz von Berlichingen
begot by imitation a numerous and unworthy posterity.
But it should have been clear to each of them from the
beginning — they were all young — that such radical en-
deavor could not long survive its initial enthusiasm. And
when **Don Carlos'* appeared in 1787, and "Faust, ein


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Online LibraryAllen Wilson PorterfieldAn outline of German romanticism, 1766-1866 → online text (page 1 of 22)