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form distinct fVom the Nominative. We have now the three numbers, anc
the five cases, which, with the euphonic dianges already mentSened, appeal
thus.

• Smg. Nom. -» hx^t yi*t (y^)

(Jen. 'H ix^*i ytHtU

Dat. •» *x^^* yvTs •

Voo, ♦ !x^

Vkr. N.V. ^ Ix^f ywt

Ace. Hif hc^^ y^«i



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CH. 1 * HISTORY. ISfc

Dual Da*, -i Ix^St yftn

For the sake of completeness, ^e have added in the table above two later
modifications; viz., the common shorter Dat. plur., formed by dropping i
(unless one chooses to fbrm it from the Dat. sing, by inserting the plnral sign
r) ; and the Indirect Case dual prolonged by inserting «, after the analogy of
the Gen. sing, and plu^.

^ HO. We have exhibited above the primitive nude declension, now
cilled the third. Bat snbeeqfaently *wo ether modes of declension sprang np,
having oonneethig vowels, which united the ileidble endings to the root ; liM
one having «, now cidied the §ecomd dedenslen ; and the other, •, now odM
the firtL These dedensbns dioee rather to drop than to change the final ^ of
the Gen. shig., apparently to avoid oonftision with the Nom. ; and likewise to
FHain the old Dh«ct Case as a Nom. plur., which became afterwards distiiH
giiished from the dual by a difi^crent mode of contraction, its more finqaent ose
leading to precession* In all the affixes of these declensions in which two
▼owels came together, contraction natwally took plaee m one or another of iito
forms ; and in the Dat. plur. a shorter form became the more ooomon 000^
made either by drapping < in»i the longi^ form, or by folding tite plnral sign $
to the Dat. sing. For « in the Yoc., inatoad of •, see § 28, We give as an
nple of DoD. II., i Xiyt, word, and of Dec L, ^ r«/M#f, ttmoard.



Sing. Nom.


X#y-#-f,


X#Vf


vm/At-m-tt


rm/iUH


Gen.


Xiy^~4i


Xiytm


mmfti-m^


rmfum


Dat.


Xiy-t't,


Xiyf


T«^|.«.4,


^#^


Ace.


Xiy^-r,


Xiyw


rmfiti-m-f.


rm/»m9


Voc


Xiy^


Xiyt


rm/ii-m.


r«/J«


Bw. N. v.


Xiy-^*


Mym


vmi^i-M^


Vfl^CMU


Gen.




Xiym


rmtM-d-m,


rmfiuSp


Dirt.


X»r4^;


Xiytm, •«#


«Mw-4-M»,


TrnfMUfi^^MH


▲00.


Xiy.*^,


Xiym


«W^*^«-#f»


wmftmf


DualN.A.V.x;y^.i,


Xiy.


T«/*'-«-i,


rttfiU


G.D.


X«7-«-if,




rtt/u-m'tf.


vafiititf



In the Nom. and Aoc. sing. <of these dedensionf, the primitive dhfeet form^
without f or t appended, waa tometimee retained ; as, Nom. &vi^rd, twirird
($ 95. 2 ; Qompare the Latin mauta, pogta), i - Aec vm^, U, 'AS» (§ 97). So
the neuton ri, ixx$, mM, Uum, H (§ 97).

•^ ST. We have thus hr treated only of the fnateuline gender. In the
nmOtt (wbitk ooeoKS 011^ in the second and third declensions), since things
without lift htv<e no volvotary action, the distinction of subject and object io
obviously of far less consequence, and therefore in this gender the separation
of the Nom., Ace., and Yoc. was never made. The place of these three cases
«contin led to be sappHed by a shigle Direct Ctee, which in the singular of
Dec. in. was the simple root, and in die sinyrular of Dec II. ended in tt (the
9 being either euphonic, or more probably having the same foree as in the
Jop«, «nd mivfcing the otyeetive character of the gender). The plnral has the
same form in hoth declensions, simply appending, instead of the old 1, 4 (which,
|W t}ie corresponding vowel of » (§ 50), is more objective in its character), and
Vrithout a connecting vowel. We give, as examples, rt ^dm^v (poetic), ttar,
«tr fkr* tlL, and « i #t;»«», Jkfy of Dec. II.



