Alpheus Crosby.

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second word is aspirated, see § 65. For the accent, see Prosody.

^39. The principal words in which the final vowel is sub-
ject to crasis are the following :

rt. The article; .thus, for

a.) ; 1*, ; !«-; ^U, •^«-i. For a i^tr^
ti Ifui, •uffi. Mi AymS-mij
i i^ftf, tS^ftt. rtS «VT«S,

(2.) i &fnc, Mc, or, less (3.) i •%•*,
Attic, 4^^. ol ifi»!y
«iy it^fiy r&vi(i rtu v)«T«f,

KoTBS. I. The neuter forme ri and r« are especially subject to crasis

(1.) rl lMi»r/(Mi, rthatrria*. For vk 2>frX«,
W ifUirte^y ^tifUrff, (3.) rk MXi'h


:i. In crasis, Iri^, other, retams the old form Irtfts • thus, for

^2.) i Irt^tr, in^. For tw Wi^tv^

§ 40. fi. The conjunction xaiy and ; thus, for

(1.) m) !«, m) Ut, »if. For »«) ;, »«) «;,

mm} I», mm} i», »^y, »&». (2.) ««) i/, »«< »u,

mmi t7r«, »frM, (2, 3.) tta) « «fy;t«v'«i

X^i XV*
»ll, ««&•


y. A few other para'cfe*; thus, for

Itm i^m, irSf, For ^n^ifl-^r l»,


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I. Some forms of the pronou$ts ; thud^ for

\ym •il«, lyS^tt. For i \(pe^ii^ tvipifth

flu few cases which remam are best learned frook observation.

C. Apostrophe, or Elision.

§ 41. Apostrophe affects only the short rowels
4, «, f, and o, and sometimes, in poetry, the passive
teroiinations in ai (and perhapis oi in the enclitics
fAoi^ aoij Toc). In monosyllables (except the £p. ^e^
and a few rare or doubtful cases)^ « only is elided.

For the mark of apostrophe^ see § 16. For the accentuation, see Prosody.
Elision is most common,

1.) hi the prepositions, and other [>articles of constant use ;
as, a^ imviov (for ano knvrov^ § 65), in innvov^ xai ifii^ and,
in composition (where the sign ' is omitted), airi^j)fdjum, diilavrtu^
nuQHfil' ixil iyoi3^U(f oi/y, / ovosvy fiul ar, oo- o (oiso), xoe^ ar.

3.) In a few pronouns, and in some phrases of frequent oc-
currence ; as, Tovi' aXlo^ xnvi i^dij ' yivoix ay^ lad" onov (lai»
OTTot;), kiyoifi av, old or/, qn^/i fyta.

§ 43* Rkmarks. m. Elision is less frequent in i, than in the olher
short rewds above mentioned. Particularly, it is never dided by the Attics
in w%fi or Hn (which might then be confounded with «ti) ; and never in the
Epic irW (2d person singular of i/yMi). It is never in prose, and very rarely*
in Attic poetry, elid^ in the Dative siiq^ular, which might th^ te coktfounded
, with the Accusative. The forms which take » paraoogic (§ 66) are not eHded
in pruse, except W/.

fi. Elision is least frequent in Ionic prose. In Attic prose, it is found chief-
ly in a few words, but these often recurring. In poetiy, where hiatus is more
carefolly avoided, its use is far more extended. In respect to its use or omis-
sion in prose, mwh seems to depend upon the rhythm of the sentence, the
emphasis, the pauses, and the taste of the writer. There is, also, in this
respect, a great difference among manuscripts.


^43. The dialectic variations in the vowels may be mostly
referred to the heads of Precession, Union or Resolution,
Qttantity, ano Insertion or Omission.

^J 44. I. Precession prevailed most in the sofi Ionic, and

Digitized by VjOOQIC


least in the rough Doric and iGolic ; while the Attic, which
blended strength and refinement, held a middle plieuse. E. g.

