Alpheus Crosby.

A grammar of the Greek language online

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I. The Augment, and II. the Reduplication.

I. Augment.

The Augment (augmentum, increase) prefixes £-
in the secondary tenses of the Indicative^ to de-
note past time (^^ 168. I., 173).

A. If the verb begins with a consonant^ the «-
constitutes a distinct syllable, and the augment is
termed syllabic £. g.

Thieiiie. Impf. Aor.

^«vXf »«, to eommad, IC«vXcv«y, IC«^Xtcmu

ytm^t^m, to reoognizey iyMw^i^tfv, ly^m^t^m.

ftTTit, to Orow, i^tvrn, tfft^m, (§ 64. 1>

B. If the verb begins with a vowel^ the b- unites
with it, and the augment is termed temporal.

NoTB. Hie tyUaiie augment is so named, because it increases the number
of ty1laJbiU$; the temporal (temporalis, fit>m tempns, time), because it bcreases
the txme^ or ^Konttty, of an initial short voweL For the syllabic augment
before a voirel, see § 189. 2. The breathing of an initial yowel remains the
same after the augment.

§ 1 8 8. Special Rules op the Temporal Augment.
1. The prefix e- unites with a to form ly, and with the other
vowels, if short, to form the corresponding long vowels ; as,

*ii2<»l4M, to mfure, (!«)/»««») iiiuMn, (U)/»«#») Uttwufm,

*dix'ufy t9 eomteitd, ^\mf9, iMa««w.

iX^r/^, to hope, ^Xri^*?, HXwsem,

'Utrtvtn, to nyofSeale, *r«inM9, 'fminvrm.

i^Mty to erect, &fitn, M^mwm.

VC^iX«', to mmM, 'i7C^<C«f, "S^^t^m.

2. In like manner, the f- unites with the prepositive of tha
diphthong at, and of the diphthongs at; and oi followed hy a
eonBonomi^ as,

«iVU, to aek, fr»pf (§ 25. 8), ^#».

«^«»«, to inereaee, ni^w, «i2^r«.

•iMTi^m, to pity, #»'riC*», fmrt0».

^o also, ^r^fim, to ^mk, ^i^m^, ^„.


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CH. 9.J AUGMENT. 168

3. In other cases, the «- is absorbed by the initial vowel or
diphthong, without producing any change ; as,

nytafuut to had, ityvfunf^ hy^tifin**

«i^Xi«», to profit, «^fX«ify, ^iXntrm,

t7»0tj to yidd, %4»»9f i3^«.

§i»niZ»fuu, to OMtgrnTf «M»M^«^ir», tlmwatiftum

•vrm,T^t0f to woundt §STmt^»», tSrm^m,

Note. In verbs beginning with tv, and in tltUH^m, to conjeeture^ and «l
•/»«, to dryy usage is variable ; as,

iSx^fttUy to projf, tlfx»/»n9t nhxifn*, tw^*/**!*, ifi|«/tif».

See, also, the PIup. ^tn (f 58), and Ijut (f 56).

§ 1 80. Remarks. 1. The verbs flovXofim^ to mUl^ dv-
raftni^ to be ablCy and fiiXXuy to purpose, sometimes add the tem-
poral to the syllabic augment, particularly in the later Attic ;
thus, Impf. iSovXofiijv ana ^SouXofitit^^ Aor. P. iGovXf^&tiv and ifiov^

2. In a few verbs beginning with a vowel, the s- constitute*
a distinct syllable, with, sometimes, a double augment ; as,

JiyvfffUf to break, Iml^.

Ataiytt, to open, kfitfyn (§ 188. 2), Afitf^

Jtiitt^ to puik, Xmtatn, %i«rm»

Add kxietMftMt, to be eaptmred, kvitiftt (Ion. and Poet), to please, iftltt, to
•09, •»0im, Mdfuu, to bwf^ and some Epic forms. Cf. ^ 191. S. The sylla-
bic augment in these words is to be refterred, in part, at least, to an original
digamraa f% 22. I) ; as, iF«^«» ?«|a» y, 298, iv. 2. 20 ; Ifm^^mn UiUmn Hdt
ix. .V XA^'mn y. 143. IF«)< U%% HdL i. 151, irFF«)i» i^«2f» (cf. §§ 71, 117. 2)
S. 340.

