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yv4rv, 7«Kr«. FOT »Xiidf, »Xt/^s and nXut,

»«^s»f, »«^«4(ai. I'^N^v, S^*iJ^M and l!fMw.

«r«<)*, «'«4)a. yiktiTv, yiXira and >tX*f»

L-iyiii^tJU uy -«^-J v_^ x_^ -t IV^



elL 8.j StMOKIb L.iWft. 113

§ 64. X. A consonant is sbtoetimesi inserted or
transposed^ to soften the sound. Thus,

1. When a simple vowel is brought by inflection or composi-
tibd before an initial ^, a smooth o is inserted ; as, iif^aaa,
aQfwatog, im^(}(6wv(ju, from fmyviifAi (i-^ a-, and int prefixed)
but sv^maiog (the diphihang hi prefixed).

2. When, by syncope or metathesis, a nasal is brought be
fore I or ^, the cognate middle mute is inserted; as, from
ipif^of^ {jm^^oq) opdgogy from fitoti^tqia^ fitaiififiiqlai

KoT^ It the nasal is hiittal, It is then dropped fitom th6 difflcalty of
tonndidg it ; e. gi^ the roots of fikirrm and j3x^»* are thus changed ; fttXsr-t
ftXiT-, /nfiXsr^ /SXir.; /mX^ ^X«^ ^^X»-, /3X«.; 80 fi^tT§$, morta^ derived
ttom fiti^tSf Lat mors,

3. Transposition especially afl^cts a liquid c6ming before
another consonant ; as, for* &6(faxtay &qwoxtit^ for ^d^aXxa^ fli"

^ 6«l. B. In the Connection of Words,

I. When a smooth mute is brought by (1.) era-
sis or (2.) elision before the rough breathings it is
changed into its cognate rough ; as, for



(1.) »*} ;, »«} .j;


X^y Xi'


For wxtm yxnr, ^x^* '' *»»•


r« ifUTt»9,


^•lfUrt09.


And in composition, ftsM


Tw lrif§tff


^Ari^^y.


k^h and Inioy «^/if/»«.


ir§» iftiutf


i»0im»a.


^%nM and A^lf«, ^t^nfAt^*


(«.) M .i.


k<p' tJ.


\trrm, and V^«f i^^>e'«*



KoTB. In some ooinpoands, this change takes place with aa failervening
^ ; and in some words, it i4>peafB simply to have arisen finom the tendeDcj of
^ to aspiration (ct § 18. 2) ; as, ^dht (from w^ and •}•! )| f^^fit (we*
^«itf), rii^e'^*''* (rirr«e*f > 7«'«'0f ) ; ^($ifM»9 («'(•> 'V'^ )) '^f <*' ^^ ^'"^ ^*

^ 66. II. Some words and forms end elthei
t(n^ or unthoui a JincU consonant according to (^u*
phony, emphasis, or rhythm

In most of these cases, the consonant appears not to belong to the iri^pnal
form, but to have been assumed. In some cases, however, the reverm appears
to be true ; and some cases are doubtAiL

1. Datives plural in «, and verbs of the third person in »
%nd I, assume w at the end of a sentence, or when the ne5«
word begins with a vowel ; as,

nSri yk( tl*t rw»r» • but, E^'TIv »M «'Sr«».
n«r< kiyw^t Twrt • but, Flsriv miri kiytpetw,
i\J *

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114 CONSONANTS. EUPHONIC LAWS. [BOOK I.

Notes. «. So, likeirifle^ adverU tf place m .#» (piroperiy datives phiral
the advert) 'ri^vrs, last year^ the numenl ttrnt^t (comraonlj), the deraonstra*
tive -i preceded bj r (sometimes), the Epic case-ending ^ and the Epic
particles »!, 9v, and fU^t • as, li Uxmramm tiyt/t^ia' %t»»0n fm. See § 21 1 . N.

^. The y thus assomed is called v paragogie. It is sometimes employed by
the poets before a consonant to make a syllable long by position ; and in most
kinds of verse, some of the best editors write it nniibrmly at the end of a line.
In Ionic prose it is generally neglected, bat in Attic prose it is sometimes
found evm before a consonant in the middle of a sentence. In grammars
and lexicons, a paiagogic letter is commonly marked thus : <7»dri(y).