1. Long «, for ihe most part, is retained in the t)oric and .£olic, but in the
Idnic pluses into n ; while in the Attic it is retained after i, j, ^, and (0, but
Otherwise passes into n (§ 2^). Thus, t)or. *afti^d, Att. V'^'S ^^^ V'$*> *
Dor. "ieifitbtj 9rAyL, ixvr&Sy Att. and loh. %infAosy vriyny MKVTti$ * Dor. and Att.
r«^<«, vfayfia^ Ion. wo^iti^ vfnyfMi. So, even in diphthongs, Ion. vfivf, yonvs,
for 9u»s^ y^»*fs, and in Dat. pL of Dec i., -ifo-t^ -pt, for ^asn, -«<;•

NoTB. The use of thi» long a produced, in greAt measure, the Doric f^tun
called v-Xartm^fiify broad pronunciatim, Which Was imitated by the Attics ill
the lyric parts of their drama (§ 6).

2. Short m is retained hj Uie Doric fft «ome words, wfa«^ in the Attic, H
pB«es into i ; and te some (partlcularty verbs ia .«») by the Attic, where it
becomeil 1 in Um Ionic Thus, Dor. r^iftty 'A^rdptts^ txi, ^dri, Att r^(^4#,
*A^%tMf , irtj P^i ' Att* i^sutt ^dtrtut^ risra^if^ A^vnv^ Ion. i^ut^ ^atriat,

3. In nouns in wr, -i«f, the characteristic 1 commonly passes, in the Iomc»
into I throughout ; as, w»Xtt, 4«f, u (ccmtraeted into t according to § 29. «)^
t9, ntf /«»», /«'!, lett (contr. r^).

4. An the long of t and «^ o¥ the omtiaction of ii and «« or a, the stricter
Doric prefers the long vowels n and «r to the closer diphthongs u and «0 $
while, on the other hand, the Ionic is particularly fond of protracting • and t
to u and tv or «. Thus^ Dor. x^^* iH^t * Gen. of Dec 11., vS i^MvS • Iiifin*
iv^ify, X'^'f^h vTyZv • tor x**iy mvA.0;, t«v w^ettov, ti^th^ ;^ct^uv, vwfcuf. Ion*
(sr»«s, fMWft, raitit for ^11*0;, /mm;, «r««. Att. »0^0f, Ivofia^ S^og * Ion. »ou^»u
»vt»/Atiy »S(»f • Dor. wAr^f, ZfofMi, tlf^tf. Both the Doric and Ionic have «y for
•vy, therefore^ contracted from \of. ,

5. Other examples of precession or the interchange of kindred vowete
('> 28) are the following ; in some of which, contrary to the general law of
the dialects, the Ionic has a morb open sound than the Attic, or the Attic than
the Doric or Aolio ; Att *dtU *4i4<f, Ion. ttltit, akrit • Att* »««r, nXetv^ Ion.
and Com. »«<W, «X«i«» • Att ^iut$u Iob- >M*«r ' Ion. <r^«4w, ^eifitftt, ftiya^i
Att. r^lTm^ rifiVM, /Atyt^t • Ion. a^^Vui, Att iff^tf • Ion% /Ki0-cyie^^/a, Att
finvnfA^^iat • t>or. and Ep. «i, Att. tl • Dor. ^avxat. Ion. and Att ^vin^xtt^
^k^ BimifKtt • Att fr^etroft /39«;^««f, ^ra^iecXtf^ i£ol. 0-r^«r0;, /3^o;^i«r;, ta^^**
Xif ■ Att Svofuif i£ol. «v(YM( • Att. i^iWr, j£ol. S^^rtrov,

§ 4S. II. Union or Resolution. A. The Contraction
of vowels prevailed most in the vivacious Attic, and least in
the litxurious Ionic. By the poets, it is often employed or
omitted according to the demands of the metre. There are
also dialectic difTerences in the mode of contraction, which, for
the most part, may be explained by precession. E. g.

