Alpheus Crosby.

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I*res. and Impf., and date in the other tenses. For the affixes of the Pres.
and Impf. of verbs ih -/m (§ 208. 2), see 5T 29, 30. The affixes of the
2d Aor. fct. and mid. are the same with those of the Impf. (§ 199. «), or,
except in the Ind., the same with those of the Pres. (§ 169. /3). The affix-
es of the other tenses denominated second (except the nude 2d Perf. and Plup.,
§ 186) differ from the regular affixes only in the tense-sign (§ 199. II.). The
Fat. Perf. or 3d Fut. has the same affixes with the common Fut. act. and
mid. (§ 179).

2. Special care is reqpiired in distinguishing forms which have the same
letters. In ptovXivM (55 34, 35), we remark (besides the forms which are the
nme in the Plur. and Du., § 212) the following: Ind. and Subj. ^tvXtvw
Y\it. Ind. and Aor. Subj. /3«vXivr«» • Ind. and Imp. ^•vXtdrt, ^0vxU%r4t • Ind.



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j l96 AFFIXES OF CONJUGATION.— -CONTEACTION. [BOOK IIj

n. 3, and Part R. Dat. ^•vXtvtuwt, $ouXtvr»v^i • Imp. PI. 3, and Part PI
Gen. fi»vXtu»vT(UVt /Sai/Xf c/^avrwy, (itvKtv^ifTMV • Act. S. 3, and Mid. S. 2, fi9U
Xti/f4, fiauXtvffu ' Subj. Act. S. 3, and Ind. and Subj. Mid. S. 2, ^ovXiwf • Fut
Ind. Mid. S. 2, and Aor. Subj. Act. S. 3, and Mid. S. 2, ^»vXivv^ • Aor.
Imp. fiovXivcov, Fut. Part. fiouXtvc«9 • Opt. Act. S. 3, fiavkiwttty Inf. Act.
^•vXivaai, Imp. Mid. S. 2, /Sai/Xfi/rai.

3. With respect to the changes which take place in the root, or in the unioi^
of the affixes with the root, the tenses are thus associated : 1 . the Pres. and
Impf. act. and pass. ; 2. the Fut. act. and Mid. ; 3. the Aor. act. and mid.
4. the Perf. and Plup. act. ; 5. the Perf. and Plup. pass. ; 6. the Aor. and
Fut. pass. It will be understood, that whatever change of the kind mentione*!
above takes place in one of the tenses, belongs likewise to the &<^sociated tensi^,
if nothing appears to the contrary. For the Fut. Perf., see § 239.

II. Union of the Affixes with the Root

A Regular Open Affixes.

^ a 1 6. When the regular o^en affixes (^ 216. 1 )
are annexed to roots ending in a, f, or o, contrac-
tion takes place, according to the rules {W 31 - 37).
See the paradigms (HH 45-47).

Notes. «. Verbs in which this contraction takes place are termed Cow-
tract Verbs, or, from the accent of the theme, Perigpomena, In distinction
from them, other verbs are termed Barytone Verbt. See Proeodj.

;3. The verbs x««, to bum, and kXom, to weep, which have likewise the
forms na'iM and xX«i«, are not contracted. Dissyllabic Verbs m -iai admit
only the contractions into u ; thus, 9fXm, to saU, v'Xiuf m-XtTg^ vXiii 9'Xu,
itXufttVf fl'Xifri ^XtiTt, 9rXi»u^t. Except ^i*>, to bi$ui; as, to ^ovv, rip levvr
PL Crat. 419 a, b.

y. The contract Ind. and Subj. of verbs m -«m» are throughout the same. *
See ^45. The contract Inf. in i^y is likewise written without the i subsc. ;
thos, rtfiZft as contr. from the old nfiatv (§§ 25. /3, 176, 183). So ^4Xu9,
InXouv may be formed from the old pxitv^ inXitv,