§ 67» 2. The. adverb ovrcucr, thus^ commonly loses a before
a consonant ; and a/^i and /iixgt^ urUU^ often assume it before
a vowel ; as, ovt«» qnjal ' ftixQ^^ <>v*

3. Some other words have poetic or dialectic fcnmn, in which a final » or f
is dropped or assumed : aa, local adverbs in 3fv (poet , chiefly Ep., St>, nn-
meral adverbs in -tug (Ion. -tu), 4bvt4»^v;, «r#i^f, tftwrng^ wmXiPy tv^v(jt\

^ 68. C. Special Rulks.

1. The preposition ^$, out of^ becomes ^x* before a consonant,
and admits no further change ; as 4% xaxoiy, ^xas i;ai^ ixytXdtt^
Ix^ero;, ixfidaaw.

2. The adverb ov, not^ before a vowel, assumes x, which
becomes/ before the rough breathing; as ov yijai, ovx IVeorii',
ovx vtiy ovxirt.

Notes. «• The advert) finxirt, from ftn and lr<, follows the analogy of

fi. In these wordM, U and tv» may pertiaps be r^:arded as the original
^rms. That in certain situations these forms are retained is owing to thdr
ckMe connection as proclitics, or in composition, with the fbllowing word, and
therefore forms no real excq>tion to the rule in § 63. When orthotone, they
conform to the rule, the one by assuming r> and the other by droi^ing s.

3. In composition, the preposition ^r, tn, retains its r before
^ and (J ; while avvy toitk^ drops its r before a followed by an-
other consonant, and before f; but before a followed by a
vowel, changes V to a ; as, ivQamta^ ivadta (yet e^^v&fiog often-
er than h(fv&fio^); avaxrma (for avvaxrina)^ avivyUt' avaatvu
(for avyasvtf), avaanln,

KoTB. The ^ic A» ibr &fd (§ 48. 2) here imitates It • as, &9^Ti$, It^^rn

DIALECTIC VARIATIONS.

^ 69. A. The dialects often interchange consonants ; most
frequently,

1. Cognate Mutes ($ 49) ; as, Ion. mZnt^ VvitfMt^ for mZ^t^ Hxf^'

i?M\. JiM^ri for i^^i.



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CH. 3.1 DIALECTIC VARIATIONS. Il5

Notes. «. The soft Ionic was less inctined than the Attic to the rongli
mutes ; hence, in the Ionic, the smooth mute remains before the rough breath-
ing (§ § 65, 68. 2) ; as, £«■' »S^ hxtiftt^og, •hx Sn, In some compounds, this
passed into the Attic ; as, a^n^uirnsi fix)m £«■• and ^Xt§t*

fi. Aspiration is sometimes ircmspoaed; as, Ion. »i5«#», iv^avrm^ lydif/nv,
K«A.;(;if^Ary, for X*^''** ^*'''»v^'h i^Ttu^iy XaX«f}d4i/ir.

IL CooRDiNATB MuTBS (§ 49) ; as. Ion. and .^1., « for r in interrogct-
tive and ind^nite pronouns and adverbs; thus, itoTee, xov, Ȥrif for ^ms, wtvy
wri • Dor., » for r in «'«»«, X»s, r«»«, for arari, 2Vi, rirt, and in similar
adverbs of time ; JBoI. fri/MVi for rifft, ^( for ^^ • .^1. and Dor. yXipKf§9
for jSXi^c^dy, ii for ytf • Dor. iitkit for o/SiXtf;, S^nx«S for tgyr^df .

in. Liquids ; as. Dor. M«ff fiivrurtsy for ^k^n, fiixriwrts • Ion. wXii^
fuf* for trMv/c««>y.

§ 70. IV. r with other letters; e."g.

1. The Ionic and Old Attic ^g- and ^r pass, for the most part, m the later

Attic, into TT and p|» ; as, rotwm rarret^ yXu99ot yXeiTTttj H^^tif cjp/fff. See
§ 69. 8.

