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(/» from variation of root ; as. Dor. t- for r- (rw, «?, r«, ri, Lat. tu, ha,
tibi, te, § 70.. 2) ; JEol F- for the rough breathing {Fi^u, foT, ft • Lat «-:
nut, gibi, k) ; Dor. *S/a., JEoL and Ep. «^^, for i^*. {'A/^Ut »f*fiuf, &c) ;
Mo\. and Ep. i^^. for 'Cf/t- (Sft/ttf, &c.) ; T>or. >^- and ^, iEol. «^f>, for r^
(y^ip, ypij ^it, if^t, ««-^;. See Table, and 5. below.

5. We add a few references to authors for the dialectic and poetic forms
iytit* A. 76 (used by Horn, only before vowels), Ar. Ach. 748 -Meg. , Ar.
I>y8. 983 (Lac. , Theoc. 1. 14, iEsch. P^. 931, J^pym (==Jfy«yr Ck)r. 12,
i^ymr Ar. Ach. 898; if^U K. 124, Hdt. i. 126. l^i?* A. 174, i^tZ A. 88,
Hdt. vii. 158, fuu A. 37, Hdt. vu, 209, if^iftp A. 525, Eur. Or. 986. ifn^p
Sapph. 89; Ifiip Theoc. 2. 144, Ar. Av. 930; ifcUf Hdt. ii 6, •«^if Ar.
Lyj«. 168, &fAfcts <^. 432, Theoc. 5. 67; ^tfiu^p l\ 101, if^t'mp E. 258,
'£fcSp Theoc 2. 158, ^^tf^imp Ale. 77; Ufap A. 147, ^^r» or ^i^tr, X. 344,
Soph. <Ed. T. 39, 42, 103, Ar. Av. 386, *£fi7, Theoc. 5. 106, if^fu A. 384,
Theoc. 1. 102, &f^f,„ N. 379, Ale 86 (15), i^^.iriy Ale. 91 (78); ifsUt
e. 211, Hdt. i. .30. ^fidi T. .172, 'afjti Ar. Lv.«<. 95, 5^^ A. 59. Sapph.
93 (13). Theoc. 8. 25 ; .^» Cor. 16, pi\- A. 418, U. 99 (y^a?), m E. 219,



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CH. 5.] PERSONAL. 157

wTf X. 88 : Tu Ar. Lys. 1188, Sapph.!. 13, Twri E. 485, r»v Cor. 2; n» '

A. 396 Hdt. i. 8, etTt T. 137, ri5 T. 206, Hdt. i. 9, ^i^i* A. 180, Eur
Ale. 51, rtM 0. 37, 468, rtZf Theoc. 2. 126, nm Theoc. II. 25 ; tm A.
28, Hdt. i. 9, rtU J. 619 (not in 11.), Hdt. v. 60 (Inscr.), Ar. A v. 930, r/»
Theoc. 2. 11, Find. O. 10. 113 ; ri Theoc. 1. 6, «/ Theoc. 1. 56, Ar. Eq.
1225 ; u/iitt Hdt. vi. 11. ^ig Ar. Ach. 760, Sfifinf A. 274, Sapph. 95 (17),
Theoc 5. Ill ; ifiiatf H. 159, Hdt. iii. 50, ifittiuv A. 348, vfiftiuv Ale. 77 ;
vfiiv or ^^f». Soph. Ant. 308, Sfifuf A. 249, Theoc. I. 116, Sfifn Z. 77, S/tf/b
K. 551 ; ofiiietf /3. 75, Hdt. i. 53, ufii, Ar. Lys. 87, Sfifit Ih. 1076, Sfifct T.
412, Find. O. 8. 19, Theoc. 5. 145, Soph. Ant 846 ; ^(pZT A. 336, c(p^ A.
574 ; ^(pSTv A. 257, ^. 52 (here conadered Nora, by some), r^^y i. 62 : 7«