3. In a few verbs beginning with <, the usual contraction of

ff into u (§ 36) takes place ; as, ^. 3 / ^*

l«*r, to permit, tXvy, t7«ir«.

Add Ui^ttt to ttceuatom, Ixieeat, to roll, tk»at, to draw, twtt, to be oeetqried
oith, i^m^tfttu, to work, ^wtt, to creep, Wr^aUt, to entertain, tx^i to haoe ; the
Aorists trx««, took, iUm, ( Ion. and poet. ), eet, %t/An and tl^ify (f 54) ; and the
Plnp. liVntxuy {\ 48), etood,

4. An initial «, followed by a mfpilri^a-ofiai (|f 46) ; ^tSovkfy-K-a^ iSt-SovXev-X"
Eiv * j3ovXsv-df-lrjP ' fiovXsv-di^a-ofiai, ' ^ovXtv-ta^ PovX^v-o^ai^
iSovXfv-ov^ iSovXfV-ofitjv^ ^tSovXev-fiai, i6f6ovXsv-(iriv,

§ 1 00. Remarks. I. The sign -^f-, except when followed
by a vowel or by vt, becomes -^i;- (§ 183). When followed
by a vowel it is contracted with it. Thus, i6ovXsv-d^f)-v^ ^ovXiv-
&rf-Tij fiovXiV-d^ij-vai ' {povXiV-^t-m^ § 36) /iovXev&cj^ (/Joi/Asu-
^S'lriv^ § 32) fiovXfV&sltjv ' fiovXtv-d-i-vTOiv^ {ffovXsv-d^i-vTg
§ 58) /SovXsv&slg.

II. The letters x and ^, of the tense-signs, are sometimes
omitted. Tenses formed with this omission are denominated
second^ and, in distinction from them, tenses which have these
letters are denominated Jirst ; thus, 1 Perf. ninnxa, 2 Perf. ni-
noi&a ' 1 Plup. 4nfntliiuv^ 2 Plup. inmold^nv (IF 39) ; 1 Aof
pass. TjyyiX&Tjv^ 2 Aor. pass. riy/fXtiv • 1 Fut. pass. ayytX&i^ao^
(iui, 2 Fut. pass. ayyeX^uofint (fl 41). See §§ 180, 186.


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«-II. 9.] TENSE-SIGNS. 18if

NoTFS. «. The tense in the active and mieUBe voieeSf which is tenned the
Second Aorist, is simply an old form of the Imperfect (§ 178. 2).

/3. The regular or Jirst tenses will be usually spoken of simply as ihe Ao'
ristf the Perfect^ &c.

§ 300. III. In the FUTURE active and middle, changes
affecting the tense-sign often bring together two vowels, which
are then contracted.

1 . Th. tense-sign -a- becomes -«- (§ 50),

«.) In tho Future of liquid verbs. See § 56.

^.) In Futures in Arm, from verbs in -iT^M ; thus, Msfiirm (xtfitim) xofut,
»»fi,Uut Ktftttlvy »afAifft09 KafAMV • Mid. xafitirofitat {»»fuio/Aai) »»fn»dftmt, »•/*{'
atfffiat xofAttitafiett, xafiurifAtfos KafAitVfitvof (^ 40;.

y.) In the Future of xaH^afiett, to sit (root I'i-) ; thus, (xetfiiia-afMCt, xeth'
yt0/uai) Kafiiit!vfjM$, Add the poetic (^rixrtc-^at) rtx%7a6ett Hom. Yen. 127, and
{jAa.$99fAMy -MftMf § 45. 3) fiahvfuti Theoc 1 1. 60. See ^dso b. below.

2. Some Futures in - auto and -eaw drop -a-.

Thus, IXkvw, to drive, F. Ikeirm (iX«w) U«, iXarus iX^St iXti^u IXf •
IXdffUf iXSf.9 • Ixdffoiv IXeiv * TiXiaf, to finish, F. rtXirv (riXitt) riXZ, riXiff%tt
rtXi7s * rtXiiru9 r^Xtlit • T%Xi9uit TtXSv * Mid. rtXio'afMti ( riXiofAai) rtX»v/MU,
r%Xir%w4at rtX%Tr^eUf rtXivc/AUaf rtXavfuvas ' X*^t ^ P^^^*^i ^* ix^''*'^ X^'^f
ix'^'tifi X"'f) X*'f ' ^*^* (x't^ofMtt) ^MfAxu Add xaXtat, to call, fAa;^«fMcty
to fight, afc<ptivvvfitt, to clothe ; all verbs in -eivfufitt ; sometimes verbs in -d^u,
particidarly ^iSti^ai, &c.