B. Regular Close Affixes.

§ 917. I. When the close affixes 9re annexed
to a consonant, changes are often required by the
general laws of orthography and euphony ; as,

^(^(pot (^ 36, root y^«^-) » y^lB^^«, lyf«^^•, yiy^m^peti (§ 51) ; yiy^m^m^
lytyea^tit (§ 61) ; yiy^afAfun^ yty^ttfAfM^of (§ 53) ; yty^he forms i^ iT#, iT, JtM (cf. §§ SI 8. A, 224. £)•
The form iT, both here and in ^ 56, is either shortened from Jf (which ia iMft
used by the Attics), or is a middle form employed in its stead.

fi.) In the remaining forms of the Pres., it assumes «• (comparo § 221) ;

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GH. 9.J COMPLBTE T£lf«E8. 203

thxm, l-r-/ftl», l-r-rl, l-e-^if, l-rMw, t-f-^m^mtf Uw-rmv (§213. N.). After
the r, the r in the 3d Pers. smg. is retained ; thus, i-r-r/. Before the #, i in
tiie 2d Pers. smg. of the Imperative becomes ibj precession (cf. $ 118);
thns, 7-^ti,

y.) In the Impf. it becomes n, and may likewise assume r before r ; thns,
h, ^r% or rather ^-r-n. The Old-AU. f&rm of the 1st Pers. ^ {Ai, Av. 1 363),
and the Sd Pers. jr»» appear to have been contracted from ^m, and Hit (cf. $ 1 79,
fiOl. N., SIl. N.). For il^U, see § 182. The middU form 4/»*f» is little
nsed bf the more classic wiitan (pyr* vL 1. 9). Hm Imp. iir«, which foDowi
the analogy of the Impf., occurs but once ia the classic writers (PI. Rep.
36 1 c), and is there doubtfuL

Remarks, a. In the Put., ha^ead of U%rtuy the Attics always use the
Kudt form Urm.

b. Some regard the root of this verb as being U-, and adduce in support of
this view, the Lat. (e»mn) smm, «t, mi, (e)giimu$t mim, (e)timt, tmd tbi dan-
acrit u$mi» tuL oitL &o»

ElfUj to go.

[If 66.]

^ 33 1* (a) The Pres. of iT/m has commonly in the Ind., and some-
times hi the ottier modes, the socise of the Fnt. (§ 200. b) ; tiius, itui, (/ am
fomg) I w^ go, {b) For fuf, in the Plup., the commion Attic form was fm^
which appears to be a remnant of the old formation noticed in § 203. K. ' A
Perf. sTk, oorrespon(fing to this Plup., nowhere appears, and some regard Hu*
(omitting the < subec.) as an Impf. doubly augmented (^ 1 89). For the use
of this tense, see § 233. (c) For Jm^ and Uinr, see § 205 ; for 7fwf, § 213.
K. ; for avAi, iiif, and iitratf, § 208. 2 ; for fuf^m, ^ 182 ; for jfm in the
Sd Persn § 21 1. N. ; for f^it, fri, &a, ^ 237. {d) The middle fomu U/Mtt,
liftnf are regarded by seme of the best critics as incorrectly written for IiJimm,
iifAn*, from 1n(u (^ 54).