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124 DECLENSION. [bOOK |I

Sing. N. A. y. i^^v m-w

Gen. imu^'H 0v»'4tf

Dat. idftfV'i rvx-y

Plur. N. A. y. ImM^v-m * ' rv»^
Gen. tmmfu-mf w^x-mv

Dat. ia»^v-ffi 9V»^*$f

Dual N. A. y. ^«»^ff.s r^x.«r

G. D. %«itt^V'»n rtf»-Mf

§ 8 8* The distinction of sabject and object is less striking in the yew-
^iM-e thaii m the masculine ; and benoe, in the Jim dedmision, wliere then
««K no nonters with which a distinction must be maintained, Uv* feminine is
^ttinguished from the masculine by not appending the suUfective $ in the
Num. sing. (§ 84 , and by retaining the form »$ in the Gen. sing., as tha
reason for preferring the shorter form does not now exist (§ 86). The « of
this ending is absorbed in the preceding «, unless one chooses to consider the
t as here appended without the euphonic vowel (§ 84. B). In all the other
eases, the feminine has precisely the same form as the masculine. Thus, i

Sing. Kom. nM-i, 0»t£ Flor. Nom. 9m»i

Gen. ^Mi-d-Hf 0»mt Gen. 9»tm *

Dat. fsu-ti-T, 0Mtf Dat. ^tumg

w^Loc r»4-«-», r»MB» Ace eiudg

For the ).n<ee8sion which has taken place so extendvely in the singular of
Dec. I., see ^ 93.

§ 8 0v In the earlier Greek, the prevalent mode of avoiding hiatus was
not, as afWw%i js, by contraction, but by the insertion of a strong' breathing
or aspirate omr^mant (cf. § 117). Of these the most prominent- appeaia tk
have been the digamma (§ 82. T), And, although this has disappeared ttom
the language, yet it has left other consonants which have dther> taken its
place, or idikh were used in like manner with it. The insertioa of these
consonants, to^y^ether with different modes of contraction, has given an especial
variety of form, in ihejirst and teeomd dedenshm, to the Dative tingular, which,
as the primitive induct case (§ 83), originally performed the offices of both
the Genitive and the Dative. Thus, we find, .

1.) The I appended with the hisertion of ^ the natural successor of the
digamma. This form is Epic, and from its being used as both Gen. and Dat.,
and sometimes fiven supplying the place of these cases hi the plural, is evi-
dently of great antiquity. £. g.

Gen. Sing. Dec. I. i| litiif i O. 580, /3. 8 ; iri n»fip9 O. 300 : Deo. II.
kvi irm^^akip H. 268 ; in vtfri^tv ». 83 ; Jkwi wXmri^ irrvi^tp N. 588
IXiip ftXurm rtix*» O. 295 ; ^r' eturi^n A. 44.

Dat Sing. Deo. L Up fi'mp ^Mwmt X. 107 ; if** Jim fmsptftimfn ). 407,
I. 618; iri^efi 11. 734; S^p* t. 238: Dec IL wm^* mvript M. 802 ; lir*
hiiopv N. 308 ; ^ii^tv H. 366.

Gen. and Dat Plur. Dec II. iTrri Un^viipi wXnr^f P. 69S, T. 897, I.
705 ; A^' Urtiipiv ^ 134 ; i^* Urti^tv r. 145 ; I'x^iifiv /». 414.