Note. The contracted form of Futures in -aaoi, 'irot, and Aw, is termed
the Attic Future, from the conmion use of this form by Attic writers. It is
not, however, confined to them ; nor do they employ it without exception ;
thus, ixivatvett vii. 7. 55, rtXirovvn Cyr. viii. 6. 3. It is not found in the
Optative. A similar contraction appears, in a few instances, to have taken
place in other Futures; thus, %^fi[Ativr% \ will you lay waste? for l^tifuirtTif
Th. iii. 58.

3. A few^ verbs, in the Future middle with an active sense,
sometimes add e to -a-, after the Doric form (§ 245. 2).

Thus, crXiw, to sail, F. ^Xtweftat, oftener (jorXtv-A-afiai) xXtwoufAxt * ^tvyvj
to flee, ^tvlafiiai and (^tv^Ufctti) ^tu^avfixs. This form of the Future is termed
Hi Doric I\tture. Other examples in Attic Greek are xXaiu, to weep, vim, to
gwtm, «'«i^«, to sport, w^iirrm, to folly ^ti»i, to blow, 9rvv6iinfAeuy to inquire^

BxAkBXi. a.) The liquid, Attic, and Doric Futures, from their formation,
are inflected like the Present of contract verbs (ft 45, 46). It will be ob-
served, that in a few verbs the Pres. and the Att. Fut. have the same form.

b.) In a very few instances, the Fut. is in form an old Pres. (§ 178. 2) ;
as, Ufim, to eat, F. ti»iMu, A. 237, Ar. Nub. 121 (m later comedy l^»tl^««,
cf. y. above) ; r/w, to drink, F. «-/#/tMei, ». 160, Cyr. i. 3. 9 (later vfvfjutt) ;
CfM, to go, commonly used as Fut of t^x^/Mit. Add a very few poetic fermf ,
which will be noticed under the verba to which they belong.


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§ 90 1. IV. The sign of the aorist,

1.) Becomes -i- in liquid verbs. See § 56.

2.) Is omitted in iT«r« (^ 53), HvtyKa (r. Uty*-, to bear), f;^i* (Ep. tx*f»)
fVom x**'* ^ Pf**"^* And the poetic txtx (Ep. 7x»a and ?xfi«), from »«/», to &»m
Add the £pic nUd/Anv and 4Xft/«^*f», N. 436, 184, lr«-it/« £. 208, iarUr^a
Hes. Op. 765. See § 185. ^

3.) Is the same with that of the Perf. in Uti»», tUix*, and « »«. These
Aorists are used only in the Indicative, and rarely except in the Sing, and
in the 3d Pers. phir. In the mideBa twice, the Att. writers oae onlj tl\e Ind.
hxi/Afiv Ear. El. 622, with the very rare Part. hxmjAivot, iEschin. 72. 9
llie other dialects add Unxeifinvy K. 31, ^xxa^tya; Pind. P. 4. 52.

NoTB. These Aorists in .k» are only euphonic extensions of the 2 Aor.,
after the analogy of the Perf. First ^e final -» (originally -/t*) passed into
.«, which became a connecting vowel; and then -»- was inserted to i»^
vent the hiatus (§§ 179, 186) ; thus, Un-t Uti-» Uft-x-tc, Ufix^t^ ihxi, UnxMt •
ttuv ^x«, iv ^xm. This form became common only wh^re the flexible end-
ing had no vowel (cf. § 186), i. e. in the Sing, and in the 3d Pers. pL ; and
was properly confined to the Ind. act., although a few middle forms are found
after the same analogy. The nude form disappeared in the Ind. act. sing,
(cf. § 186), but was elsewhere either the sole or the common form. Sea
i\ 50. 51, 54.