Kfifiaiy to lie down,
[Tea]
% 333* (a) This verb appears to be contracted from »(i/mm, a de-
ponent inflected like rfitfuu (5 50) ; thus, »««/mm mT/mm, mUfrm t$t!frmt, sito
jmT^'*, nUtrtm tuSfitUi Miftt^t »»/|^ 9H • l»9if$m Uttiftn* • mtifcfcm »%i^fuu%
In the Subj. and Opt. the contraction is commonly omitted ; thusi «U^mm,
(Ec 8. 19, xtM^irv, iy. I. 16, like rtfUfuu (also accented riitfAm) and rtfio'f
ftnt * yet «irr«4 (also written MtiTot), for »ifi«-M, T. 32, /3. 102. (6) The
Subj. sometimes retains the form of the Ind. (§ 177) ; as, Subj. ^sdrnttfuu PI.
Ph»do, 84 e. (c) We find the following forms in the dialects, some of which
bare the shorter root »i- : Pres. S. 2 Mt7»t Hom. Merc 254, S. 3 mUrat Hdt
iri. 139, PL S ziatrat X. 510, »ti»Ttu H. 527, s(««-«i A. 659, Hdt i. 14;
Impf. PL 3 Uumrt Ap. Rh. 4. 1295, »f/«r« f. 418, !»(««« Hdt. L 167, mUr*
K. 763 ; Fut. »w%vfutt Theoe. 3. 53 (§ 200. 3); old Pres. as Fut (§ 200. b)
AIM, n. 342, Mtiat r* 340. (d) Some of the best grammarians regard MtTfmt
as a Perfl having the sense of the Pres. (§ 233).

D. CJoMPLBTE Tenses.
^333* I. Id some verbs, the sense of the complete



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2M AFFIXES OF CONJltoATIOlf. [bOOK !i*

tenses, by a natural transition (see S3mtax), passes into that of
other tenses ; and the Perfect becomes, in signification, a
Present ; the Pluperfect, an Imperfect^ or Aorist ; and the
Future Perfect, a common Future. Thus, loirifii (51 48), to
station^ Pf. l<jTi?xa, (/ have stationed myself) I standi Plup. iari;
xfir, I stood^ F. Pf. l<rri}3o>, I shall stand ; fiifivrioxtay to remind,
Pf. P. fjiifivtifiai^ {I have been reminded) I remember ^ Plup. i?/i«-
/ifif/iiyy, J remembered^ F. Pf. fie/Ari^oofiai, I shall remember ;
Plup. ^^sii' (fl 56), Jt(>en«.

Remark. In a few of these verbs, ihe Pres. is not nsed, and the Pbrf. is
regarded as the theme. Such verbs, as having a preterite tense for the theme,
are termed PBETBRmvB. See ^^ 58, 59.

§ 984. II. Modes. 1. The Perfect Subjunctive and
Optative are commonly supplied by the Participle with the
auxiliary verb tifii (fl 55, ^ 169. /?) ; thus, Pf. Act. Sulj. /Jc-
SovUvntag co. Opt. fliSovXBVxwg tifjv ' Pf. P. Subj. (itSovUvfiivog cJ,
Opt, fii6ovX$vfiivog etfiv,

Rbmabks. «. Sometimes, however, the Perf. /bmu these modes according
to the general roles (§ § 204, 205, &c.), chiefly when it is employed as a
Pre$.; as, imf««, vi. 5, 10, Irw, PL Gorg. 468 b, Wrmifif, T. 101 (^ 48),
^iTthin* (§ 205. «), hVm (5 58), Rep. Ath. 1. II ; tlXtt^mrn PL Pot
269 c, 9%9rm»9i V. 7. 26, /3i€>j(«0ii» Th. ii. 48, vtivrtnxM Id. viii. 108.

/3. In the Perf. pas$.y these modes are formed in only a few pure verbe,
and in these without a fixed analogy ; thos,

»«Xi«, to call I Pf. P. MxXnfMth J Aow ^««> eaBed, I am named. Opt.
(xixXffUfHii) Mixk^/Aiivt »i»kif Soph. Ph. 1 1 9, xi»Xifrtt &c.

xT^t/iatf to acquire; Pf. xixTfifMu, I have acquired^ I possess^ Subj. (xixrc-
u-ftmt) xtxrHfAMif xtxrpf xiXTnrmt Symp. 1.8; Opt. {xtxTti-i-fcnv) xixrfftnPy
xfxrt)«, xixryr* PI. L^. 731 C, or {xtxreft^fim) xixrifftnt, »i»r^«, xixrur*
Ages. 9. 7.

ftifinifuu (§ 23.3), Subf. ^i^n^/mm, PL Phil. 31 Ay •Opt. i^t^t^fAnt H. 74.5,
fMfttnrt Ax, Vint, 991, w ^i^v^^jfn, ftt/t.vf» (or /t.i/t9M») L 7. 5, /ttfi^Sre
Cyr. L 6. 3.

