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was attadied dkeetfy ; bat to mpure roots wiA Ae vuertiom of t to assist the
ntteranoe. Thus the Inf. of ^- was pdf ; and of y^ap-, yf«ft». Snbee-
qnently, to mark more specifically the prevalent rdation of the Inf., that of
tndirect obfect, the dative affix of Dec. L (§ 8() was added to these fi>rm8 ;
thus, pdvmt, y^Aptvtu, Yoice appears to have been distinguished by the in-
eertion, in these forms, of r# (b^sre which the » fell away, cf. §§ 55, 57), after
fhe analogy of § 174 ; thus, Act (or Subject.) Form, pavat, y^tipitmt • Ifid.
and Pass, (or Oltj.) Form, {pAv-st-ai) pd^fai, (yfiptf^i-ai) y^ap*e0m. But
the verb is also used as an adjeetioe, and, as sudi, receives declension. Hie
root of this declension, in the Act (or Subject) Form, may be derived flx>m
the original form of the non-personal mode in -v, by adding r, which is used
so extensively in the formation of verbal substantives and adjectives ; tilius,
pait ^«fr-, or, with the affix of declension (^ 5), ^avr-f, y^tipg* y^aiptfr-g
(the kindred « was here preferred as a connecting vowel to •, cf. § 175). Tlie
Bfid. and Pass, (or Obj.) form of the Partidple may be derived fixnn the
, by a rednpUoation aBak)gou8 to that in § 174 (since the Aoe. affix, § 84,


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is strictly a nasal, which could be either ^ or 9, according to euphonic pref-
erence ; as, jStf^idcy, bat Lat. boream) ; thus, ftiv ^ai/Att-tt, y^a^tf y^pi/uf^g
We have now the single n(m-personal mode developed into a system of Infini-
tives and Participles ; thus,


Inf. ^avett, y^a^ttm ^a^ffai, y^ei(p%^0au

Part. ^afTff y^a^trrs ^dfittaf, y^a,po/Atf$s

^ 1 T T • In the penonal modtf a threefold distinction arose. Donbt
leads to hesitation in closing a word or sentence ; and hence the idea of con-
tmgatee was naturally expressed by dwelling upon the connectihg vowel (<«
upon the final vowel of the root), as if it were a matter of question whether
the verb oo^t to be united with its subject. The strongest expression of
contingence, that of past contingence^ protracted the connecting vowel, or final
vowel of the root, to the cognate diphthong in 1 (^ 3), and thus formed what
is termed the Optatwe mode, which, as denoting past time, takes the secondary
affixes ; thus, l^a^t ^«^) l<p»f*nf ^etifitif, ly^a^o/* y^a^atfA, ly^a^ftrif y^»'
^•ifMHf, The weaker expression of ccmtingenoe, that of present contingence,
as less needed, seems to have arisen later, after the conjugation with the cr/u-
necting vowels ••- and -1- had become established as the prevailing anal<»gy
of the language ; and to have consisted simply in prolonging these vowels to
-IT* and 'ti't attaching the same afiixes to all verbs. This weaker form, termed
the Svibjunctwe mode (yet see § 169. 7), as denoting present time, takes the
{nimary affixes. Thus, y^a(p$fi y^ei<pvfAt y^i^^/Mtt y^a(pMftaty pdfi ^tuifif
pifMu (pautfMu. llie original mode now became an Indicative^ expressing the
aetwd, in distinction from the contingent.

A third mode arose for the expression of command. This obviously requu>4
no 1st Pers. ; and in the 2d, it required no essential change, as thi^tone of
voice would suffidentiy indicate the intent of the speaker. There would,
however, be a preference of short forms, as the language of direct command
is laconic ; hence, we find in the objective inflection -0-0 rather than -roi, and
in the subjective, a tendency to drop the affix of the 2d Pers. sing. The
3d Pers., on the other hand, has throughout a peculiar form, in which the affix
is ttnphaticaHy prdonged. This is done in tiie Sing, subjective by adding m ;
thus, 'Tm. In the objective inflection, -r«, of course, becomes -sSm (§ 174).
The dd Plur., afterwards the Du., was formed by adding the plural sign »
(§ 172) ; thus, -Tt^ 'fitn. The new Plur. was still further strengthened by
prefixing » (whidi hi the ot^. form would make no change, cf. h 176), or by
adding the later plur. ending r«f (§ 181. y) instead of t ; thus, -vr«fy or
-r«raf, (-f^^Mv) -^iaif OX 'tittraf. In the 2d Pers., it is convenient to regard -#
as the proper flexible ending (§ 172). The system of personal modes is now
complete; thus, *

Subjective Inflection.