2. Dor. r for r ; as, n«rti^«v, f inrty, tltntrt, for Htf^-ii^Aly, f ff*! r«y, i7»0r4.
This appears especially in the 2d personal pronoun, and in the 3d pefs. of
verbs ; as, ri;, ri, for ^i;, V< (Lat. ^ te) ; ^ar/, ^aprij kiyttrt, for ^uri, ^aW,
XiydV0$ (Lat. legunt),

3. Dor. r for » in the verb-ending of Ist pers. pL /Ai$ for /A$f (Lat. mut) ;
as, xiy«/uif for Xiytfitv (Lat. iegmtts),

4. The Laconic often changes ^ to r, and final i to ^ ; as, *ttXtdf Ar. Lys.
988, ri«(, WAi», for vuktueg, B%«ff Six« • w^ri* for ireiTs (Lat /m«r, compare
3larc^iw)»

T. The Double Consonants with other letters;- as, old ^vir, later and
common rvv (in the Lat. cmn the ^ has been dropped, instead of the ») ;
.£d. "Vttw^at for 2«r^4i(' iBol. #»•»•;, r»/^«f, for ^im^, ^/^«f - Dor. ^i, ^iis
f<Mr r^i, r^i» • loiL 2<^0;, r^t^og, for isg-g-ig^ r^tr^ig.

For ^, we find, in the iBolic and Doric, r^, )), and ^ ; as, S0'hg, fttxith^

(^ 51. N.)» WAl'^IV, fuC^ Altff, for •^«f, ^iXl^A^, «'«/{«, fMS^A, Ztvg,

§71* B. Consonants are often doubled^ inserted^ omitted^
and transposed by the poets, especially the Epic, for the sake
of the metre ; as, tXXajSovy <f^daaofiai^ vittvaai^ ooao^^ onntag^
iddsiaBj foT tkapov^ &c. ; nxiXffioq^ nroXtg^ dix^f*^ vmvvfAVoq^ ana"
ImfiPog^ for TtoXffiogy noXig^ ilx"^ vtorvfiocy nndXafiog * tqtiov^
*Odvatvg^ *JxtXtvgy (paQvyog^ for i^^iSov^ *Odvaaivg<, jixtXXevg^ <]pa-
ifvy/og* ir^d/q, xagtigogj fidgdiaiog^ for naqdia^ xgdugog^ /^^<'~
ii0Tog»



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BOOK II.

ETYMOLOGY.



*Einm itn^ftiu



^ 7«, Etymology treats of the Inflection and
of the Formation of Words ; the former includ-
mg Declension, Comparison, and Conjugation,
and the latter, Derivation and Composition.

For the distinction between the radieal and the fomuOhe part of Words,
and the use of the tenns rootf prejix^affix^ open, and dMe Or vmod and eontommi
affixes, eharaeUriMtie^ ^mre iod impure Words, nmUt iiqmd, Kqmid-^vte^ labial,
palatal^ and Ungual words, thenuj juxradigm, &c., see General Grammar.



CHAPTER I.

PRmOtPLES 01* DBCLElf SIOK.

§ 78. The two classes of Substantives (in-
cluding Nouns and Substantive Pronouns) and
Adjectives (including the Article, Adjectives com-
monly so called. Adjective Pronouns, and Partici-
ples) are declined to mark three distinctions, Gen-
der, Number, and Case.

Note. Acyectives receive these distinctions merelj fbr the sAke cf €QO«
ibrming to the substantives to which they belong. ^

A. Gender.

^74. The Greek has three genders ; the Mas-
culine, the Feminine, and the Neuter.

Notes. «. Noons which are both masculine and feminine, are said to b«
of the comnum gender.