I Ib contracting « with an sound, the Doric often prefers a to the
ekM«r «» ; iii the first declension, regulariy. Thus^ Dor. 'Ar^ii^w, rZv ^veiv
(^ 8), riM'K^iiy, -av9Sj wuvifTtf ^«a4ri/m^sr, «'^£r«f, for *Arfu^ov (uncontracted
•d»\ rS* d-v^f (-«*ry), Htfrii^wv, •Svof (-««;», -acv^t^, 9U*eitTt (-««yri), ^lawinZ-
0U9 ('••^if), irfS^rtg (^«r«f). A like contraction appears in proper names in
-%Jtn ; IKS Dor. M«viXil>, for Mtfix*»t,


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106 VOWELS. [book f

2 For the oonlractum of it and •• or «f, see $ 44. 4.

8. With the Ionics sod some of the Dorics, the fiiv ori te co n traction of f *
and t0v is into tv, instead of •«. This nse of f« for *v sometimes extends ta
cases where this dipbth<Hig resolts tmrn a difiierent oontractiun. Thus, ftXw*
ft49f f <Xsv, ifikiv, St^iv^ for ptXiv/fUf (-ca^iv), ^k»» (-mv), ifi^ ('**)* ^*^m^»
(-M#) * Qtxaiio, iiimahuv, iimtutv0-t, m HerodotuS for Hdxtcitu (-««), ih»a4§m.
(-Mv}, ^txa49V0'i (-Mvr/) * Xafrctifvrw M. 283, for XMVtvrra (-iiwc).

4. The Dorics (bnt not Pindar), contrary to the general hnr of the dialect,
Cionunonly contract « with an E sound following^ into a ; a8» i^^rn^ ^tynv^ Xjff,
ftom i^ratf 0'tymuff Xmifg. CL § 33. m.

5. In the contractions which follow the change of » before r (§ 58), the
JEolic often employs m and ««, for d and «« ; as, Aoc pL rmis Ttfutig, rtit v«-
f$stfj for r»$ rtfitdf, Tohf fifMVf • Nom. ang. of a^. and partic. fuXmtj rv^Mf,
ru^pMt^a, tx»*'»t for ftiXdfj rv^pds, Tvypd^m, \x***^* * ^ P^"^ P^ ^ verba,
f «<«■«, ttevrroift, for ^^ri, »^vmv€u The Doric has here g^ieat rarietj, both
employing the simple long vowels, the short vowels (as though t were simfdy
dropped before r), the common diphthongs of contraction (§ 34), and the
.£oUc diphthongs; thus, Ace pL ri^^df and rixf^tf (Theoc. 21. 1) ; r»uf
Xvxtvt and TMt Xv»»f (Theoc 4. 11) ; iTf and tig, one; M«(/r<K, BiLwr« (Theoc.),
"Mm fa (Find.), and Laconic MJUtt • Kom. sing, of partic ^^awtug (Pind. OL
2. 108), tiotwm. (lb. 73). So, likewise^ m for •» before r in «»«/r«, Theoc
n. 78.

6. The Ionic nse of «0v for av in a f^ words, appears, at least in some of
them, to have arisen from a union of • and a to form u ; thus, for ralriy
XfAaurw^ netvrau, Itturw, Ion. rttlri^ t/tttvrsu, etmtfr»Vf i«rvr«v, from r§ «vr«,
I/aU avrov, 0U mvrcu, %• »vr6v. In the reciprocal pronouns* the «v passed
into the other cases. We find also Ion. ^»w/Mt, r^atvfia (yet better r««i/ec«),
for ^avffM^ TfMVfia, In all these words, «;v-is written by some with a diiere-
iis ; as, ^t^Sfut,

§ 46. B. Vowels which appear only as diphthongs in the
Attic are often resolved in the other dialects, especially the
Ionic and iEolic, into separate sounds. In the Ionic, the reso
lulion of €4, with e prolonged, into iji', is especially common ; as
fiaaiXrfirj^ xXrfl'g^ for paodtla^ xldg.

Notes. «. On the other hand, the Ionic in a few cases employs contrac-
tion where the Attic omits it, particularly of •n into «r ; as, /^«;, ifim^m, lv«»<>
/«, /3«d^«ar, iyisixcfTo, for it^«f, ifiefurett Uon^m^ /3«>i^tiv, »ylon»o*Ta.

fi. The fondness of the Ionic for a concurrence of vowels leads it, in some
cases, to change ► to » (§ 50) after a vowel (which, if before c, now becomes
•) j as, 'A^tfTayo^taf I'ivviaTtf for 'A^t^retyo^KVy ihvvetvTo,

C. In Crasis, the Doric and Ionic often differ from the Attic
by uniting the o of the article with « and at initial, to form n
and bt ; as, to aXri&ig, twlrj&ig * oi avd^fg^ atrdgfg ' ol ainoloi