Indicative. * CoyjUNcnvE.

IP. 2 P. 8 P. IP. 2 P. 8 P

Prim. S. y^dp-Bf* 'if -ir y^dip't/A 'tit -ifr

P. y^»^§fttf -iri -#»r yfti^-tt/Atf -««

D. yftiip'fttt -ir** -tTO y^ip'ttfittf -uro


Sec. S. ty^tclp'tf* -If -«r yfdp'UfA


P. ly^dp'tftttf -in -#»r y^d^M/Uf -nrt -t*^

D. ly^df-»fi%r -irw -irii» yf«f-w/*i» -«w» -Wtii*


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[book II

2 P. 3 P. 2 P.

P. (pA-Tg (p»'9r»nf (pd'rairatif y^a(p-trt

3 P.

Objective Inflection.

1 P.

Pnm. S. y^d^tf^at
P. y^a^o/A%4a
D. y^ap-ifuPa

2 P. 3 P.


S. ly^aP'Oftfif
P. \y^a^i/At4m

IP. 2 P.

y(d<P'»tfiMt -nrm
y^a,ip-dfA%4m ^n^h
y^a^dfMfim, 'nriof




3 P.


2 P. 3 p.

S. (pd'^t (pd'ffSm

P. ^d-ah (pd'ff^tnf, ^d'cfim^at

D. ^«-r#«f <pd'04mf

2 P.


8 P.

^ 1 7 S* We have, as yet, but two tenses, the Primary, denoting
p-ewnt and future time, and the Secondary, denoting past time, both definite^
and indefinitely. In a few verbs, mostly poetic, the formation appears never
to have proceeded farther. In other verbs, more specific tenses were developed
from these, as follows.

1. In most verbs, the Future was distinguished from the Present, and the
Aorist (the indefinite past) from the Imperfect (the defitdte past) by new forms,
in which the greater energy of the Fut. and Aor. was expressed by a r added
to the root (cf. ^ 84) ; and consequently, if the old Primary and Secondary
Tenses remained, they i^emained as Present and Impetfect The Fut. followed
throughout the inflection of the Pres., except that it wanted the Subjunctive
and Imperative, which were not needed in this tense. The Aor. had aU
the modes, following in general the inflection of the Pres. and Impf., except
that it preferred -a- as a connecting vowel, and simply appended the later af&z
-«i in the Inf. act. (§ 176) ; thus,

Subjective Inflection.



S, ty^ap-^afs. -rat
P. ly^dip-^afAtf 'fart
D. ly^d^^etfUf 'warcf



Imperativb. ,

S. y^dip-rtttfA 'fftiif
P. ygd^fatfAif '^atrt
D. y(d^reii/A$f "ffutrot

y^d^'fai -adrm
y^d<p-fart 'vd^rtn^^vdrmtmis
y^d<p-fUTo» "vdrvn

INI-INITIVB, y^d^'^mi

pAKTlCirLK, yod^'va^^t


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3h. 7] history. 1t7

Objective Inflection.
Indicative. Subjunctivb.

8. iy(Mf'^»finv -rAo •#««*« y^ai<P'ffotfAat 'rti^ms "mrtu

P. \y^m.(P'feifAt$m •ra^'/c 'fatTi y^aip-rtu/AtSa '^nvh 'wmitrm

D. iy^m^eafAtim "waatw ^tmttvt y^^-tiiAttm. 'vn^^n "^nvi^f

Oftahyb. Imperauvb.