B. Connecting Vowels.

^ a09. The connecting vowels serve to unite
the flexible endings with the root or tense-sign,
and assist in marking the distinctions of mode and

Notes, a. In each tense, that which precedes the connecting vowel (or^
if this is wanting, the flexible ending) may be termed the base of the tense
(fiti^it, foundation) ; as, in the Pres. of- /Sai/Xi t/«, ^uXtu- ; in the Fut., /Smt.
XtM-. ; in the Perf. act., /SiCflvXii/*..

/3. The regular additions, which are made to the base in tlje Present and
Future, are throughout the same ; as, ^avXiv-tt, ^ouXivv-et, li^yXtv-ut, fitvxUe
tiS * fiotfktv-tiftit ^ovX%v9'«tfu • fiavXiv-o/AOi, fiavXw-o/Aettj ^ovXtvHff-ofMu

§ 3 OS. I. In the INDICATIVE, the connecting vowel is >a-
in the Aorist and Perfect, and -h- in the Pluperfect ; in the
other tenses, it is -o- before a liquid^ but otherwise -<-.

Thus, A. lC«t/Xiv0'^-^y, KtvX%W'$i.fAn9 * Pf. fiiUuXtux-m-tAiv ' PIup. iCiC«v.
Xit/X'%t'* • Pres. /S«tfXi^-«-^v, ^vXw-%'Tty (/^i>Xii;-«-v^4, ^ 58) ^uX%y»u9i • /3«v.
Xtv-tf-^uii, (/3«i»Xsv-i-«i, § S7. 4) /SmXii^, j3««Xii/-f-r«M« Impf. iCtfvXiff-*-*, ICau-
Xiv-i-f • \C»uXtv-i-fAn9f iC0oXiv-i-r« • F. /3«vXfV0'-«-jMtv, iS«t/XiV0'-t-rM> • /3«c/Xim%

Bemabks. «. In the Sing, of the Pres. and Fat. act the connectives -—
and ^^ eiHier by union with the ending, or by simple protraction, become -iv.
sni <.«i^; as, (jS«vXw/-«*/M, -•-«) B^vXivtti (fi^vXt»'^-t) /3#»Xitfi<f, (j3M$Xi»-t-«%
i-t) ^•vX*v%t ' )3«t^x«vtr«, ^0vXiv^H , ^^Xw**t. Se« -^^ 181. 1, 2; Its.


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/3. Ib the 8d Pen. sing, of Ute Aor. soA Perf. act., -t- takes the place </
«- ; as, (iCtvXiwm-r) ICtvXtun, fitCtvXtvzt, See § 181. 2.

7^ In the dd Pen. pi. of the Plop., -t- common^ takes the jdace of -u-
NoTB. The origmal connective of the PIup. was -i«-, which remained in
the Ion. (§ 179);.as, ^M S. 71, Hdt. ii. 150, IrtMwut ^. 166, i«WikMif
A*. 90, pu B. 832, pn'f 2. 404, lytyivu Hdt. i. 11, ^-t/y^^Un Id. ix. 58.
The earlier contraction into -if- is especiaOj old Attic, but also occun in the
^p. and Dor. ; as, I Pen. ftti Soph. Ant. 18, In^rovfiti Ar. Ecd. 650, xtx^vn
Id. Ach. 10 ; 2 Pers. ^^hns Soph. Ant. 447, ^hiaia, r, 93, Iktkn^nt Ar. £q.
622 ; 3 Pen. ^n A. 70, Soph. (Ed. T. 1525, iktknfti Theoc. 10. 38. By
precession (§ 29), -n- passed into -t/-, which became the common connective^
and in the 3 Pers. sing, is already found in Hom. (arising from -ii) ; as, 1^x4^
»u 2. 557 ; so XtX^iitu Theoc. 1. 139. In the 3 Pen. pi., -*»- became -t-,
by the omission of the «, which was only euphonic in its origin (§ 179). So,
hLthe 2 Pers. pl^ pir* tor pitn, Eur. Bac 1845.

§ 304# II. The SUBJUNCTIVE takes the connecting vowels
of the Pres. ind., lengthening -«- to -ij- and -o- to -»- (§ 177).