NoTBB. «. Tlie ^ likewise appears m the Datwe j)htral of a few wordi ot
the third dedauiom, v^ere it seems to have been inserted for the sak) of



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^H. 1.] HISTORY.

lengthening tbe pceeeding syllable ; aa, fi^ir^ ^ fixr S^^'t, These fixrms were
also used as both Gen. and Dat.; thus. Gem. »««•* S^i^^i A. 452; w^i^B'*..,
•X*^P" B* 107 ; ««■• 0vti^trft9 S, 214 ; ^il % rnf^trfi* £. 41 : Dat. rvv
;;^irf< IL 811 ; ;^>rfi A. 474 (cf. 479), X. 139.

fi. Tlie following forms in -f '(0 require special notice ; (a) U^m^ipv t. 59,
ard »«rvXii)«»«^/» i. 433, whidi are formed as firom nouns at Dec. II., while
the themes in ase are Ux^^ ^ ^^ ^*) ^^^ xtfrvXn^^t of Dec IIL ; (b)
i^rtV^i K. 156, and *E^ii3cr^y (probably the correct form for *E(ifi$v(rp¥ I.
572, Horn. Cer. 350, Hes. Th. 669), which appear to have plural forms^
though singnlar in then* use ; (e) vmufn, an irregiilar plural form for imufs, N.
700 ; also used as Gen. 11. 246, &c ; (<i) the Epic adverb Tf «, with m^,
k» 38, which appears to be an old Dat. sing, from ft,

y. Compare with these forms in .^i, the lAtin Datives tUn, nbi, nobiSf
wbit, deabui, aermoitibuSf rebus, and the Latin adverbs of place in -bi ; as, tbi,
aUbij vtriJbi, from if, aUus, vter. The forms in .n^« when used as Datives are
fliten written incorrectly with an i subscript {-i^p, § 25. «), as though ^i had
been added to the complete Dat. form. For the » paragogic, see § 66. «.

§ 0O« 2.) The I appended with the inserticm of i^. This form became
adverbial (chiefly poetic), denoting the place where; as, •1*»^ at home, «{XX«-
S«, dmuhare, rnvri^t, t^t^ KpfivBoBi. It was mostiy confined to the eeeond
deeleiuioH, and, in the few instances in which it was made from nouns of other
declensions, it still imitated the forms of this. Traces of its old use as the
Indirect Case still remun in Homer ; thus, Gen. ov^avoBt r^^, ss v^i w^cifv,
T. 3, *l)uiBt w(i 0. 561, fiH^t w(i C* 3^ ; I>at. Mti^i^t I. 300, •. 370.

3.) The I appended with the insertion of %. This form appears only in
the Epic i}^i (improperly written by some ^x** ^* ^^* y)> ^^ ^ advcobial
Dative f, where, A. 607.

4.) The < ooatracted with the preceding • in the seoond dedension Into h
(§ 82). This simpler mode of contraction now scarcely appears except in
adverbial Datives; as, «7»m, at home (but «7»^, to a house; cf. in Latin, domi
and dbuMt), rs^ *UBfUi^ t^ tvt. Yet U *UB/»m S^fm, Fr. 209; i§
n^tfif r<M Inscr. Ciet. ; tm ^/mj Inscr. Boeot.

5.) The common form, in which the i is absorbed by the preceding vowel;
as, •-« ^ t^ f] thus, ^(fy «&^ 'l^^/^f'

^01* The forms of the Genitive in ^tv or ^» (§ 84. B) remained
*io the eomaon language only as adverbs, denoting the place whence; as,
9i««dt», from homcj ilxx^^it, mvroBtf, 'Ad^vffStf. As examples of their use
as decided Genitives, may be cited l| KWvfAn^t 0. 304, V^ «v^f«di» 0. 19,
ir* «^«»£^» A. 18; and the pronominal forma ifai!^*, rsi^v, l^», which
tnn ooenr in Attic poets.



11 •



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ISMT DECi.BI«BIO^. [book II

CHAPTER II-

DECLENSION OF NOUKg.

L The First Declension.