8. y^»^^aifinf 'fmt^§ "^mr* y^a^ea^t 'tioitt

P. y^m.^0$k\iA%9» "^atfh -rduvr* y^ip'^avh "^avtvtyeiftoitmv

InFUllTlVB, y^^9m0$m Pabticiplb, y^Qk^^JiitAft

2. In many verbs, by a change of root, a new Pres. and Irapf. were formed,
which expressed more specifically the action as doing ; and in some of these
verbs, the old Secondary Tense remained as an Aorist (called, for distinction's
sake, the Second AorUt, § 199. ») ; and in a few, the old Primary, as a Fa-
tore (§ 200. b).

§ 1 79* Tlie complete teruee were, probably, still later in their forma-
tion. These tenses, in their precise import, represent the state conaequent upon
the completion of an curtum (rnv Wt^raXnv yiy^*^*, I have the letter written),
or in other words they represent the acdon as done, but Its effect remaining.
This idea was naturally expressed by an initial reduplication (§ 190). These
tenses admit a threefold distinction of time, and may express either present^
poMty or future completeness. The present complete tense (the Perfect) nat-
urally took the primary endings ; the past complete tense (the Pluperfect),
the augment and the secondaiy endings ; and the future complete tense (the
Future Perfect, or Third Future), the common future affixes. In the Perf.
and Plup., the objective endings were affixed without a connecting vowel ; and,
of course, with many euphonic changes. See tiie inflection of {yiy^^-fiai)
yiy^a/A/MMt (^ 36), vi^^y-fuu (^ 38), (^wiwut-fMu) ^iv'ttr/utat (^ 39), &C.
The subjective endhigs appear to have been at first appended in tiie same way ;
thus, Perf. Ind. yiy^uf-fSj Inf. yi^^^^-MM, Part. yty^»^9Tf, But all these
forms were forbidden by euphony. Hence in the Ind. -/a became -m (which,
since fi final passes into v, may be considered the corresponding vowel of ;« as
well as of V, § 50) ; thus, yiy^a^f* yiy^tt^a • and after this change the in-
flection proceeded according to the analogy of the Aor., except so far as the
primary form differs from the secondary. The « in this way became simply a
connecting vowel ; thus, yiy^a^a (or, if the analogy of the Aor. be followed
here also, yiy^m^-a-fA), yiyfec^-m-ff >a-r, -a-^ff, •«-ri, -A-vr, -a-rtv. In the
Part, 9 also became «, which by precession passed into a (^ 28). Indeed, in
Dec III. no masculine or fbminfaie has a root ending in -ar- (§ 76. d. 3).
Thus, yty^a^-irt. The » in the Inf., instead of a similar change (as it was
followed by «), took -i. before it ; thus, yty^a^-iveu. In the Plup. act., there
was a kind of double augment, prefixing i, both to the reduplication, and also
to the connecting vowel of the Perf., making the connective of the Plup. •!«- ;
thus, Uyty^^'tm-fA, This i« remained in the Ionic, but in the old Attic was
oontnuled into n, which afterwards passed by precession into u.

^ 1 SO* The middle and passive voices were at first uncUstinguished.
The fbrm simply showed that the subject was affiscted by the action, but did
not determine whether the action were his own or that of another. In tha


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179 coifJiH^ATioif. [book u.

defimiie and eomptde tenses* the aetun is w npfVKated, that tihis would bt
oommoiily andentood withoot spedal deaignatioa. But in the i ml ejimiit t ena e i ,
there woold be greater need of marking the distinction. Henee, a spedal Aor
and FnL patswe were fimned by employing the Tcrb ufu, to ^ as an mmnBm^
and compoonding its past and fotiire tenaes with the root of the Tcrb (the
angnifnt being prefixed in the Aor.^ as in odier past tenses, and the t being
lengthened in some of the forms firom the Hifliwuce of analog}- or for eophony) ,
thns, Aor. i-y^df-nw, ¥nt. y^mp-n^fuu. The old Aor. and Fat. now became wad-
dlt, and the two Toioes were so fiur distinct. They had still, however, so mn^
in oommon, that it is not wooderfnl that this distinrtinn was not always ob-
senred {k 166. \\ The Aor. and Fkit. pass, were afla t w aids strengthsned by
the insertion of ^, which came, perhaps, finom employing in the composition
the passive verbal in -7«f , instead of the simple not of ths Teri) ; thus,
v^wr-H h U-ftix^' P^^om the prevalence of the ^, the tenses formed with
it were denominated ^Cni; and those formed wiOont it, seoontf tenses (§ 199. II.).