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•». I.J Gj^MPER. in

(^ To mask the mmden of Greek nomui, m employ the different forBu of
the article , in tlie singular, for the masculine, ; for the feminine, « ; tor th^
oommon, «, h ; and for the neuter, r« : in the plural, for the masculine, «/ :
hf the feminine, «/ ; fi>r the common, m, at ; wsv^ for the neuter, v^ : as, i

Id l|ke manner, the different cfiaes and numbers, according to their gtndei^
■re marked ^y different fofma ^ ^ article ; as the Qeo. dng. niase^ by

y. In the case of most animals it is seldom important to distinguish the
gender. Hence in Greek, for the most part, the names of animals, instead
of being common, h^ve but a smgle g«nder» which is used indifierendy for
both sexes. Snch nouns are termed ej^cene (IrifCMts, promiscuotu), ThuS|
i Xi/s««, wolf, h itXMxnll, fox^ whether the male or the female is spoken of.

y Words which change their fonps to denote change of gender are termed
movabk; and this change is termed motion; as, i fianXtug, king, 4 fiarikumf
fMeeii ; • ^*fifi vise, 11 r«^tf, t^ r«^«y.

1. In words in which the fbninine may either have a eomtmm form with
the maemfine or a dtsUnet form, the AUie sometimes prefers the oommea
form, where the Ionic and Comtnon dialects prefer the distinct form ; as, <^ 4
^ify god, goddea, and li df« or S-mmmk, goddess. So, likewise, in adjectives.

^709 The masculine gender belongs properly to words
denoting males ; the feminine, to words denoting female9 ; and
the neuter to words denoting neither males nor females. In
Greek, however, the names of most things without life are
maaculioe or feminine, either from the real or fknoied posses-
sion of masculine or feminine qualities, or from a similarity in
their formation to other nouns of these genders.

Thus, for the most part, the names of winds and riverf
(from their power and violence), and also of the months^ are
masculine ; and the names of trees^ plants^ countries^ islands^
and cities (regarded as mothers of their products or inhabitants)
tire feminine ; while nouns denoting mere />rorft*€^, or imply-
ing inferiority (even though names of persons), especially
diminutives^ are neuter ; as, 6 avf/xoc, loind^ 6 Bogduq^ Boreas^
o notttfiOQ^ river^ 6 NtlXog^ the Nile^ 6 fn^v, months o *E%aiofApai'
oiy, June - Jvly^ 17 ot/x^, fig-tree^ ^ fjitjlia^ apple-tree^ ^ umogy
pear-tree^ ij auntlog^ vinCy ^ fivlSXog^ papyrus^ ij x^ga^ country^
fi Atyvntog^ ^gypU V ^V^og^ island, rj Safiog, Samos, { noktg,
^tty, 5 jtaxfSnlfimr, Laced(Bm,on ; to avxar^Jig, to fiijlov, apple,
jI Tf'xroy, childy to nvdgdno^Qv, slave^^ to yvvmov, dim. of yvvri,
woman, to naidiov, little boy or girL

$76. The gender of nouns, when not determined by the
signification, may be, for the most part, inferred from the form
of the theme or root, according to the following rules.

I. lo Ibe FUST pscLSNsioif (H 7), all words in -a; and *ni



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118 DBCLENUON. [BOOK U

are masculine ; all in -a and -f^, femimne ; as, o ta/ilag^ o i^av*
Tijg' ij oixia^ ^ "^^M*

n. In the SECOND declension (H 9), most words in -oq and
-atg are masculine^ but some are Jfemimne or canmum ; words
in -w and -«r are neuter ; as, o io/o^, o mi0( * if odo$9 17 IW9
dawn ; o, 19 ^f o;, go(^, o, ^ agxrog^ bear ; to ovxWf to at^/emr.

Except idien the dmuimtive fini in ^ is giren to iNmininfl proper names;
III. In the THIRD DECLENSION (HH 11-14),

a. All words in -tvg are masculine ; all in -eo and -«tv« fi"^
nine ; and all in -a, -i, -v, and -o;, neuUr; as, o tTTTrf v;, o a/*-
^^ci;;, amphora; r^ ij^ctf, { yav$* yo augiOy 16 iidXiy honey ^ to
aatVy TO T«T/off.

b. All abstracts in -^ijg and -i^, and most other words in -i^
are feminine ; as, ij yinvxvtfigi sweetness ; { dwaftigy power, ^
nolfiaig, poesp ; ij ^ig, 17 noltg.

c. All labials and palatals, all liquids (except a few in
which ^ is the characteristic), and all liquid-mutes are either
masculine or feminine,

d. Nouns in which the root ends in,

1.) -«»T-, -tr-, or -yt'y are masculine ; as, o /sImc, -etroc, /ot^
ter ; o Ufti^r, 'hog * o lce»y, -oyro^, o odovg, o ylyagt o Iftag, '■artog^
thong.