[For the affixes and paiadifrnt , .aee f IT 5 -a]

^08. For the original affixes of Dec. I., which all had a
as a connecting vowel, see §§ 86, 88. In most of these affix.
es, a either became part of a diphthong, or else, either through
contraction or the force of analogy, became long. Short a
however remained in the singular^

1.) In the direct cases of femininesy whose characteristic
was a, a double consonant, or Xk ; as, yXwaaa^ ylmaaup (^7),
diipii^ thirsty ^o|fli, opUiioUy qI^u^ root^ afnHn^ earUesL

Notes. «. Add a few feminines in -Xa, and some in -tm, particulaily^^mdle
ap/>ellativet ; as, wmukd and mveiv-mukSLj rest, txt^fA, viper^ fti^tfAnt, eore, iUTt
fdj mutrets, kUtvd, HoneMs; likewise axmvB'm, thom,

i3. Add, also, many ieminines in -m pure and .^«. These have mostly a
diphthong in the penult, and may aU be recognized by the accent, except the
proper names Kip^o, Hvp^M, and the numeral ftiiy one. The principal classes
are, (a) Polysyllables in -cm and .m«, except abstracts in -ua from verbs tn
.^S0 ; as, JiX^B-uSy irm^, cA>m£, good-wiU, fittriXuit, qweeM, but /B«r«Xt«li; mym»
iirom $ttf 1X160 • (b) Female designatioM in -tftmi at, ^^4kXrftSi, fimak mttai^
dan: (c) DitsyflaUes and some pdysyllabitf names of plaoes in -4m«; as,
^r«, goid motiitt, 'UrUuit' (d) Words in -w*; as, /luTSit Jfy' (*) HMt
words in .^ whose penult is lengthened by a diphtttoag (tzospl mm), by S^ or
by ;/ ; as, fUx»4(A, tword, yi^Sfi, bridge^ Ilvffi.

y* The accent commonly shows tlia quantiQr of final • in the theme.
Thus, in all proparoanfttmes and properupomenaf it must be ahort by the general
laws of accent ; while, by a spedal law of the dedeoslon. It is long in all
octytones, and in all /lomtytonet in •«, Gea. -mt, ttceepc tha time tteatioiisd in

Note /3.

2.) In tlie Vocatioe of nouns in -tfic^ and of genttUs and
vompound verbals in ^17; ; as vavtijg (5[ 7), JWu^^, ScjftkUm^
Uf^arjg^ Persian, yfwfiiiQtig (y?, earthy fUTQiio^ to measure)^
geometer^ fiVQonwXrig (fivgov^ perfume^ nwUw^ to sell) ^ perfumer ^
Voc. vavia^ 2%vSiiy flfqaa (but UsQafig^ Perses^ a man^s name,
Voc. niqori)^ yftofihiqa^ fiVQonmla*

^ 03. In the singular, long a passed, by precession, into
fly unless precedod by ^, t, t», or po (§ 29) ; as, vavri;;, rctittj^
Aiffetdtig^ AtQtldijv^^AT^Hdriy ykbluo'igy ykulooj,, ti^ij, tifi^g^ Tf/iijV'



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OH. 2.J FIRST DECLENSION. ] St

butt ttt^MBpf trnfii^y auti^ OKiag^ &v^i^ Siif&p (51 7), idiiJiy it ea
HiffiSy need^ X9^^y color,

NoiB. Long a likewise remains in the pores, «■««, grois, rr^a, jxirck, yvM^
fieldf r<»vc, gourd, tm^vd, walnut-tree, iKaS, olive-tree^ "Setv^txadf Nau$icaa ; in
tiie W(HXls, mXmxif war-ay, itri/S^*, day after a feast, ^ttavldXd, trofy-iprmg,
y*99m$dtf nMe ; and in some proper names, particulariy those which are Doric
or foreign ; as, *Af)(0/ts)c, a4«E, <I><x«^iix«, At^piidf, TX£f, ^vkXdg • and it
became n after ^ or (0 in the words Zifti, neck, xa^n, maiden, xif^nt cheek, Jt^^^fi,
pap, fmi, stream ; in some proper names, as Ttiffit * and in oompoonds of ^1-
r^, to meaturetf as y%mfiir^9i$ (§ 92. 2). In some words, usage fluotnatos
between long or short « and n ; as, 'A^arr^f Cyr. vi. 1. 31, 'A^icrmf lb. y. 1.
4, iruni and n/m, w^vp.'td and w^vfAvn*