Thus, Ind. ^•vXtu-m, Subj. /SfvXfv-w, /3«0Xivr-«* fiaukiv-u-t, fiovktv-if't,

Xiv-t-rt, fiwXU-n-rt' (/SfyXitf-tf-ytf*/, fi§pXtP'0t-90t, § 58) fi»¥Xtv»»n, fiifXw&mtri*
fiwXtu-^'fuUf fi»yXiv-^-/tMty ^«vXivr-«f-/iMM ■ (idvXtv-t-reuj fiwXU'n-rmf ^ttXtue

%99S. in. The OPTATIVE has, for its counective, i, either
alone or with other vowels (§§ 177, 184).

Rule. If the Ind. has no • connecting vowel, and the hase
ends in a, s, or o, then the i is followed hy ri in the subjective
forms, but receives no addition in the ohjective. In other
cases, the i takes before t< a in the Aor., and o in the other
teases. The connective i always forms a diphthong with the
preceding vowel.

Thns, t^vm-m'h Urm4-ttm (t ^^)t r/^t^-v, nit^^n* (t ^)> ^—XivH
in-9 (5 35), )i}«-iif-v, )«^../'^if» (5 51); fiwXtv^-as'fu, fiivXivr-ui-fun* ' /3«v-
Xtv-M-/u, ^vXW'^i'finff fi^yXtu^-M-fUj ficvX%vf'9Ufi.n^ ^•uXtvin^^m-fAnv • l-tt-fH
(5 56), iuxti'i'fUt iuMw-^i-fitfit (^ 52).

Bemarks. I. In Optatives in .inv, the n is often omitted in the Plur.,
cspedaUy in the 3d Pers., and also in the Dual ; as, UrmTfitVf IrretTrt, irrmttv
Urmrn {% 48), ^x$v0%T%f (^ 85). In the 3d Pers. pL of the Aor. paai.
the longer form is rare in dassic Greek (U«'M*^<i«r«y Th. L 88).

S. In eoHtraet mibfeetive forwUy whether Pres. or Put, the connective m often
assiynes «; as, p^xi-ti'/m, ocntr. px»t-/u or ^tXo'm-f (If 46) ; ibyytX^'m-f
(1 41, § 66).

Notes. «. Tlie Ibrm of the Opt hi ^di^ fbr .m^, is called the Attie Op-
tathet though not confined to Attic writers ; as, Utt^fii Hdt. i. 89, dtxatnrt
llieoc. 12. 28. This form is most employed in the Sing., where it is the com-
mon form *n contracts in .i« and .am, and almost the exclusive form in con-
tracts in -Ae0, In the Sd Pers. pi, it scarcely occurs io»»iv'»* Mt^Wm. 41.


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29 >. It is likewise found in the Perf., as w%w»6oUi (^ 39) Ar. Ach. 940
ixvt<pivy»ifit Soph. (Ed. T. 840, vr^^tXnXvioint Cyr. ii. 4. 17 ; and in the
2 Aor. of f;^4», to have, which has, for its Opt., ^;^«/»i» in the simple verb
(Cyr. vii. 1.36), but ^;^0i/«i in compounds {xetr&vxoti Mem. iiL 11. 11).
So Ulm (^ 56) Symp. 4. 16.

^. See, in respect to the insertion of n (i) m the Opt., § 184.

3. The Aor. opt. act. has a second form, termed jEoUc, in which the con
nective is that of the Ind. with u prefixed ; as, ^avktar'ua-t. See § 18 1. a

§ 206# IV. In the imperative and infinitive, the con-
necting vowel is -a- in the Aorist, and -«- in the other tenses.

Thus, fiavXtv^-et-Tti ^tvXtug'-et-e-^t, )30c/Xit>^-«-i, fiovXtuc-a-viat • /StfvXiv-f-ri,
&ovX%v-%-rhy fisvXtv-t-o'ficUf fitCauXtux-i-waif fi»vX$u^'t-^fiai, fiovXtvH^r-i'ff^m,

Remarks. «. Before » in the Imperative, -•• takes the place of .|., and,
in the 2d Pers. sing,, of ^. ; as, fitvXw-c-vruf, fiduXtv^-*-* (§ 210. 2).

i3. In the Infinitive of the Pres. and Fut« act, -i- is lengthened to -ii
(§ 183) ; as, ^«uXt6-ii'V, fiovXtv^-u-u

§207. V. In the participle, the connecting vowel is
-a- in the Aorist, and -o- in the other tenses.