B. 239, t7» A. 400, UT^ Ap. Rh. 1. 1032, ij" T. 464, U Hdt. iii. 135, ?^«»
A. 1 14, iEsch. Sup. 66, Fi5i» Ale. 6 (71) ; l« N. 495, Vt (or 7») Hes Fr. 66^
F« Sapph. 2. 1 ; Fi Ale. 56 (84), « T. 171, ftsf A. 29, Hdt. L 9, m Find.
0. I. 40, Theoc. 1. 150,iEsch. From. 55 ; trifta Hdt. i.46 ; r^f«v 2. 311, Hdt.
i. 31, ir(ptia>* A. 535 ; g'(pn A. 73, .^sch. From. 252, as sing. Hom. H. 19. 19,
^ach. Pens. 759, tr^ B. 614, Hdt. l 1, r^' F. 300, ^^«» Soplu*. 83 (87), ^i»
Call. Di. 125, ii^(pt Sapph. 98 (40); g'(p$eif B. 96, r<pien Hdt. i. 4, (rpiTas n
213, e<p&s E. 567. r^i A. Ill, Tlieoc 15. 80, Soph. Ant. 44, y^t Theoc. 4. 3,
«r^i Aic. 92 (80); g-iptu A. 8, <r^« or <r^A>* F. 531 ; tr(pmf A. 338: i^t^;,
lfft»u(t if**vfi fAt^i*^ riosf rioy ieus, &c., dted by Apollonius in his treatise on
die Gceek Fronoun.

§ 1 43« 6. History, a. The distinction' of /)er«on, like those of ca«« and
number (^ 83), appears to have been at first only twofold, merely separating the
person speaking from all other persons, whether spoken to or spoken of. We
find traces of this early use not only in the roots common to the 2d and 3d
persons, but also in the common forms of th^e persons in the dual of verbs.
The most natural way of designating one*s self by gesture is to bring home
the hand ; of designating another, to stretch it out towards him. The voice
here follows the analogy of the hand. To denote ourselves, we naturally
keep the voice at home as much as is consistent with enunciation ; while we
denote another by a forcible emission of it, a pointing, as it were, of the
voice towards the person. The former of these is accomplished by closing the
lips and mmrmuring within, that is, by uttering m, which hence became the
great root of the 1st personal pronouns. The latter is accomplished by sending
the vmoe out forcibly through a narrow aperture. This, according to the place
of the aperture, and the mode of emission, may produce either a sibilant, a
linpial, or a strong breathing. Hence we find all these as roots of the 2d
and 3d personal pronouns. In the -progress of language, these two persons
were separated, and their forms became, for the most part, distinct, although
tbur^ed, in general, upon common roots.

^ The M- of the 1st Fers. passed in the old Flur. (which afterwards be-
came the Dual. § 85) into the kindred y- (compare Lat. nos) ; and in the
Sing., when pronounced with emphasis, assumed an initial A (compare the i£ol.
Ar^it «r^i), which passed by precession into i. In the new Flur., the idea of
plurality was conveyed by doubling the f* {afitfit-t in the £p. and ^EoL a/4fttt,
dftfcimPf tif*/nv, afcfuft, AfAfAi) \ or more commonly by doubling the 4( to n
(§ 29), pronounced with the rough breathing (V-* i^^ A/uirf, &c.), or, in the
Dor., to « (*«/(*-• in *itft.Uy *iltAZfy *£fA4f, *afii). From this the new Flur. of
the 2d Fers. appears to have been formed, by changing, for propriety of ex-
pression, «, the deepest of the vowels, into v, the most protrusive (^^/a-, in the
£p. and ^Eol. Sft/Atiy lffi/titit*t SfA/AtVy Sfitfitt • and '9/u-, in u/u.t7s, &c) With the
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168 PRONOUNS. — SUBSTANTIVE. f BOOK II.

ttxoeplon of this imitative plural, the pltir. and Pa. of the 2d and 3d per-
sons have the same root, in jRrhich plorality is expressed by joining two of the
signs of these persons (r^. a r -|- F)- bi the separation of the two persons,
the dgn r- be»une appropriated to the 2d Pers. (but in the Dor., r-, aa in the
Lat, and also in the verfo-endings -n, ^«», 'tis) ; and the rough breathing if
the 3d Pers. (in an early state of the language, this was F-; in Lat. it be-
came t- ; while in the iurtide we find both the rou^ breathing and r-i and in
verb*ending8 of the 3d Pers. both r, and more frequently r).