Except Ti «?f , tf^r^f , ear, ri ^2$, ^•trit, SgM (both oontracts), 4 ^fiit, fftMf.
MMd; and a few names of cities ($ 75) ; as, h 'Fmfifwe, '§inT»ty S h am m u,

2.) -^-, or -1^-, are feminine ; as, ^ Xafindg, -ddog, torch, ^
iifig, -idog, strife, ^ /Aa^i/;, -vdog, cloak ; 11 x6(fvg, -v&og, helmet.

Except •, 4 itati, Ttuiie, diUd, § 9»ut% ^•iit, foot, i, h S^iSf -lS«r, bird,

3.) -aT-, or -a-, are neuter ; as, to r^nuQ, -aiog, to Kigag, -atogf
TO yigag, -^og.

B. Number.
^77. The Greek has three numbers; the Sin-
gular, denoting one; the Plural, denoting more
than one ; and the Dual (dualis, from duo, two)^
a variety of the plural, which may be employed
when only two are spoken of.

Thus, the singalar &9^(MTf signifies man, the plaral &v^(t0*§t, mm (whetn
er two or more), and the dual 4»S^4^4r«, two Msa.

BKMAnc. The dual is most used in the Attic Graek. In the JEoIio diakd

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n



CH. l.J CASE. 119

(at in the Latin, wtdch H apinmu^es tiie mott neaify of the Greek dialeote^
and in the Hellenistic Greek, tiia dual doei not ooeor, except in )«•, iwo^ and
Mm^ both (Lat. dmOj ambo).

C. Case,

^78. The Greek has five cases;
1. The Nominative, expressing the subject of a sentence.



2.


** Genitive,


44


the point of departure, or cause.


3.


« Dative,


44


the indirect object, or accom-


4.


" Accusative,


4C


paniment
direct limit


5.


** Vocative,


(4


address.



KoTBS. «. From the general character of the relations which they denote^
the Nominative, Aocosative, and Vocative are termed the direetj and tha
Genitive and Dative, the indireet cases.

/S. The Nominative and Vocative are also termed casus reed, the right eaam
and the other three, casu* oMiquif the oblique C€uet,

^ For a fiiDer statement of the use qf the cases, see Syntax.

D. Methods of Declension.

^79. Words are declined, in Greek, by an-
nexing to the root certain affixes, which mark
the distinctions of gender, number, and case.
There are three sets of these affixes ; and hence
arise three distinct methods of declining words,
called the first, second, and third declensions.

The first of these methods applies only to words of the mas-
culine and feminine genders ; the second and third apply to
words of all the genders. In some of the cases, however, the
affixes vary, in the same declension, according to the geiider ;
so that, to know how a word is declined, it is necessary to
ascertain three thbgs ; 1. its root^ 2. the declension to which it
belongs, and 3. its gender.

Hie mode in which the gender is marked has been aiready stated (§ 74, /3).
Firom the theme (L e. the Nom. sing.) and the gender, we can often determine
■t once the root and the declension. If it is necessary to marlc these expli-
citly, it is commonly done by giving^ with the theme, the Genitive singular, or
its ending. If the Genitive nngular ends in ^mt or -nu or in .«» from a theme,
m -uf or -n$, tiu word is of the first dedensions if it ends m .»ufrom a theme m
-09 or -sfi the word is of the second declension ; if it ends in -tt, the word is of
Ae 0ttrd declension. The root is obtained by throwing off the affix of the Genitive $
or it may be obtained by throwing off any afl^ beginning with a voweL

Hins the nonns, I rafttmty steward, ^ •ixUt house, h yX^rr«, tongue, i ^f*t^



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ISO DECLENSION. — #¥|fERAL RULES. [bOOK II

pep^ imd i^A^^t Arab, milkd ill the Genitive, r«^y, fhrnt, yXmt^nti M
f4,0M, a?i4 "A^fif^f. FroiQ (kese genitives, we a4c«rtain ^t rafnitu, •Uitty an^
yXZrrtt belong to the first declension, ^iifA»i to the second, 4nd "A^*^ to th^
third. By throwing off the affixes -«&, -as^ -nt^ and -«f, we obtain the root!
TKfU'y eUs-, ykmrr-, itifA-^ and 'A^t($-, The words are then declined by an-
nexing to these roots the affixes in the table (^ 5).