§ 94* Contracts. A few nouns, in which the cbamcter*
istic is a or e, and feminine adjectives in -(& and -017, are con-
tracted ; as, fivda pvoiy ^Egfiidq ^Egpr^^ fioQSug fio^faf (ff being
here doubled after contraction), avxen iri'xij, fig-tree^ ZQ^^^^
Xifwjn^ dinXoti SmX^. For the rules, see ^§ 33, 36, 37 ; for .the
paradigms, fl^ 7, 18.

DIALKCnO FORMS.

§ 0«S. I. In tha affixes of this declension, the Dork dialect retains
throughout the original « ; while in the singular, the Ionic has n in most of
thtM ihitdB hi trliich the Attk and Common dialects have long «, afid even in
some in which they have short «, particularly derirfttives iii -iMt and "tSt
( ^ 44) ; thus, Dor. n/^a, ri(Mis<, rs/A^ rtfiat • Ion. ^Ksn, fntnSi ^»in, r«w •
Ep. JkXn^uMt ivwXaifit New Ion. aXnd^niii, fiin, for mXvi^ui, iSTk^iA, /AtiL,

S. ih ilrofds In ^f, the primitive Direct Case hi 41 is somethntt rebtmed by
Hanwr attd some of the other poets as Nom. (§ 86), fof the sUkd of thA
metre or euphony : as, • «vrc Qvi^rd B. 107; i^nrirA Nirriv^ B. 356; ^n-
ritra Zit/f A. 175 ; fia^vfitnTtt Xi/^wt Pind. N. 3. 92 ; iv»rk M«y«Xx«f Theoc.
8. SO. 80 in ftminines in .«>, th6 poets sometimes retain the old short a in
the Voc. : as, fCftfM, piXfi T. 130 : *n Ai»«, Sapph. 66 (44). On the other
hand, Mvn Ap. Rh. 8. 886, fhr At^rA, Voc of AiMmf.

8. The old fnttttw aMxes^ «« tod dm, whidi dten oo6ur hi thi Epic writ-
ers, were oontntotod at follows :

«.) In the Anit dialect, they were regularly contracted into and m, with
the hisertion of s after a consonant (5 35) ; as, 'Ar^uhf (*ATfiii0) 'Av^tiiw,
Ar^uitUn (*Ar^ii0«ry) 'Arfuiiat*' B«^i«« B«(i«, 'K^fuitt O. 214, IS/ifUkitt A.
165, 'Ar;»B. 461.

/3.) Ib tiie Doric', d aheorbed the fallowing rowel, and the affiites bM«in0 d
and S» ($ 45. 1 ) ; aa, 'Ar(tlita§ *Ar($!Zd, *Ar^uhutf 'At^uHv,

y.) In the Attie, d» and dmt were contracted into «v (by precession from m,
h% 28, 29) and »» ; as, *Ar^itim9 ('Ar^ i/J«») "Ar^tth»u, *Ar^uiat9 *Ar^i£9.

^ OO. 4. In the Aeeu^aHve of matdkEnee, the Ionic oft«n changes t
tol, tiie old oonnectiiig vowel « now becoming • (S 40. /I) ; wm, 'U^^Mi
Hdt i. 11, pi. Zifxirtit lb. Ill, for ^i^irorif*, h^riTdg.