In the following erases, which are found in Herodotus, and the two first
also in Homer, the smooth breathing has taken the place of the rough ; • 4^-


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rrt, Jt(i0TH * i etvriff mhrit • «/ Ixx«i, JxXm. Other dialectic erases are,
Dor. i tXM^»$t SXti^H • iV^ i^' »«2 Iff, un» « »«) iTri, »fw% • Ion. • Irf^«f9

§ 4T. III. Quantity. For a short vowel in the Attic, the
other dialects oflen employ a long vowel or diphthong, and the
converse. Thus,

loo. ^wkfiftt for hirXM^tf • Ion. Iv'irn^uty tv^iw, ivH^tl^f, ^i^^vv, x^frrm^
far *irtrnhtH^ tv»t7a, itire^ulfft fiui^t'h »^Mwmt ■ Dor. and £p. XrA^$t for ir«r-
9* • MoL *A>.»S«f, «eX«««t for *AXMm7»u J^eX'^*^' See §§ 44. 4 ; 45. 5.

KoTB. The poets, espedaUy the Epic, often lengthen or shorten a -vowel
according to the metre. A short vowel when lengthoied in Epic verse
usually passes into a cognate dipthong ; as, %iXnk»vSat for IknXuB-ettf A. 202.

^48* IV. Insertion or Omission. Vowels are often
usetted in one dialect which are omitted in another ; and here,
as elsewhere, a peculiar freedom belongs to the poets, especial-
ly the Epic. These oflen double a vowel, or insert the half
of it (i. e. the short for the Umg)^ for the sake of the metre,
particularly in contract verbs ; as, xgijtivov iiXdw^^ for ngri^op
tXdmQj A. 41, q>aav&t9y ^finimaa^ oq6o»^ oQoi^g^ /iXtaovtrg^ tpoo};*
yaXoutg, itlxooh for q>dv&BPy '^fiaaa^ o^cJ, o^^, ytlmvitg^ <pwgj yd^
ia>C« etxoir«*

RmfARga. 1. The Ionic is espedally fond of the insertion of t ; as, Gen,
pL kv^^t X^^h »l»rUif^ for «i^^, &C. ; 2 Aor. infin. i v^im, Xtwun^ tot

2. In the Doric and Epic, the partides i^ tttly «««•«, ^m^ k^i, iiri,
and ir#ri (Dor. for ^^if^ often omit the final vowel before a consonant, with
such assimilation of the preceding consonant as euphony may require ; as,

§r^i) &fit fittfiaT^i, l'y»(t0'ts, k^trris (§ 68. 3), ««^ ^u*»fu*^ ttkw ^tiXM^m
62. jS), »«» xtfaktift My ynvi tcmm^tvtUt »»( fic*^ MMkknr§9y ttm/tfJl^tf
WM( Znf'h kv^ifif^tu WmkXuf, ^§T riv. When three consonants . are thus
hrmight together, the first is sometimes r^ected ; as, tUxran, kfitfrn^u^ for
mmx»rtt9i, kfitftwu. So, sometimes in the Doric, even before a single conso-
nant ; as, icmfimtMf.

NoTBS. m. From the dose connection of the preposition with the ftDow*
faig word, these cases are not regarded as making any exception to the rule
fai § 63. Compare § 68. /S. The two words are often written together, even
when there is no composition ; as, xMlivfafuvt WTrit.

j3. In these words, the final vowd was probably a euphonic addition to the
original form. Comp^ue k^i and ^«r« with the Latin ab and mib. The old
foim w^y in accordance with the rule (§ 63), became v^W and v^^r^ idience

y» Some of these forms oven passed into the Attic, and hito Ionic prose ;
M, MM-9«ftr» (poet), k/t^mmt (Xen.), k/twrnw/Mu (Herod.).

%. 'A^ has ilso, by aphssresis, the Epic form fm, whidi is enditic


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^ 49* The Greek has eighteen coNSOitANrs,
represented by seventeen letters.

They are exhibited in the Table (% 3) according to two methods of divis-
ton, employed by orthoSpists. Consonants of the same class, according to tha
fiisit method, are termed coffmUes of the same order, codrtUntOi,.