7. In the Noou img., the subjective fbrae appears to have baso expresnd
by peculiar modes of strengthening ; in the 1st Pen. by a doable prefix to
the /M, thus, i-y-i-ft (the y being inserted simply to prevent hiatus), or, as ^
cannot end a wordj Xyiv^ which passed, by a change of * to its corresponding
vowel (§ 60) and contraction, into (lytt) tym (compare the Sanscrit oAam,
the Zend azem, the Boeotic mt, the Latin «^, and the verb-ending ci the
Ist Pers. m in Greek, and o in Lat.) ; ui the 2d Pers. by aifixing F, which
with the praoeduig % passed mto tf in die oonunon Greek (cfl § 117. N.), but
in the Besot, mto •» (compare the Lat Mi, § 12. /3) ; in the 3d Pers. by
affixing A (perhi^M chosen rather than F, on account of the initial F), before
which precession took place (§ 1 18), so that the Ibrm became FiA, and from
this, 7A or 7A, and, by dropping the A, 7 or 7 (this obsolete form is cited by
4-pollonins ; compare the Lat. is, eo, id). With this Nom. there appears to
have been associated an Ace ?» or 7», of which ^i» and m are strengthened
fM*ma.

§ 144* B. Rbflbxivb, ifiavTov, aeenttovy iavjov. These
pronouns, from their nature, want the Nom., and the two first
also the neuter. They are formed by unitmg the personal pro-
nouns with avro^.

In the Flur. o# the Ist and 2d Peraons, and sometimes of the 3d, the two
elemaits remain distinct ; if*£v «vr«y, ifUiv atorUft ^^9 myrHv 99 ImttrSt* In
Homer, they are distinct in both Sing, and Plur.; thus, tft* «vrM ▲. 271,
lyMiStv 9%^im9ofui$ »vrm ^. 78, avvah fut I. 244. In the common compound
tbrms, the personal pronouns omit the flexible ending, in uniting w^ ««r«f,
and in the 1st Pers., and often in the other two, contraction takes place :
ifM-mtfTM i/MiiM'«C, 0t.mttrw fmmrtSf l-«iMr»S miv'fu. In the New loaic, en
the other hand, the flexible ending of ttie Gen. is retained, and is contracted
with «0 into m» (§ 45. 6) : ifiut-ubrM Ifurnvrau* The other cases imitate the
form of the Gen. : \f»u*w^i -•». The Doric forms «vr«vr4w, «(Kmvr«*, «v-
r«vr«y, aSreturat &C., wliich ocour chiefly in Pythagorean fragments, are
formed by doubling mhrit, ApoUonios dtes the eomie N(Hn. ifut»ri$ frmn
the Metoed of the oomedum PUto.

§ 1 4ff • C. Reciprocal, HXXr^Xvtv. This pronoun is formed
b^ doubling &lXog^ other. Prom its nature, it wants the N ^m.
and the Sing., and is not common in the Dual.

Note. For Ikxi)^* (Theoc. 1 4. 46), see § 44. 1 . For kKK^XiT* (E. %h\
see § 99. I.

$ 14A. D. Indefinite, I hlva. This pronoun may be
termed, with almost equal propriety, definite and indefinite. It
is used to designate a particular person or thing, which the



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CH. 5.J ADJECTJYB. 15^

spe^Qr ^itbeic caanpt, or does not care to name ; or, io the
language of Iiktthi8e,it ^^ indefinitely expresses a definite person
&r ming " ; as, Tov Ssiva yiyveiaxsig ; Do you know Mr, So and
1^0 ? Ap. Thesm. 620. *0 dstvfi jov dityog tov dslva (iaayyiXkti^
A. B.y the son of C, D., impeacfies E, F., Dem. 167. 24. In
the Sing, this proqpun is of the three genders ; in the Plur. it
is masc. only, and wants the Dat. It is sometimes indeclina-
ble ; as, xov dfiva Ar. Thesm. 622.