5. The dative plural in Homer commonly ends in .iir<, or .ft before a



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12^ SECOND DECLENSION. [BOOK II«

vowd (wfiJch may be referred to apostrophe). There are, however, a few in
Btances of -pf before a consonant (^Jj »«/ A. 1 79, <rir(tit w^it q. 279, &c.)
and two, where we even find -«if, which ought, perhaps, to be changed to -91
(ixraif M. 284, ^i»7s c. 119). An old contraction into -cr/, instead of -tit^t,
remained m the common language in adverbs of placd ; as, Ilxara/ari, ai
PlatatBf B^u^&ffu

6. For the Epic Gen. in -i^iy, see § 91. For the Epic Datives in ^«, Sif
and 'Xh see §§ 89, 90. For the Doric and .£olic forms of the Aoc plnr.,
*ee § 45. 5.

7. Antique, Ionic, and Doric forms are sometimes ibund in Attic writers
particularly,

«.) The Dor. Gen. in -«, firom some nouns in .«;, mostly proper names ;
as, i(9i^0^^msi fovsier^ Tmfifuctt, KMkXiat • Gen. •«vi^43ii^a, Tmfifvaf K«X-
Xm» So all contracts in 4^^ ; as, fi»ff»i, G. fi»f^a (^ 7).

i3.) The Ion. Gen. in .i«, ih)m a few proper names in -iif ; as, 0mXngf
rn^ns • Gen. 0cXi«, Tn^m,

yJ) The old Dat. phir. in .«i^i, which is frequent in the poets. So^ in Fla-
tOb rixfatn Leg. 920 e, hf»i^ettri Phsedr. 276 b.

li. -The Second Declension,

[For the affixes and par&dlgms, see Sf 86, 87 ; ITf 6, 6, 0, 10.]

$ 97* The flexible endings of the Nominative and Accusa
ave singular are wanting (§ 86),

1.) In the theme of the article ; thus, o for og.

2.) In the neuter of the article and of the pronouns SXlog,
WTog, ixslvog, and og ' thus, to, ailo^ aito, ixiivo^ o, for rof,

Note. In crasis with the article (§ 39), and in oompoeitiQn with the pro-
nouns vMt and riets^ the neuter «wr« more frequently becomes mMv • thus^
rahrit and rmbrif for ro ai/ri • r«i«tfr«v and «-0m«»t«, rf§Sm and r»wtvr»*

8.) Frequently in the Acckisatioe of the Attic declension
{% 9S)» particularly in ^ eo><:, dazwi, ^ aXw^, threshing-floor^ 13
K^fiCk)^, ^ KoJff, ^ Tew<:. 6 "Af^wg ' thus, Acc. r€«f and vtm (fl 9)i
f«, *^^w. So, in the adjectives ap^ij^wc (IT 1*7), avanUiag, fidl^
n^ioXQBtog, competent,

§98. Contracts. If the characteristic is o, ?, or o, it
may be contracted with the affix according to the rules (§§ 33-
37). See ayriQiwg (H 17), oaxiov, voog (U 9). The contract do-
clension in -wg and -o»v, from -aog and -aov, is termed by gram-
marians the Attic Declension from its prevalence among Attic
writers, although it is far from being peculiar to them (§ 7).

Notes. «. The number of words belongiriir to tlw Attic declension it
unalL In some of them, the uncontracted form dues iioi tifcur, m ocean



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CH. 2.] THIRD DECLE

only with somo change. Thus, for kutyaot, s^

y§M, the original fonn of ynt earthy and

iuiywtt %yyu»s) we find the extended forms ktmyafi"'

yu»s» Some of them are variously declined. See §5 123. y, 124. y,

$. If the diaracteristic is long «, i is inserted after the contraction (§ S9)
thus, 9dif (jMif) 9Utf (^ 9), 9«tw (y«) »u», vo^ {yf) vi^, utit (nv») vmmt • PhUW
§m»i {yif) vtff &C.

7. In the Attic declension, the Norn. plur. neut. is contracted, like the
Khe caseB, into t» ; thus, myn^^ (f 17), as if from Ayrifd-t-m, a ftrm with
the o^nnecting voweL See § 87.