^181* The system of Greek coiyngstion was now complete, having
three permms, Arm nmatbers, three coices, six sKides, if the Snl^ and Opt. are
separated, and no fewer than eUvem tentes, if the Jirtt and efvomd an counted
separately. Some remarks remain to be added, chiefly upon eaqoAome ekemgee,

L By a law which became so estsbBahed in thelaqgoage as to allow no ex-
ception (§ 68), final ^ r, and ^ could not remain. Hiey were, therefore^
either dropped, dumged, prolonged, or botii changed and prohmged; as follows.

!• Fhial^ after ••- OMaeeim, was dropped ; after ^. or .«».einuMe<nM,* was
dianged to -« and then contracted with the preceding -vowel ; after -m- and
"sw eonmsethey and in the primary node form (§ 173), was prolonged to -fu \
and, in all other cases, became -». Thus, ly^^^^ yiy^mfrnft, lysy^mpi^fii
became ly(«>^, yiy^tt^ lyty^dftm • y(»p*ft and y^m^uft became (y^iifM,

y^P»tm) yfti^Mj and y^ti^^tfA and y^^mfa. became y^m.^^ • yfdfMft, y^«>^M/H»
yfm'^oiftj ^f* became y^iptfu, yU^^fu, y^^lmsfu, ^tifu • iy^m^ft, iyiyfd*
fuuf ifitfA became iy^mfn, lyty^m^uf, l^f .

2. Final r, in the secondary forms throogfaont, and in the Per£ rfqg., was
dropped ; but, in other cases, was changed into ^, iHiicfa aftxr -t. or hi- eom*
nectwe passed into .land was then contracted, bat otherwise was prolonged
to 'Tt. When, by the dropping of -r, ^. eomneetioe became final, it passed
into .1 (^ 28). Thus, I^r tp», ty^mftr tyfaft, ly^mftfr ty^m^n, iy^'^far
ly^^i, ty^a't^avT iy^a4'»9, y^ti<p»tT y^m^M, y^^mr y^a-^mi^ yiy^m^ar yi"
y^tt^ ' y(»p.t.T {y^mpth y^dp**) yfdfu, y^^P-i-r y^d^th y^dp-n-r y^dpif
(written with the i sabsc in imitation of the Ind.), y^d^-n-r y^d^if * pdr
fdrt, pdfT {pdfr$, § 58) ^«ri, y^df^tr (^y^dptfri) y^mptvrtf yfd^pavr y(d^»vri,
yiy^tipavr {y%y^dpa9rt) yty^dpdrt, y^dftttr {y^pe^trt) y^ipmri.

Notes. «. In the prolonged forms of the endings -r and -t r, the Dorie
retained the r (§ 70. 2) ; as, pttri Theoc. 1. 51, nVnn 3. 48, pa^ri 2. 45,
ptXUvTt 16. 101, ^Inxavri 1. 43, xiyvrt Find. 0. 2. 51, Wtr^i'^^nrt 6. 36.

/}. Epic forms of the Subjunctive, with -f* and -r prolonged to -fu and •#«,
are not unfrequent ; as, WtXvfu A. 549, rvx^t^ E. 279, 7jm#/m I. 414, Utfu
X. 450, i^fir/f (§ 66) A. 408, vavr^t I, 191, difir/v 2. 601 ; so' Dor.
UiXifrt (N. a) Theoc 16.^28. A similar form of the Opt., though not fires
ttom doubt, occurs in wat^apiatinn K. 346.

y. A new form of the 3 Pers. pL secondary was formed by changing ^r of
the %ng. into -r«y (L e. by t^ing v instead of prefixing it, with a change
of r into *•, &) above, and the neoesaary insertion of a union-vowel, irtiieh
* In primary forms (i 300),


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•;h. 7.] HISTORY. 139

here, as after «■ in the Aor^ was -«-, § 185). This form, m the Attic, is noi
used in those tenses which liave as a connecting vowel .«. or -a-, and scaroelj
in those which have -m- or -at. ; but in most other tenses is either the com-
mon form, or may be freely used ; thus, for i^atr, lyty^ti^uvr^ Iw^ixi^vtr,
S^«r«y, ly%y^Jiipu^tt9, W^ti^inrm,* (§ 183).