KoTB. The aitide is an ttsential part of this pronoim ; and It were better
written as a single word, ^iSV«. It appears to be sfmpty an extoision of the
4emonstrative ^, by addiqg «i»- or -iv«, which gives to it ao . indefinite force
(cf. § 152. I), makLog it a demonstrative ifid^nUe. When -iv-was appended,
it received a double dedension ; when -/»«, it had (noty the dedenncm of the
article. It belcogs properly te the oollaqnial Attie, a^d fint appeara ia Arift*



II. Adjective.

§ 147* All the pronouns which are declined m ? 24 may
be traced back to a common foundation in an old definitivb,
which had two roots, the rough breathing and ?- (cf. § 143.
or, /?), and which performed the offices both of an article and
of a derrCbnstrativej personaly and relative pronoun,

REBfABKS. a. To this definitive tlM Gr«8to g»y« tbt nvm ^^(^h J4»i^
from its giving connection to discourse, by marking the person or Uiing spoken
•f as one which had been spoken of before, ar which was about to be tp<^en
9f (\trt)ier, OP which wdf faipili«r to the aiini^. The Greek name i^^f** b«*
can»^ in Uitin, ariieufm (amaU joints from artus, jomt^ a word of the same
origin with «e^^^M*), firom which has come the English name^ articie. This
definitive, when used as a demonstrative, or simply as ^e definite artide,
naturally pivcedes the name of the person or thing spoken of; but when
^^sed as a relative, usually foUowg it ; as, f Jrfr i^nt i &ffi( 8* iT^if, thȤ is
THK man wuoit you saw ; ri ^ihw S £f^iTy tub rose which bloonu. Hence, ii^
the fprmer qse, it was termed the fnvposit^j and, in the latter, the posipositivt
article. When prepositive it was so closely connected with the foDowing
word that its aspirated forms became proclitic

jS. In the progress of the langua^ the forms of this old DBFmrnvE be-
came specially appropriated, and o^er pronoims arose fron) it by derivation
and eompoflition (see the following sections). The forms rit and rq of the
Nem. ong. beeame obsolete.

A. Definite.

^148. 1. Article, o, {, to. The pr^nrntive artieU^ or.
as it is commonly termed, simply the article^ unites the pro*
clitic aspirated forms of the old definitive, q, r,, oi^ ai^ w\\h the
T- forms of th^ neuter^ the oblique case^-i a^d the dual,

N019. Tl|e |<^ms r*/ and rW are also qs^ ffitT tfa« sake of metre, tophooyi



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160 ADJECTIVE PKONOUNS. [bOOK H

•r empAods, in the Ionic (chiefly the Epic), and in the Doric ; e. g. «*«/ A
447, Hdt. viii. 66. 1 (where it is strongly demonstrative), Theoc 1. 80 ; t»'
r. 5, Theoc 1.9. So, even in the Attic poets, r§i ti Mach, Pen. 423, Soph.
Aj. 1404 ; rai Ar. Eq. 1329. For the other dialectic forms, see §§ 95, 96
99. For the forms « and ri, see § 97.

2. Relative, o?, ^, S. The postposUive^artide^ or as it is
now commonly termed, the relative pronoun^ has the orthotoM
aspirated forms of the old definitive.

Note. For the dd Mase. I (11. 835, /3. 262), as irell as for the Neat t,
■ee § 97. For the redupUcated Xw (B. 325) and Ut (n. 208), see § 48.