Thus, (fiovXtvc-a-tTfy § 109) fiavXsvraff fiouXtuc-a-fiuvat * (/3«vXiv-«-vrr,
§ 109) ^auXtvattj (fitvXtV'i-vr^a-, § 132) fitvXtitvra, ()3at;Xfi;>«-vr, § 63) /Smt-
Xitftfv • fitvXtuffw (fiiC»uXiv»-i-rSj §§ 112. «, 179) j3iC«f;Xii;xjwf, (/3fC«vAit/»*
«-r0'«, § 132. I) fitSovXtvxvTa, ()3fC0vXtv»-«-r, § 103/ fiiS»yXtviccf * /3«cXiv-i-
f*tt«S, ^•uXiVff-c-fAi¥»f, ^»uXiv4nf-i-(A%i>os»

§208. The INDICATIVE, imperative, infinitive, and
participle are nude (nudus, naked) ^ i. e. have no connecting
vow^jI (§ 175),

) ) In the Aor,^ P^f'% and Plwp,^ passive^ of all verbs,

U the Aor. pass., the flexible endings are affixed, in these modes, to the
tenae^eign (§ 198); in the Perf. and Plup. pass., they are affixed to the rooti
as, iC^uXii-in-f (§ 199); fitCtuXty-fMUyiCtCtuXtu-fitif.

2.) In the Pres, and Tmpf, of some verbs in which the char
acteristic is a short voweL These verbs are termed, from the
t:Tiding of the theme. Verbs in -jut, and, in distinction from
them, other verbs are termed Verbs in -oi (§ 209).

The flexible endings are here affixed to the root; thus, l^rm-fttv, *lrrm-9af, Ur^-fufif (^ 48). In the Inf. and Part., the connecting vowels -i-
'and .0. are inserted after t ; thus, l-i-vas, (J-i-prf) mv» (| 56). So, in thff
Imperative, /tfyr^y. Cf. §§ 185. 7, 205.

3.) In a few Second Perf, and Plup, forms (§ 186).

The flexible endings are here affixed to the root; thus, frr^.^m, tfra-iif
Ura-tett (^ 48). In the Part., the connticting vowel is inserted ; as, himt
(5 58). So, in the Inf., hliimi, with which compare /i»«i, above.


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C. Flexible Endings.

^ 300. The Jlexible endings (flexibilis, change
able) are the chief instruments of conjugation,
marking by their changes the distinctions of voice^
number^ person^ and, in part, of te^e and mode.
They are exhibited in H 31, according to the classi-
fication (^^ 195, 196).

Spbgeai* Bulbs and Rkmabkb.
First Pers. Sing. The ending -fi, after -a- connective^
and, in primary forms (§ 196. 1), after -o- and •«- connec"
tive^ is dropped or absorbed ; after -oi- and -ah-, and in the
nude Present (§ 208. 2), it becomes -fn; in other cases, it be-
comes -»' ; as, (Ind. PovX^v-o-fi^ Subj. ^ovXtv-a-fi) PovXfv-v»^
P^SovUvH-n^ fOovXfva-a (so after -f«-, contr. -i^-, § 203. N.) ;
(iovXiva-ai-'fii^ jiovXfV-oi-fjii^ fiovXfva-oi-fii^ XtjTri-fii (^ 48) ; iSov^
Afw-o-F, i6h6ovXfvx-hi-v^ iCmvXfv^ri-f^ pfvXfVxtiiri-v • (fiXoiri-v^
iyykXoin-v (§ 205. 2) ; I'oti^-i', laxalri'V (IT 48). See § 181. 1.

Note. T^i^iv, for r^i^tifHf occurs for the sake of the metre Eur. Fr. Inc.

^ 3 I O. Second Pers. Sing. 1. Fi>r the form -a^a, see
^ 182.