SraiABKS. 1. The letter y peribrms a doable office. Whtti fbllowad hy
another palatal, it ia a nasals otherwise a middle mute. As a naslkl, it has r
for its corresponding Roman letter ; as a middle mute^ g (§ 13). For its
pronnndatioo, see $ 1^. 3.

2. IVom the representation of the Latih v by j3 (VhyiBu8, Bt^iXm), it to
probable that in the andent^ as m the modem Greek (§ 19\ the middle
mutes approached nearer to the aspirates than in oor own langfoage, and that,
iA fbrining them, the oilgans were not wholly dosed.

§ ffO* 3. The semivowels v and a have oorresponding
vowels in m and t ; that is, a may take the place of y, and c of
a, when euphony forbids the use of these consonants ; as, itp&A-i-
gatai, for tififaQvrai^ onf(}iia (contracted anfQ^) f&r a'tidivat
See §§ 34, 46. /J, 56 - 58, 60, 63. R., &c.

Note. In like manner, v is the corresponding vowd of the old consonant
iF. Sde § 22. i.

^ St. The following laws, mostly euphonic, are
ObiSerVed in the formation and connection 6f Wtjrds

A. In the FoRMAtior^ of Words.

[. A labial mutt before tf forms with it t^; aftd a
palatal^ | ; thus,

becdme n become as

P9 ^, y^a(p9m y^i-^m, x' t ^i^X* ^v\'

KoTB. In like manner, ^ is the union of a lingoal with a sibilant sotm^
and in man^ words has taken the place of r$ ; e. g. adverbs of place in -^i
■s, for *kMi>Kir\%^ *A5if»«^i, fer 0i$i3«»-^, 0*fj3&?i • And many verbs in -t*»
as, for ^iX/r$*>, ;*«X/^M, for ^*«rJ»», ^e«C*». In these verbs, the old forms re-
m^n in the ^Eolic and Doric <% 70. V.). For a lingual btjore r, see § 55.


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CH. H,] EVTkOHit LAWS. itJfy

^ S9. II. Before a lingHfd mute, ^ 0*) ^^bi^^
or (2.) palatd mute become^ €odhiin&te (^ 49, H 8),
and (3«) a lingu<d mtUe^ € ; thus,

tocome as become as

















A;^» l*j««y^»







rr, tttifun^rk







wTy sfft^^nf







#r, irivud^M






r^, «iy0^a<»'^n»







irS, lip^^i,







r^, Ui;»;»ii»


Two Imgnal motet maj renudn togethtf, if both ard radi-

ca) ; as, w^drrat^ *ArSif.

^ tl8. III. Before /i, a labial mute become^ ^,
a palatalj y, dnd a lingual, a ; thus,



becdme as



XlXii«'/tMi4 KiXtifi/tmt.


Tf* riruxfuu rirtfyfimt.



TfififUt T^/flfM,


r^ dtifntT/tms ttvift.ita'fuu.



'y(d^/»m y^df^fta.


ir^u, ^^« ^^^*.



4iirXi»fUtt wivXiyfuu.


#^ «4«tiS^eai 4'i«'U9;^NU.

Except in a few such words as a»f»^ xtu^fidf, ntx/^^s* ^er/if • and some
others from the dialects ; as, in Homer, i^^n, T^/miv, ivivi^/uiy, xf»0^v5/Kfy«i,

^ ff 4. IV. V before a (1.) labial or (2.) pala-
tal, is changed into the cognate nasal (^ 49, i 3) ;
and (3«) before a liquid, into that liquid ; thus,

becomd as





f 9»f*ird^xat,




























Notes. «. Enclitics are here regarded as distinct words; thns, T*ri#,
ri9yu We find, however, final » changed in like manner npon old inscrip-
tions ; tA, MEM4>2TXA2) for ^i» ^(/a:«« (I"^- Potid.) ; so, APKAI,
TOAAorON, and even feSSAMOI (cf. §§ 57. 5, 6d. 3), for At nai, t$p
Xiy§9, Iv 2df»f.