§ 149, 3. Iterative, a vTo?, -iJ,-o(§ 97). This pronoun
appears to be compounded of the particle av, again^ hacky and
the old definitwe tog (§ 147. /?). It is hence a pronoun of
RETURN (or, as it may be termed, an iterative pronoun), mark*
ing the return of the mind to the same person or thing.

Notes. «, The New Ionic often inserts t in avrit and its compounds,
before a long vowel in the affix (see § 48. 1, f 24). This belongs especially
to Hippocrates and his imitator Aretsus ; in Hdt., it is chiefly confined to
the forms in -^ and -4*$ of «vr«f and ^Jr^f • e. g. auri^j aMttv and avrih^
Hdt. L 133, »vritf r^urimv lb. iL 3. For the other dialectic forms of •vritf
see §§ 95, 96, 99.

/3. The article and mvrit are often united by craas (§ 39);* as, tturit,
rmuTov (§ 97. N.) or rauri (Ion. tmvt§ Hdt. i. 53, § 45. 6), rmir^Z^ rmyrm,

^ ItSO. 4. Demonstrative. The primary demonstratives
are ovro^, this, compounded of the article and aitog • o^«, this^
compounded of the article and de (an inseparable particle mark-
ing direction towards)^ and declined precisely like the article,
with this addition ; and inuvogy thaty derived from IxeT, there.

Note. Of 1x17*0; (which, with &XXh, other, is declined like alrott § 97)
there are also the forms, Ion. xiTvti, which is also common in the Att. poets,
Mo\. nmas Sapph. 2. 1, Dor. riiMf Theoc. 1. 4. In the Epic forms of tl%y
rtiJivhrt (p, 93, roTg'hff'g't K. 462, rMta-rtv ^.47, there is a species of double
declension.

Remarks. «. The definitives toiogy suchy Toaogy so greaty
ttiXUogy so oldy and ivwogy so litthy are strengthened, in the
same manner as the article, by composition with aviog and 5« •
thus, loiovtog and totovde, just suchy Toaovrog and xoaoodty just
so muchy tTiXixovtog and TtjXixoadty rvvyovtog. These compound
pronouns are commonly employed, instead of the simple, even
when there is no special emphasis.

/?. In declining the compounds of aitog with the article and
adjective pronouns, the following rule is observed : — If the ter*
mination of the article or adjective pronoun has an O voweL ii



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PR. 5.] DEFINITE* - INDEFINITE. 16l

U7tites toith the Jirii byllahle of avrog^ to form ov\ biUis other*
wise absorbed.

. Thus, (« nlrii) «Jr«f , (Jk aurn) mtrtif (rj avrS) vwr§ • G. (reS auroS) rou
wv, {r^f etvrnf) rttvmt -* PL (ai avr»i) *tjr4i, («< murai) «?r«M, (r« avr«)
r«trr« • G> (r*l» «vr«i>) T0vrtf* (^ 24) • (r«#«« «vr»f ) ra^tSrHf (vMti »urn)
Ttwaum, (tm**? «vr«) fMwr* and rtrMrrw (§ 97. N.)

y. To demoustratives, for the sake of stronger express! jn,
an $ is affixed, which is always long and ac^te, and before
ivhich a short vowel is dropped, and a Jong vowel or diphthong
regarded as short ; thus, ovtoai^ avi^, toi/t/, thii here ; PL oif~
ToH, avitul^ tavti * ixtivoal^ that there ; odlj toaovroal.

NoTB. This tparagogie is Attie, and belongs espedaUy to the style of con-
versation and popular discourse. It was also affixed to adverbs ; as, ^vrMfi,
i^i, fttfi, Ivrttv^i, ifrtv^pL So, in comic language, even with an inserted
partide, vm^m Ar. Av. 448, UytruvBi Id. Thesm. 646, U^cvrtvl^vi Ath.
269 £

§ 1 15 1 • 5. Possessive. The possessive pronouns are de-
rived from the personal, and are regularly declined as adjec
tives of three terminations.