8. Final i was dropped after -t. eonnecHoe ; after a short vowel in the root,
It became in the 2 Aor. -g, and in the Pres. (except ^f*i and i/f*/) -i, which
was tlien eontracted with the preceding vowel (m becoming n) ; in other eases
(except the irregular substitution of •«» for ^ in tilie Aor.) it was prolonged
to •#!• Thns, y^dpti y^a^i, W ^ig, )/^«/ Qt^ai) ^/i»Vf ^mi pd4t, y^d^nf

^ 1 8 S* II. A stronger form of the 2 Pers. sing, subjective was in
-r^ (compare the Eng. and German -s^), which, according to § 63, must either
drop t and thus become the same with the common form, or assume a voweL
In the latter case, it assumed «, l)ecoraing .^^« (compare the affix -ati of the
Lat Perf.). This remained the common form in Jf^n^^a (If 53), j»r^» (T 55),
fu9$a (^ 56), «7(f^«, ifiu^at^ and fin^im, (^ 58). Other examples are fur-
nished by the poets (particulariy in the Subjunctive, by Homer) ; as, riinfta
I. 404, "i^ttwU T. 270, WiXi^^ia A. 554, ^^uXti^^U I. 99, lU^fU t. 250,
fidXMf4» 0. 571, »>Mi$t0U n. 619, 7;^fir^«, plXurfim, Sapph. 89, WtXnfia
Thooc 29. 4, xfii^a Ar. Ach. 778. This fbrm, like many others belonging
te the old language, is termed by grammarians JEoBe.

UL The objective endings of the 2 Pers. sing., -rat and -r*, commonly
dropped r in those tenses in which a vowel uniformly preceded (ct §§ 117,
900. 2, 201. 2), and were then contracted with this vowel except in the Opt. ;
thus, y^Mftrm y^dfuti y^d(pif or y^i^u (§ 37. 4), y^tl^ptroi y^»^tf or .14,
y^a^nras y^dppf ly^d^tra iy^d^* iy^d^aVf y^dftr§' y^dftv, ly^d^p»0§ iy^d'
^a» ly^d-^^m^ y^d'^»r» y^d^l^m* yfd'i^tti (the contraction is here irregular),
y^p§tf y^d^^t y^d^auft y^dyptua*

§ 1 83* lY. In the Greek verb, there is a great tendency to lengthen
a short vowel before an affix beginning with a consonant. This will be ob-
served in pure verbs before the tense-signs (§ 218) ; in the tense-^gns of tlie
Aor. and Put. pass. (§ 180); in the -<- often inserted in the Opt (§ 184);
in verbt m .fu before the tubfective emUngSy especially in the Ind. sing. (§ 224) ;
in the euphonic affixes -n and .i» of the Pres. and Put act (§§ 203. «,
206. j3) ; &c This tendency does not appear before endings. beginning with
vT, since here the syllable is aheady long by position. Of other endings, it
appears chiefly before the shorter ; hence, before the tubjecthe far more than
the objective, and in the Sing, more than the Plvr. or Du<d, We give here ex-
amples of the two last only of the cases that have been mentioned above : ptfu
pp.fAt (we now change the regular accentuation of the word to that which is
vsoally given to it as an enclitic), fds^ptiff ^«r« ^nW, but PL pdftiv * i^Af
I^f, t^t tfnf, ipt 1^, but PL tpifU9 (^ 53) ; 2 Pers. y^d^ts y^d^ut
(so some form y^^u and y^d^u by lengthening the connecting vowel and
dropping the flexible ending), yfd^tt y^d^ttt • y^d^tv (the old form of the
Inf:, S 176) y^d^f (this became the common form of the Pkes. and Put
iil£ act), y^d^it y^dypuf,

NoTB. The old short forms of the 2d Pers. and Inf. in .i# and -tt remain
in some varieties of the Doric; as, ^u^Uhg Theoc. 1. 3, Ji/AiXytf 4. 3, ey^Uhw

1. 14, j3«r»i» 4. 2. ym^^f Pind. 0. I. 5, r^d^if Ar. Ach. 788.