DIALECTIC FORMS.

"^ OO. 1. The affix of the Geo. img. «•• (§ 86), which was com«
monly contracted to «v, or, in the iBolic and stricter Doric, to m (§ 44. 4),
waft often prolonged by the .poets, especially the Epic (sometimes even by the
Tragic in Ijnric portions), to m«; thus, witrov^Xttet^icu B. 145 ; ^•/^•u v>pn^»i»
«. 126; J* UfM4* «. 330; ^%o» Pmd. O. 2. 37 ; S^tct* lb. 6. 60 ; fi,*y»Xf
Aif Ale 1 (20) ; l(x»/*i*M§ Id. 37 ; «'«r«^«r«...'Ay«4r» Theoc 1. 68 ; /««-
km»Z ;^/^r«M Id. 4. 18. The Epic genitives Ilcrc*;* (A. 327, &c.) and Iln^
ukuM (S, 489) are made by a single contraction, witii the osoal insertion of
« (§ 98. ^), from the original forms IIiriM, nnnJjU*. The Epic dual forms
in Mr», which alone are used by Homer, arise frinn a mere poetic d'mbling of
' (§ 48).

2. Some proper names in -h have the Gen. sing, in Herodotus, aft»r the
analogy of Dec. I.; as, E^«iV«f, K^mVi** viil 122, but K^mw L 6; BAmm
IT. 1 60 ; KXtftft^irw Y. 32. The Gen. plur. forms rirrMrv (Hdt. L 94) and
Tu^imv (Id. iL 36), if genuine^ may be referred to the Ionic insertion of t
(§ 48. 1).

3. The old Dat plnr. in .Mr< is common in the poets of aU classes, and m
Ionic prose. So, even in Flato, ^»irt Leg* 955 e.

4. For the Epic Gen. in .0^9, see § 91. For the Ei^c Datives hi ^< and
•^4, and the oLd Dat. in .m, see §§ 89, 90. For the Doric and .folic f^irms

of the Ace plur., see § 45. 5.

5. Contracts in -tvs from .««# occur in Homer, though rarely ; as, w»t
»..240 (elsewhere w«f). In words in .i«f, -•#?, he sometimes protracts the •
to u (§ 47. N. , and sometimes employs synizeeis (§ 30).

III. The Third Declension.

[For the affixes and paradigms, see ff 85, 87; W 5, 6, II - 16.]

^ lOO* In this declension, the Nominative, though regard-
ed as the theme of the word, seldom exhibits the root in its
simple, distinct form. This form must therefore be obtained
from the Genitive, or from some case which has an open af
fix (§§ 79, 82. e).

Rkmarks. 1. Special attention must be given to the euphcmk: changes
which occur in those cases which have either cloae aflUxes, or no affixes ; that
b in the Nonunative and Vocative singular, the Dative plural, and the Ao-



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t9D TBIRO DECLENSION. [bOOK 11

cttsativc abgnlar in •». For these changes, see in general $$ 51, 55, 57 -
59, 63.

2. Tlie flexible ending of the Aoc sing. In this, as in the oflier two de-
clensions; seems to have been originally ». But the v was so extensively
dianged into m in aooordanee with § 63. R, that the m beeauie the prevailing
affix, and was often osed even after a vowd. It will thurefure be understood
that the affix is «, if no statement is made to the contrary. When the affis
is V, the root receives the same changes as in the theme ($ 1 10).

W(Mrds of the third deel^usioH are diTideJ aocoftiing to the
characteristic, into Mutes, Liquids, LtquiD^MifTES, and Pures.

A. Mutes.

§ 1<^1« Labials and Palatals. These are alt either
masculine or feminine, and in none is t&e Voc formed except
yvyii (N. y).

Notes. «. Cor the >^ and ( in the theme and Dat |fl., see § 51.