We add references for the less common possessives : v«/rt(«r, O. 39 ; ffanU
rt^§ti A. 216, in Ap. Rh. =» r^fri;*;, 1. 643, 2. 544 ; ?;, P. 333, Hdt. L
205, Soph. Ai. 442; &ftit or Afiit, Z. 414, Find. O. 10. 10, Theoc 5. 108,
Madi. Cho. 428 (used particularly in the Att poets as sing.) ; kfMin^H,
Theoc 2. 31; «^c^0«, Ale 103; iftfAirtf^tt Ale. 104 ; riofy y. 122, iEsch.
Prom. 162 ; hfMt, «. 375, Find. P. 7. 15 ; l«$, «. 409, Theoc. 17. 50 ; r^«j,
A. 534 ; F«f (=» ?; ), tftkiAt^ cited by Apollonius. For the use of the posses-
fives, particularly 7f, U; , 9^'%t\^h% f<pis, and ^^mtrt^, see Syntax.

B. Indefinite.

^ 1 ff 3* 1. The siMPLB indefinite is t^, which has two
roots, Tiv- dnd t«-, both appearing to be formed from t-, the
root of the article, by adding -iv- and -«- to give an indefinite
force (cf. § 146. N.).

Remarks. «. The later root rt9- is declined throughout after Dec. III., but
the earlier rt- only in the Gen. and Dat., after Dec. II. (except in the Gen.
Sing., which imitates the personal pnmouns) with contraction ; thus, rig, t^
Tlvtiy rtfiy &c. (§ 105. ^) ; G. ri« rav, D. riy rf, and, in the compound^
PI. G. IrM*» trmty D. Mart irtfi (also Ion. rliwr, ritt^t, § 153. y). For the
accentuation, and the forms eirTm, Jif^My see 2. below, and § 153. «.

/3.«The short s of rtf, rUiy and the omission of v in rr, suggest an inter-
mediate root «-, formed from «- by precession, and afterwards increased by
9 'cf. 5 119, and •;»«, k 123. y). To this intermediate root may be referred,
according to Dec II., the iEd. rif ; Sapph. 55 (34), riMrit Id. 109 (1 13).

2. The interkogattves in Greek are simply the vndefimUs
with a change of accept (see. Syntax).
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163 AOJEOTivs PRoaiovNs [book It

Thvi, the forms of tha indefinite rig (exoipt tlu paeuluu* irr^ which it
rarely used except in connection with an adjective, and which is never nsed
interrogatively) are encUtic ; while those of the interrogative ris are orthottmef
and never taka th« grave accent. In lexioons and grammars, for the sake of
distinction, the forms of the indefinite, wit and ri, are written with the gram
maoBDi, or withtmi an accent.

§ 1 tS3. 3. The composition of og with tig forms the relative
iNDEFiifiTB oorig^ whoever^ of which hoth parts are declined in
those fonns whi#h have the root jip^i, but the latter only in those
which have the root Tt- ; thus, oSupogy but hto 3tow. The
longer forms of the Gen. and Dat are very rare ill the Attic
poets.

Notes. «. The forms tUrm^ Att irr« (§ 70. 1), appear to be shorter
forms of 4rtin»y and are said by Euatathius to be compounded of ^ and the
Doric ra ■■ Tiv«. In certain oonneotions, they passed into simple indafinitst,
and then, by a softer pronunciation, became Mrtf-o, Arrm^

fi. The forms which occur in Homer of rUj rU, and on;, which is the same
with a^rit, except that it has no double declension, are exhibited in f 24.
Homer has also the r^^ar forms of t^rts* The doubling of r in some of
the forms is simply poetic, for the sake <ii the metre.