^. Before ^ in the Perfect passive, t sometimes becomes r and is soma-
. times dropped • as, for iri^«*/i*«i, Tt^a^fiai • for «ixX<f/iMt«, »i»Xifitu,

y. Before « in the Perfect active, » was Commonly dropped, or the fbrm
"woided, except by later writers ; as, for si»(4*««, «i«:ix*.


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^ SS. V. A lingual or liquid should not pre-
cede a. This is prevented in various ways.

I. A Ungual mute is simply dropped before a ; thus, awfAatat
ncudg^ nU&am become aoifiaai^ nalgy ntLoti.

^ «I6« -2. In liquid verhs^ the a formative of the Future
and Aorist is changed into e (§ 50), which (I.) in the Future ia
contracted with the q^^ but (2.) in the Aorist is transposed
and contracted with the vowel of the penult.

Thus, in the Fat and Aor. of the liqoid verbs, ityyixxt^ to announce^
•ifibi^ to distribute^ n^/pt, to jtuigcj wXuva^ to w€uh, and ii^M, to ftoffy for

(\,)kyyiX9a^ (JtyytXut) ityy*^' (2.) 4fyy«Xr«, (nyytiXm) HyyuXm.

pift^M, (vi/MUf) ftfiui* tnft^a, (Ivm^m) hufut,

»^/vrM, (x^/vim) *('t^ * f»(ivr«, (l»^iiv«i) fx^iMt.

«>Xvv^«f, (4rXvfUf) 9'XvfS* titXtntm, (iwXvtfa) iwXOfm,

){(#«#, (}i^) h^» i^t^^^h (fi**vO Uu^

Noras, m. Here si commonly passes into «, unless / or ^ precedes ; tiuis,
#^i^XAiv, to cause to aUp^ ^altm, to thow (roots r^cX-, ^cv-), have m the Aor.
(fr^Xr*, irf«iX«) lr^X«, f^ifv« • while ittmiptt, to fatten, m^mJtat, to com-
plete (roots «■<«»-, 9'f^fff.), have Mdm^ Imifdm. But UxpttJwat, to make leaUf
»i^c/vM, to ffotHj MiXuhv^ to hoOaw otOj Xgv»aUt^ to whiten, i^ymita^ to enroffe,
ittTaUatt to ripen^ have « in the penult of the Aor. ; rt^^ifm, to bore, n ; and
etiftMifm^ to give a signal, fuaitmy to stain, both n and d, AS^m, to raise, and
£xX0fitut, to leap, have d, which in the Indicative is changed by the aogment
into n ; thos, i^m, ^^m, i^mfju,

/3. A few poetic verbs retain the old forms with r ; as, n\xXm, to land^
»%Xwm, IxiXwu • *u^t*, to meet withy to chance, xv^rm, ixu^vot • S^pO/m (r. i^-'),
to rouse, i^^m, Z^em • ^t^ to kneadj t^v^ra. Add these forms, niostly ftx>m
Homer, i^ra, <Xr«, f^r«, ^i(r§/MU, ni^^tt, ixi^u, }taip^^^tt, H^^fu,

§ S7« 3. In the Nominative^ the formative a (1.) after ^,
and sometimes (2.) after v, becomes f, which is then trans*
posed, and absorbed (§ 31) by the preceding vowel ; as, for

(1 .) ^1^, (^^«<() ^i^* (2.) ^mtAp$, (srumtp^ wudp,

v'mri^, («'«irii^) wur^, Xiftipt, (XtfMiP^ Xtftnp.

f^»(t, (/nr«i() fnrtt^. htif^Pt^ (hu/Mip^ imiiun.

Except in imf^d^ (§ 109).

4. In the Dative plural of the third declension, v preceding
a without an intervening r, is dropped ; as, for

ftiXxprt, ftiXm^i. For ^uifjt§p0t, ^ifi0n.

XtfAtpn, XifM,iru h^'*» f*^^

So also with r, in the Dat pL of adjeethes in -ut ; afl, for ;^«^/ifrr<, ;^« •

5. In the feminine of adjectives in -f/p, v before a becomes
; as, for x^i^Uvxna^ (x^Qtsyan) x"Qlfoaa,


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LB. 3.]



^ «I8^ 6. Otherwise, v before a is changed into <k, which ii
the^ contracted with the preceding vowel (§§ 34, 50) ; as, for


Norn. Fern.