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§ 1 84* y. The Opt snbjecthre was often rendered sdD more f>x
pnadre, bj adding to its oonnectiTe «, which was lengthemd to « exoep'
before rr ($ 1 83). This addition was most common before the endmgs which
have no rowel, -^ -«, ^, -rr. In the 3d Pers. pL thu addition was always
made ; but, exoept here, it was never made to wm- eamMeetive, and rardy to
«i. amiteethe except in contract forma. Thos, {y^mp-M-rr) y^mfmv, (y^a'^-

fc7n pMinrt, (^-7-rr) fMv and fsMK«f^ ityytXaai* (T" 41), riftfm (T 45)»

NoTTEB. «. In the Aor. opt. act., a special pndonged form amee, in whidi
the connective was that of the Ind. with u prefixed, lliis form oocnrB only
in the 2d and 3d Persons sing, and the 3d Pers. pL ; bat in these persoiis was
for more ccnnmon than the other form. Tiras, y^ti'^'U-^'tj (y^cA^-ci-c*^,
§ 181. 2) y^a'^ut, y^a^pumf. This form, like many other remains of old
usage, was termed by grammarians JEo&c. It was especially employed by
the Attics ; yet was not confined to them, nor empIo3red by them to the ex-
dnsion of the other forms ; thus, 7<rw«» A. 42, /^ummg T. 52, il^avrm Pind.
P. 9. 213, JtyytiXutp Theoc 12. 19, 'hmf^iSiiumt Hdt. iiL 12 ; aXyvmsg Soph.
^ T. 446, 2iMd^Mtf Ar. Yesp. 726, fn^mt PL Goig. 477 b, A^aXl^ms Macb,
, 983, (ptaemat Th. uL 49.

^ In analyziiig Opt Amuis of the 3d Pen. pL, it Is often conveniflnt to
•oin the inserted t with the flexible endings ahhoo^ in strict p t mn ie ty it it
an extension of the connecting vowd. See f 31.

§ 1 S 9* YL One important analogy we onght not to pass nnnotioed.
The oldest inflection both of vvrbs and of noons, that of the node Pres. and
Impf., and of Dec. IIL, had no connecting vowels. The next inflection in or-
der of time, that of the enphonic Pres. and Impf., of the Fat, and of Dec. 11.,
&M)k the connecting vowels ^. and -t - ; while the latest inflection, that of thCi
Aor., of the Perf. Act, and of Dec I., took the connecting vowd -«- (cf.
^ 176). Bat the analogy does not stop here. As some nouns flactnated
between the diffisrent declensions (§§ 124, 125), so eome forms of verbs fluc-
tuated between the difi^erent methods of inflection. Thus we find,

c.) Verbs in both -/u and -«, particulariy the laige class in -Vfu and .v«» ,
as, hixvvfu and ht»futt, to show,

$.) That verbs in -/m whose roots end in i, «, or », have, in the Impf. act
sing., a second and more common form in -«f ; as, •4'i#s» and (IriVf-o) WiSun
(t 50), U;)«f and i^i^ain (t 51)> i^</«»v» and Qu»t6»9 (t 52).

y.) Tliat verbs in -« have the 2 Aor. nude, if the root ends in a vowd,
oxcept I ; as, (^ 57) ifitiv (r. /3«-), tyfo/v (r. y»»-), t^vf (r. J*-) ; but Win
(r. «•<•), 2 Aor. of w/t^, to drink,