2. The ending -& is dropped after -f- connectii^e ; after -«-
connective^ it becomes -v, with a change of -«- to -o- (§ 206. « ) ;
after a «Ao^ri votbel in the root^ it becomes in the 2d Aor. a, and
in the Pres. «, which is then contracted with the preceding
vowel («« becoming i^) ; in other cases, it becomes -&i (see
§ 181. 3). Thus, jiovXfv-s ' ^ovXiva-o-v • i^«-?, 5o-?, %-q
(UU 50, 51, 54) ; (iarrVf) loii?, (r/de-*) t/^«, {dl-6o-f) didov,
{dfixvv-f) diUvv (ITU 48-52); ipavri&i (1142), liovXtv»fiu
(§ 62), «rr«^« (U 48), fa^i, didl&i (H 58), and, in like manner,
y«^i, l^t (flU 53, 56, § 181. 3), and the poet. XXa»i Theoc.
15. 143, in6iAvv»i Theog. 1195.

Note. In composition, rrn^i, /3?^i, and 16^ (5Y 48, 56, 57) are often
shortened to rr&t /3<i, and u • as, vtt^Aars for vm^m^rtiSt, xarmCs for »«r«
Cfi^i, m-^ig-u for 9^69t4i,

3. The endings -aa* and -«fo drop the a, except in the Perf.
and PI up. pass., and sometimes in the nude Pres. and Impf.
(§ 208. 2) ; as, (/5oi/A«;-f-at, § 37. 4) /iovXevrj or flovXivtiy (ffioth.
Xtv-(-o) jSovXfvov^ {^6ovXfv-f-o) 66ovX$vov^ [iSoyXBya'a-o) iSovXtv-
out ' ftovX(v-ot-u^ ^oikfvo-m-o ' fifSovXfV-ani^ ^iSovXfv-ao^ iStSov-
Xtv-ao ' Vara-a«<t, Xom-ao and (1'cjt«-o) taioi (fl 48) ; xl^i-om


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and (T/.^«-«t) T/^iy, (t&s-o) Uov (11'50); mo-ao and (^/cJo o^
mov,i86o) dov (Vi 51). See § 182. 111.

Bemarks. (a) The Aor. imperat. is irregularly centractei ; thus, (/J«»-
Xivff-et-t) fituXwce^i. (b) The coDtraction of -tm i»to -li (§ 37. 4) is a
special Attic form, which was extensively used by pure writers ; and which,
filer yielding in other words to the eoramou contraction into -»j, remained ia
&»vXu, tSit, and ••v/^. (c) In verba in .^, -cdu remained ooare ^quaitly
than -»■«, and was the* common form if • or » preceded. Yet poet, i ritv^
^seh. Eum. 86, ^uv<f. or Jy»»j (^ 29) Soph. Ph. 798. Further particulars
respecting the use or omission of the -«-• in v^bs in -fit s^ye best leanied from
the tables and from observation.

§311. Third Pers. Sing. The ending -i becomes -ai
in the nude Pres,^ but in oth* r cases is dropped, or lost in a
diphthong ; as, {Xorti-j) l'ur»yai, Xojt} {^\ 48) ; (6ovlfvt^ i%6ovXevxt,
(povltv-i-T^ ^ovktv-t-f) ^ovXfVfi. See ^ 181. 2.

Note. The paragogk v (§ 66), which is regularly affixed only to i and
simple I, is, in a few instances, found after -n in the Plup., and follows ^ in
the Irapf. of ilfil, even before a consonant; thus, 3 Pers. piiv is {^ &8)
Ar. Yesp. 635, f^n •iVt^m (f 56) Id. Plut. 696, Wtxsi^M •U Id. Nub.
1347, \9rn»%n ahrav Y. 691, ^iZXnMn ettxf^n £.661, h h i. 2. 3. In all
these cases, the y appears to have been retained from an uncontracted form in
.•(»)• See § 203. N., 230. y. So Impf. tf^»M tl^ta F. 388.

^$812. First and Second Persons Pl., with the Dual.
1. The 1st Pers. is the same in the Plur. and Du., having, for
its subjective ending, -^cy, and for its objective^ -fitda^ or some-
times in the poets, -fiBo&a ' thus, fiovUvo-fisv, povltvo-fAh&a^
and poet. fiovXevo-fieo^a.

Note. Of the form in 'fitfw (§ 174), there have been found only three
dasaica] examples, all in the dual primary, and all occurring in poetry before
a Towel: wi^ih^fAiSof Y. 485, \tXu/».fu6»f Soph. £1. 950, i^/buifit^tv Id. Ph.
1079. Two examples more are quoted by Athenseus (98 a) from a word-
hunter (if»/*ecTo4n^ccs), whose affectation he is ridiculing.