y. References are added for many of the forms of rh, rUt and 9^rt% : tnt
r. 279 (arr« 167), ? rri 0. 408 J r#w Cyr. viii. 6. 7, rw i Soph. (Ed T.
1435, t'Ttv i. 9. 21, 4-f» «-. 305, Hdt. i. 58,- r(« ; B. 225. irrt» «. 124, n»
(§ 45. 3) B. 388, Hdt. i. 19, riv 2. 192, Hdt. v. 106, tnv ^, 422, Hdt. L
119, irrtv e. 121 ; r^ A. 299, i. 9. 7, f^ i Soph. EL 679, 7t^ ii. 6. 28,
ny Hdt ii 48, r<y, Hdt i. 117. trt», fi. 114, Hdt i. 95, irZ M. 428;
h-tta a. 204 (Unva B. 188) ; tUr^k arrx Cyr. ii. 2. 13, imT* 2r#« t,
218, Irra Rep. Ath. 2. 17, ^^em A. 554, Hdt 1. 138, Utfet X, 450 (&rs*»
A. 289); rt«rf Hdt v. 57, rifw , H. 387, r&» ; ». 200, •Vur» ». 39, Hdt
viii. 65, 7r*09 vii. 6. 24 : rm<rt Hdt ix. 87, irU*ft9 O. 491, M«tn Hdt IL
82, 7r«ir< Soph. Ant 1335 ; Snfaf 0. 492 (ati^nfat A. 240).

^ 1 «S4» Rkmarks. 1. Adjective Pronouns which have not been
specially mentioned are regularly declined as adjectives of three terminations
($ 1 33. 4). For the GorreUtive Pronouns, and for the Particles which art
affixed to pronouns, see t ^^) §§ ^^7, 328.

2. Special care is required hi distinguishing the forms of i, ht fJ, rtt, and
rif . F(Mrms which have the same letters may be often distinguished by the
accentuation ; as, «/, J, «?. Spedal care is also required in distinguishing the
forms of »STtfj those of avrit, the combined forms of i »vr§$t the tame, and
tiie contracted forms of U»r«».



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08. &J C0IIPABI80N* 169

CHAPTER VI.

COMPARISON.

^ ISS. Adjectives and Adverbs have, in
Greek, three degrees of comparison, the Positive,
the Comparative, and the Superlative.

I. Comparison of Adjectives.

In adjectives, the comparative is usually formed
in *T<^o$, -d, *ov, and the superlative in -raro^, -17,
•ov ; but sometimes the comparative^'^ formed in
'imv, 'Jov, Gen. -iovosj and the superlative^ in -unosj

A. Comparison in -ttgog^ -ruTog,

^ 1S6. In receiving the affixes -jsgos and
-TttTog, the endings of the theme are changed as
follows ;

1.) -og, preceded by a long syllable, becomes
-o- ; by a short syllable, -o- ; as,

aofpig^ wisest aofpwttifog^ ooiptitaTog.

RiEMARKg. «. This change to w». takes place to avoid the succession of
too many short syllables. Three successive short syUablas are inadmissible in
hexameter verse. We also find, for the sake of the metre, x«xtf|uv»ri^«f
V. 376, Xd(^rtiT§s ^ 350, iiZogtirt^^p P. 446, iTt^v^mrmr^t i. 105. In req)ec(
to »t*i$i emptyj and mvis, narrow, authorities vaiy.

fi. A mute and liquid preceding -§f have commonly the same efitBct as a
long (syllable ; as, rf 4^0^, pehemmtj f^oi^in^t, f^9i^ira*ot. Tet here, also,
the Attic poets sometimes employ .«. for the sake of the metre ; as, ^v^'v*.
t/a^rt^ Eur. Ph. 1348, fim^iMrtrfiutrArMt lb. 1345, tvrt»9^rmn Id. B.9C 620.

/. In a few words, -og is dropped ; and, in a few, it becomes
-««-, -«a-, or -«a- ; as,

naXaiog^ ancient^ naXaluQog^ naXaltaiog.

iplkog^ dear^ (plXTSQog^ qflXtarog,

friendly^ (ptXairtgoc, q>tXalTatog>

ravj^og^ quiei^ tjavxnljfQog, ^avxaitarog,

f^^Wfiivog^ strong, i^fotfifviartQog^ ^^^wjucWototo^.

JUrlo^*, talkative, XaXhrf gog^ XaXlatatog.