$• In S^tl, the root to ^e'T** ^ *''<'"* ^""^ ^ wMch x Nmaiito, 5 be-
oones r, aeoordiniir to § 6S. In « JkXmwnl^ -tiMf, /Mr, tbn UmI vowel of th?
root is lengthened in the thene. Cempaie $ lit. «.

y. Ft/Mf, wamoHj wife, which is irregular in having its theme after the form
of Dec I., and abo in its aooentnatioii, is thnt deeliaed : S. K. ytnf, O. yv-
9m»itt D. yvjmmii A. ymmsuMj Y. tywmi • P. N. y »w ri W t#^ G. ytMutuh, D. yp^
mtJ^/j A. yvtmsmmt • D. N. yvtrnTxt^ 6. ywmmstv. Hie oM gnamarians have
alsd cited from Condc writers the ferms, A. ^vmI^ P. V. ymmi, A. yvwdf, ac-
cording to Dec. L

§ lOSI, Masculine and Feminine Linguals. These
lose their characteristic in ihe theme and Dat. pi. (§ 55), in the
Ace. sing., when formed in p (§§ 63. R., IGO. 2), and in the
Voc. {§ 63).

NoTRS. «. If a palatal is thus brought before #, it unites with it in ^
(§ 51), as (&*m»TSy itaxi) Si^al (f 11), h (yvxri) fv^, night \ if to the end
of a word, it is dropped (§ 63), as (&9a»r, *(»«*) afy«. This distinct Voc.,
however, is used only in addressing a god ; otherwise, 2 &fti^ (or, hj frequent
crasis, Zfml).

$. For the change of • when brought before the affixes t ani », or to tljs
end of a word, see §§ 112. «, 113. 3.

y. Baritones in wr and -ut form the Aoc sing, in both « and y, the latter

being the more common affix ; as, x»(*t (T 1 >)* 4 '('«« «^>^) i* A ^e»t^ hird;

Aoc x*f'^* *^^ X^i" (^ <^ name of a goddess, the fbrm in ^ is always

used, and sometimes, also, in poetry ; but, otherwise,, the fonn in -t, yet aee

H. Gr. iii. 5. 1 6), i^n and poet, t^tim^ i^vtv and poet. d^»r^«. So also, xXwf

i yi>^tt^ laughter^ and the compounds of vvt, foot ; thus, Aoc »Xiii*

', yikmrm and yik^tf, 0/Jf«-#J« and O^ii'rn* (^ U), Ji<r^m and >/•

17). Add • 1^, /bM, Aec l^nr^w and rare poetic fom f^. Sc

in rsMlved by the poete into rii>, dwy hwm Aoc wdTf, Ap. Rh.



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CM. 2. J MUTES. — LIQUIDS. 131

4. 697. In ozytooes, the accent served to (ireveat the lingual from fidliog
away.

§ 103. Neuter Linguals. In these, the characteristic
iS always t, which, in the theme, is commonly dropped after
/4«i, but otherwise becomes ^ or ^ (^ 63) ; as, ow/ick, (pdtg^ ftsgag^
lnui^ (^ 11), tidog (IF 22), from the roots atifiai-^ qport-, jce^orr-,
i*7r<»T-, tldot-m

Note. The r is also dropped in ^kcXi, /MXtrs§y Aoiuy ; in ymk», yukmnrtt^
milk, which also drops x ; and in yivv^ ycf«r0s, knee^ and io^Vy ii^mrttt V^o^t
vvhith then diange « to t; (compare § 113). In the poetic ^/ak^ HftttTot,
dty, r is changed into ^ after /mk ; m& \A tis^, Ifiarsu wtOeTf and fjuif, nus.
c iiy JlUh, r is changed into ^, and « into *. S«e § 123. y.

§ I04» Contract Linguals. A few linguals drop the
characteristic before some or ail of the open affixes, and are
then contracted ; thus, xXflSfg (xiHig) xlel^, xlBtSag (xlstag)
yXfyg' iCfgarog xi(jaog xigug, xignia xigaa xiga (IT 11) ; to rigag^



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