^80. In the declension of words, the follow-
ing GENERAL RULES are observed.

I. The masculine and feminine affixes are the
same, except in the Nom^iative and GenUtve sin-
gular of the Jirst declension. The neuter affixes
are the same with the masculine and feminine,
except in the direct cases, singular and plural.

II. In neuters J the three direct cases have the
same affix, and in the plural this affix is always d.

III. The dual has but two forms; pne for the
direct J and the other for the indirect cases.

IV. In the feminine singular of the first declen
sion, and in the plural of all words, the Vocative is
th^ 35me with the Nominative.

% 8 !• RracARKS. 1. The use of the Yoc as a distinot form is atll
furtW limited. Few svbetantives or adjectives, except proper names and pern
sonal appellatives and epithets, are sufficiently employed in address to require
a separate fonn for this purpose. Hence the participle^ pronovKj artieje, and
uimeral have no distinct Yoc. ; and in respect to other words which 9re de-
clined, the following observations may be made.

a. JkTeucuIimet at Dec I. are commonly names or epithets of persoaa, and
l^ierefore fonyi the Yoo. sing.

fi. In Dec. 11^ the distinct form of the Yoc. is commonly used, except for
euphony or rhythm ; as,^n ^/X«f, Z ^i>.»s^ my friend I my friend! Ar. Kub.
1 167. ' a>;x0( Z UinXgLi A. 189. *HiXii$ rt F. 277. To avmd the 4ouhIe
I, Si0;, god (like deus in Latin), has, m classic vrriters, no distinct Yoc. ; yet
0M St. Matth. 27. 46.

y. In Dec. III., few words, except proper names and personal appellative^
and epithets, have a distinct Yoc. ; and even in those which have, tiie Nom.
i9 sometimes employed in its stead, especially by Attic writers ; thus, ^Sl trSra
xtfXi Ar. Ach. 971 ; but *^n viXtg Soph. Phil. 1213. Ai»» Soph. Aj. 89 ; but
*ft ^<X * A7«f lb. 629. In many words of this declension, the Yoc. cannot
be formed without such a mutilation of the root as scarcely to leave it inteUi-
^ble($$ 63, 101).



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CH. I.J HISTORY. 121

^892. An tnspection of the table (If 5) will likewise
show, that, in regular declension,

*.) The Nom. sing* mase. and (ezc^t in Dec I.) fern, always ends in f

fi.) The Dat. mng. always ends in $, either written in the line or subscribed.

y.) The Ace sing, (except in neuters of Dec. m.) always ends in v, or its
corresponding vowel a (4 50) ; aiid the Ace. plnr. maac. and fern, is always
formed by adding g to the Ace. sing. (§§ 34, 58).

h) The Gen. pins', always ends in m.

^.) In Dec I. and 11., the affixes are all opem (i. e. begin with a vow^
and iH oonstttute a distinct syllable In Dec III., three of the affixes, r, 9,
and n^ are dote (i. c begin with a eonmmantX and of these the two first,
hanng no vowd, must unite with the last syllable of the root*

^.) In the singular of Dec. III., the direct cases neut, and the Yoc. masc
and fem., have no affixes.

NoTR. It foOoMTS, from nos. i and ^, that words of Dec. I. and 11. are
faruyWdne (par, equal), that is, have the same number of syllables ic all
their cases ; but wofds of Dec. III. are hnftaruyUabic, that is, have more
sylhibles m some of their cases than in others.