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1M couPARison. [Boot a.

NonsB. (a.) Yet abo r«X«i«ne«^, Pind. N. 6. 91, ^/Xi^n^^*, Mem. fit 11
18, ^X4»f9 (§ 159) «. 268, (piXt^ras, Soph. Aj. 842, i»ri;;t;«Ti^«f, Id. Ant. 1089

(b.) The change of -«f into -ir- belongs particubuiy to contracts in -Mf
These contracts, and those in ••«;, are likewise contracted in the Comp. and
Sup. ; as,

kirXitf, simpk, mirXoi^n^tf iwX»irr»r§f,

But i9rX»^rt^t, less ft for MO, Th. yu. eO, »vx^Htr$^H, (Ee. 10. 1 1, ti
w99t0T*z0$, £q. 1. 10, &C.

(c) Other examples bf '§$ dropped in comparison are yi^aiit, cld^ r;^«-
XtM9s, at leisure; of -«; changed to -ms', tS^tas, clear, fitoff private^ 7r«f, eqwxl
flints, middle (see ^. below), S^B^^ttfj at dawn, i^i»sy late, ir^7»s, earfy; of •«#
changed to -<r-, ett^otts, august, &K^£vot, unmixed, &fffuv«f, glad, ti(p^n«s.
b&uniiful, lw$irii§t, Ifpd, ttH^M^ts, pure, niu/tff sweet (poet.) ; of -h chai^ged to
wr-, fi*9tptiy0t, eating alone, r4^»^tiys, dainty, vrrmxitt poor,

\ Wt<ro§ and vltff have old saperlatiyes of limited and chiefly poetic use in
.««-«< ; thus, fiUarf, midmost. At, Vesp. 1502, £p. fA%wrm,r§t, 0. 223, tiart^
last, lowest, A. 712, Soph. Ant. 627, £p. uiarof, B. 824. Compare U^'^rss^
(tr^Mcrtff) 9r^r«s, and Straref (§ 161. 2).

^157. 2.) '€is and -ijs become -sa-; as,

Xtxghig^ agreeable^ XaQuaugog^ XotQUaxatoq.

aaqiT^q^ evident^ aaipioTSQog^ ' aa<piatatog.

neVij^, poor J n(viaxtQoq<i nsviataxog,

T^KMARK. In a<^ectives of the first declension, and in yptv$fif, -nt beoomes
-<r- ; as, vXtofixrvii -«v, covetous, «'Xf 0yi«cirr«7«f * ypttt^g, -i«f , folse, yptm
VirraTH* Except, for the sake of euphony, Lfi^i^rnf, -w, utsoknt^ v^t^rirt
ft Y, 8. 3, ttfi^irrivmrt, lb. 22 (referred by some to Sfi^t^t)'

3.) -vff becomes -v- ; as,

TtQta^vg^ oldy ng$a/ivT$Qos^ ngtafivrmog*

For the sake of the metre, l^vfrarm 2. 508.

^158, 4.) In adjectives of other endings,
'Tsgos and 'taxos are either added to the simple
root, or to the root increased by -fcr-, -icr-^ or -«- ;
as,

tdXag, -avog^ toretched^ xaXavxtQog^ TaXartarog.

oui<pQ(av^ -^vog^ discreet^ an<fQoviax8Qog^ awpQovi(naTog»
OQna^, -ayog^ rapacious^ agnqyUnatog.

inlxngig^ -itog^ pleasing, inixngniaTtgoe^ imxagiTtotaiog,
KoTRs. A. Other examples are fUnm^, blessed, prnxd^rmrH X, 483 ; ^»Sx««



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C|l. 6.] APJECTIVES. 165

-Mfft blttekf fAiXatnfa:^ A. 277, and MiX«iwn^«f, Strab. ; l^tiktl, -<»«;, e&fer-
1^, ^^Aixim^tf • /3X«(, -£)tisy ttupid, ^X«c»ivTi^«r, ^tat*;, Mera. iii. J 3. 4,



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