2. The 2d Pers. pi. always ends in -«. The 2d Pers. du. is
obtained by changing this vowel into -op ; and the 3d Pers. du.,
by changing it into ~ov in the primary inflection, into -lyv in the
secondary^ and into -wv in the imperative. Thus, PI. 2, fiovlsv-
ftty i6ovXtv8T8 * Du. 2, PovXimtov^ iSovXeveToy * Du. 3, povXsitxov^
iSovXsvstfiv^ PovXivixoiv,

Rbkabk. In the $eeondary dual, the 3d Pers. seems originally to hare
had the same form with the 2d ; and we find in Horn, such cases as 3d Pers.
^iiwxir«v K. 364, nrivj^^m N. 346, XM(pvra-iT»9 2. 583, ^M^n99%0^6a¥ N. 301.
On the other hand, the lengthening to -ify (with which compare the lengthen-
ing of the Plup. affix, § 179) was sometimes extended by the Attics even to
the 2d Pera. ; as, 2d Pers. lixirnf Soph. CEkl. T. 1511, hxXmH^mv Ear. Ale.
661, ivfirnt, IxtififMirn* PI. Euthyd. 273 e.

§918. Third Pers. Pl. 1. The en ling -it, in the pri

Digitized by VjOOQIC


mary tenses ^ becomes -vat. In the secondary, after -o- or -«-
connective, it becomes -v ; after a diphthong in the Opt., -sv \
but, otherwise, -aav. Thus, {^ovXfvovai, ^ 58) ^ovXsvovai^
fiovXtvaovai^ fieSovXtvxaat, PovXbvvusi, * ioxaai, haraai (]\ 48) ;
i6ovXsv~o-v, i6ovXsva-a-v * ^ovXsvoi-sv, fiovXBvaai-aVj PovXnv^il-tv •
iStSovXsvHS-aav^ i6ovX6v&i}-auv, SoyXsv^sirj- aocy ' lata-aav^ laiij-
iay, iatairiHjar (U 48). See §§ 181, 184. (i.

2. Tn the Perf. and Plup. pass, of impure verbs, the 3d Pers.
d1. is either formed in -atai and -aio (§ 60), or, more com
monly, supplied by the Part, with sial and ^oav (fl 55) ; as»
fipdii^ajiMi Th. iii. 13, from (p^Hgat (r. qy&aQ-), to waste, ys"
yqafifiivoi tial, ys/gafifiivoi, rjoav (jj 36),

Rebiark. The forms in -arm and .«t« are termed lomie. Before tl^ese
endings, a labial or palatal mute most be rough (^, ;^), and a lingual, middle (S) ;
as, from r^i^rai (r. t^***-), to turri^ {rir^aTt-vTeu) rtr^i^arat PI. Rep. 533 b ;
from ri.99m (r. r«^-)|r/o«arwzitae, {v'tray-vrett) t»t«;^«t«i iv. 8. 5, »t«t»;j^«t*
Th. vii. 4. . , V

3. In the Imperative, the shorter forms in -nwy and -a&np
(§ 177), which are termed Attic (§ 7), are the more common.
In Homer, they are the sole forms.

Note. In t^^v and Irttv (f f 55, 56), :he old plur. form has remained
without change.

§ 9 1 41. 1. Infinitive. The subjective ending, after -«*•
connective (§ 206. ft), has the form -v ; after -a- connective, -*
forming a diphthong with -u~ ; but, in other cases, -vat. ; as,
povXtii-H'V^ fiovXivo-H-v * PovXfVO-a-i ' /ieSovXevx-s-vai, povlsv^rj"
rai ' hrtd-vai, orii-vat, koTcl-vai (fl 48). See §§ 176, 183.

2. Participle. For the change of »' to a connecting vowel
in the Perf. act., see § 179. For the declension of the Paru,
see Ch. HI., and the paradigms (IT 22).

^ 31ff* Bemarks. I. For the reoulab affixbs of the verb,
whicn are those of the euphonic Pres. and Impf., and of the regularly formed
Fat., Aor., Perf., and Plup., see H 29, 30. These affixes are open in the

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