2.) Poetic (chiefly Epic) 2 Aorists itiddle which want the connecting vowd
even after a consonant ; as, ixr* A. 532 ; Si0ft%*n (Part) 2. 600 ; yttr§
(— »7Xir#) 0. 43 ; ynro (= iyUiri) Hes. ITi. 199, lyiw* These. I. 88 ;
i^fy^*if I. 513, ^i»r« O. 88 (so even Pres. 3 Pers. pi., %ix'^reu U. 147, for
ytx^rmt, $ 60), Imp. 2i^« T. 10, iix^t Ap. Rh. 4. 1554, Inf. hx^tu A. 23,
Part. yiyftiPti B. 794 ; IXiXsxrg A. 39 ; Txr* Hes. Th. 481 ; Ikiyf^ti* t. 33.5,
xUr§ %, 451, xilo fl. 650 ; fAtititif (3 Pers. do. for 4^«»»^>i», § 60)*; ifM»T§
«. 433, f^Uro A. 354 ; J^r* E. 590. iEsch. Ag. 987, •e'* ^- 204, i^m
0.474, S^ui^^u A. 572.' Soph. CEd. T. 177; »«At« O. 645; ^k^fou (for
wifiaUt, 5§ 55, 60) r 708. * A. U6.


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TH. 7.] HISTORY. 181

4 NoTB. These Aorists, bdng nude, agree In their formation with the Perf.
and Plup. (§ 179}, except that they want the reduplicatiuu.

I.) Poetic (chiefly Epic) Aorists which have the tenae-sign -r- with the
connectives -o- and -t-, and thus unite the forms of the 1st and 2d Aorists;
as, «iiVi« Horn. U. 16. 1 ; iCwiT§ v. 75, fivvio £. 109, 221 ; iv^tro H. 405,
iiirto n. 129 ; :i»f E. 773 ; kili6 I. 617 ; S^^to \\ 250, contr. S^^tu § 45. 3)
A. 264 . «r<rf X' 481, Call. Cer. 136, Ar. Ran. 482, ^Uir*, T. 173, »;<r»Ti
V. 1 54. The use of this form in the 2 Pers. Imp. will be specially nuticedi
Perhaps the common 2 Aor. t^iwat, fell, and the rare, if not doubtful, ix*^»h
belong here.

^.) Aorists without the tense-sign -••-, but with the connecting vowel -«-.
See § 201. 2. Compare the omission of -^ both here and § 200. 2 with
§§117, 182. III.

«.) Reduplicated tenses, having the connectives -*- and -i-, and thus unit-
ing the forms of the Perf. or Plup., and of the 2 Aor. See § 194. 3.

NrrrB. These tenses of mixed formation are usually classed as Ist or 2d Ao-
nst according to the connective ; a classification which is rather convenient
than philosophical.

^ 1^0. VII. The formation of the complete tenses requires further
remark. The affixes of the Perf. and Plup. seem to have been originally
nude throughout, and they continued such in the objective inflection, inasmuch
as here each flexible ending has a vowel of its own. That this was the reason
appears from the fact, that in the subjective inflection also we find remains
of the nude formation, but only in cases where the flexible ending has a vowel
of its ovm. These remains abound most in the old Epic, but are also found
in the Attic (^^ 237, 238). The inflection with the connecting vowel, how-
ever, became the established analogy of the language ; so much so, that even
pitre verbs, no less than impure, adopted it (cf. § 100. 2). Here arose the
need of another euphonic device. The attachment of the open affixes to pure
roots produced hiatus, and to prevent this, » was inserted. TMs insertion
appears to have been just conunencing in the Homeric period. It afterwards
became the prevalent law of the language, extending, through the force of
analogy, to impure, as well as to pure roots. Other euphonic changes were
now required, for which see §§ 61, 64. 3. The history of the Perf. and Plup.
active, therefore, is a history of euphonic devices, to meet the successive de*
niands of pure and impure roots. The latter first demanded a connectin|
vowel : then the former, the insertion of -«- ; and thai the latter, that tliii
-X- after a labial or palatal mute should be softened to an aspiration uniting
with the mute. We have thus four successive formations : 1. the primitive
nude formation ; 2. the formation in -a, -uv ; 3. the formation in -xa, -xu9
after a vowel; 4. the formation m -»«, -»t<» after a consonant (after a labial
or palatal mute, softened to -&, -cit, ^61). The last formation nowhere ap-
pears in Horn., and the third only in a few words. The forms with the in-
serted » are distinguished as the Itrtt Perf. and Plup. ; and those without it,
although older, as the Second (§199. XL).



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^18T. The Greek verb has two prefixes

Online LibraryAlpheus CrosbyA grammar of the Greek language → online text (page 18 of 53)