For ^dvtrm,




Dat PluT

Terbs in Sd Pen. Flnr.

r/^i»^4» Tt^id€4, ri^ufi.
}iin^U ithmfi, }ii9urt,
iii»9V9€tj iuufvdt'it iu»fV0t.






Notes. «. Hie ibrms rAUiwi, Wii^t, and )i/»»tfii^i were naed by the
Attics, for the most part, without contraction ; fa^t received no contraction.

fi. In noons, if »^ precede r, the » is retained ; as, for tXftn^t^ Ix/Mvf , for
tXfut^it Ikfuwt (yet others, iXftitri), It is also retained in some forms in
trtii and derivatiTes in ^n, from verbs in -«/»«, as «'i^«vrM from ^»i9t^
wiwatnt from v^^ttitm • and sometimes in the advorb wdXtt^ and the ac^ective
«'«», in composition. Add the Homeric »iirr«i, If. 337. For l», rvy, and
<l^ jwe § 68. 3. In the rough Aigive and Cretan, » seems to have been
extensively retained befwe r ; thus, iut «S^»«} for iif , ri^if

% S9« 7. In the Dative plural of syncopated liquids^ and
of tttfTi^V, 8tar^ the combination -e^o-, by metathesis and the
change of t to «, became -^acj- ; as, for naiiqai^ natqaa^ ' for

8. Elsewhere the combinations la and qo were permitted to
stand, except as o radical after g was softened in the new Attic
to ^ (§ 70) ; as, «^(Ji?y, male^ ^agfogy courage^ xo^^jj, temple^
cheeky for the older agarivy ^agaogy xo^ai}. The combination ^a
is unknown in classic Greek.

^60. VI. Between two consonants, a forma-
tive is dropped, and v is changed to a (^ 50) ; as,

yty^Lp^^mt, yty^dip^mi • for XiXty^B-tj XlXi;^Sf • for l^^a^fratt i^^d^^rmi,
NoTS. So the compound ^^tw^x*** is written bj some ^•ft^x'**-

^61. VII. Before x formative^ a labial or
palatal mute unites with it in the cognate roughs
and a lingual mule is dropped ; thus.


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^63. VI 11. If raugh mutes begin two succes-
sive syllables, the Jirst is often changed into it»
cognate smooth^ especially (1.) in reduplications, or
(2-) when both letters are radical; but (3.) in the
second person singular of the Aorist imperative pas-
sive, the second rough mute is changed ; thus, for

(1.) ft^iXn»my wt^iXnumi (2.) ^(t^it, *VX^f*

T^X^f*^ »tX^fmm. ^»X^t r»x^*

^a^tifn^ ri^fifii, (3.) ^tfvXiu^^i, $«»ktv%rt.

K0TB8. at. Upon the same prindple, tx*' beoomds };^m • and whenever /
li t«da]ilioated, the first / becottieB tmnath^ and, as it then cadnot sltfid at the
beginning of a word ($ 13* 2^ is transposed ; as, for fifupt, Vfff^ ^^ ^^
ted, by a softening of the second ;, fi^ifirm/tiv* ^. 59, ft^witftitM Anaer. Ft,
105^ ^^t^^tu Find. Ft. 281.

/3. So, to avoid excessive aspiration, a rough mute is never preceded by th«
s&me rottgh mate, bat, instead of it, by th6 cognate smooth ; as, the £pi6
*m9- fciXm^M, for »it^ ^^Xaftt ($ 48. 2) ) SO, 2tt*^ ^i^X'h ^Ar^if • and,
upon the same principle, liu^fti (§ 13. 2).

§ 68. IX. The semivowels v, p, and ^, are the
only consonants that may end a word. Any other
consonant, therefore, falling at the end of a word,
is either (1.) dropped, or (2.) changed into oAe of
these, or (5.) assumes a vaioel ; thus, for

(I.) r«^r.


























(3.) fi»uktuMf*f






(2.) ^Sr,





A word, can

end with

two consor

lantB, only y

the lost is a ; as, mA^, yvift {yvng), ii/J (viJx?), xo^«5. Hence the
formative v of the Accusative is changed into a (§ 50) after a
consonant, except in a few cases, in which a Ungual mute
preceding v is dropped ; thus, for

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