3. The Table (U 6) exhibits the affixes as resolved into
their two classes of Elements ; T. Flexible Endings, which
are tignijicant additions, marking distinctions of number, case,
and gender ; and II. Connecting Vowels, which are euphonic
in their origin, and serve to unite the flexible endings with the
root For farther illustration, see the following sections upon
the history of Greek declension.

E. History of Greek Declension.

§ S3* The early history of Greek declension is beyond the period not
merely of written records, but even of tradition. It can be traced, therefore,
only by the way-marlcs which have been left npon the language itself, and by
the aid of comparative philology. The fbllowing view of the subject has
much evidence in its support, and serves to explain the general phenomena of
Greelc declension, and of the use of the numbca^ and cases.

Greek declension was progresdve. At first, the simple root was used, as in
some languages even at the present day, without any change to denote num-
ber iir case ; thus, i^^y fi»h, ywr, imiitere, whether one or more were spoken
of. Then the plural number was marked, by affixing to the root i, the sim- ^
pie root, of course, now becoming nngular, as each new formation limits the
^se of prior forms ■ thus.

Singular, Ix^i, fidi. Plural, Ix^* /«*«•

yvr, vulture^ yv^t, tuthiret.

The next step was to make a separate form, to express th« wdtreel, as
distinguished fh>m the direct reUtions. This was done by aimezing i to the
root, and this form became phiral by adding one of the oommon signs of the
pharal, » We hava now the disthicttoa of case ; thus,

Digitized by VjOOQIC



122 <»ECI«E2)i310N. [bOOK H



^ECLZJ^mon,




Singular.
Direct Case, ix^v


Pluwl.


Indirect Gate, Ix'^ut




yuvi


yvm^



- ^ S 4 • Each of those cases was afterwards subdivided. (A.) From
the Direct Case were separated, in the mascniine and feminiw. genders, twi
new cases, the one to express the subject^ and the other the lUrect object^ of an
action, i. e. the Nbminativef and AccuatxHoe ecues.

llie Nominative was formed by adding $, as &e sign of ^the tmi jeei, to tka
old Dii*ect forms ; tbus^ Sing. Ix^^h yw, Plur. Ix^^^t yvwu^

The Accmatwe was formed by adding tq the root, as the sign of tbe ^^r^
obfect, 9t which in the plural took one of th/9 Qommon signs of the i4ural, t ;
thus, Smg. ix^vyt yvfPj Plur. ix^h Y^*fi ^i hy the euphonic ctuwge of t
into its corresponding vowel (§§ 58, 63, R.), Sing, yvret, Plur. tx^^»t,
yvTas,

(B.) Prom the Indirect Case was separated a new ease to express the
ntf^edhej as distmguished from the ol^jecHve relations, i. e. the OenHive, This
was formed by affixing ^, or commonly, with a euphonic vowel, «^w In tha
phiral, this took tfaa plural affix » ; thus, fSv. But by the laws of ouf^ony,
which afterwards prevailed, neither S, nor ^v could end a word (J 63).
Therefore, S either was changed to $, or was dropped, or assumed the vowel i
(commonly written with y paragugic iv, § 67. 3) ; and a^v became »t* by the
absorption of the ^ (^, perhaps, first passmg into r, as in the singular, then r
bebig changed mto its corresponding vowel i, and this absoHted). Ttuia «^
became «# , «, or ^Siv ; and «3ir, i»«.

The old Indirect Case remained as a Datha, witkont diaoge, exeapt tliat a
new plural was formed by annexing the dative sign 4 (§ 83) to the Komioa-
tive plural.

§ 8 «!• The plural had now throughout a new form, but the old form
had 80 attached itadf to various names of incessant oso, that in most of the
dialects it was still preserved. But these household plurals, which could not
be shaken off, would be principally such as referred to objects double by natnre
or custom, as the eyes, hands, feet, shoea^ wings, &e. Hence this £r>nn oaina
at length to be iq>propriated to a ^tai sense, though in the time of Uomer
this restriction of its use seems not as yet to have been fully made. IIm
simple form of die root was likewise retained in the smgular as a caae of ad-
dress ( Vocative), in words in which there was occasion for such a form, and
the laws of euphony allowed it. In the plural the Vocative had never an>



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