For xitnfun, see If 59. Add 5^;. fitCxMt Andoo. 22. 41, rtr^ff##tf» PL
Rep. 564 c ; 0/)<. XfX?T# r. 238 (cf. § 2'26. 4).

§ 333. 2. The Perfect, in its proper sense^ may have the
imperative in the Sd Pers. pass. ; but, otherwise, this mode
belongs only to those Perfects which have the serise of the
Pre^. ; and, even in these, the Imperative active is scarcely
found except in the nude form of the 2d Perf (§§ 237, 238) ;
yet nvatyf^ xexgd/tte (§ 238. /J), yfyavs Eur. Or. 1220, /Jctfij-
x«Tw Luc. de Hist. Scrib. 45, ioixhm lb. 49. •

§ 336. in. Vowel Changes. The affi.xes in -a, -nn of

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CH. 9.] COMPLBTfi TENSES. 206

the Second Perfect and Pluperfect are annexed with the
following changes in the preceding syllable.

1.) e becomes o, and n becomes ot ; as, fisva, to remain^
2 Pf. fiifiora * diyxofiai^ to 566, poet, dsdoQxa ' X$inoty IsXoma
(fl 37) ; n$l&a, ninoida (U 39).

Notes, (a) The same changes take place in the Ist Perf. and Flap,
of a few verbs ; as, «Xi«'r«», to steai^ »i»Xo^a • rfivfj to *«m, rir^o^a • vifA*
«r«, to send, vmfi^m • 'hiluxct (^ 58). (6) Analogous to the change of i
into «, is that of n into •$ in fytyvvfju, to break, 2 Pf. iffttyet. (c) In the fol-
lowing Perfects, there appears to be an inseition of # or •» (§ *22i>. fi) : &yat,
to lead, ayn»x» (^ 191. 2), Dem. 239. 1. Uft»t, to eat, iUlojKt, iv. 8. 20 (Ep.
Pf. P. iJ«3«^«i, X' 56), «W« (r. U'\tobewont, preteritive, o'!x»'*» (§ 22i :J).
{d) In the following dialectic forms, the change or insertion of vowels has
extended to the patthe : it^ittvrttt (§ 229. e) ; it^v y. 272, Theoc. 24. 43,
for Ht^Tt or if^Ttf, Phip. S. 3 of ai/(*> or «?'(«», to raUe; inix'^To li. 340, Plup.
PI. 3 of Uix" ' i^^'>/*»t (N. c).

2.) Short o, I, or u, before a single consonant^ is lengthened
(a, not preceded by e or ^, § 29, becoming jj) ; as, (puiro)^ ns-
<pi?i'« (H 42 ; r. (pav-) ; ^dUo), <o bloom^ Tt^i^ka • ayvifii (r. «/-),
to breaky %uya * x^a^ai, nixqaya (^ 238. /?) ; xcx^(/nr (r. x^(/ ),
to creaky pret. ; fivxtiofiai (r. ^vx-), to bellow^ fiifivxa.

Exceptions. After the Attic rednplication, the short vowel remains ; as,
KiiXvlai (§ 191. S). In xirjKw (r. Xcx-), to Mmiu^, « is not changed into ir
in the Att ; thos, 2 Pf. x.ix£»a, Ar. Ach. 410 (XtXuxo, X. 141).

§98 7. IV. Nude Forms. In the Second Perfect and
Pluperfect, the connecting vowel is sometimes omitted in the
Indicative plural and dual (^ 186). When this omission takes
place, (a) the Ind. sing, is commonly supplied by forms from
a longer base (cf. § 201. N.); which forms likewise occur in
the plural and diudy but less frequently ; (b) the Subj., Opt.,
Imp., and Inf. are formed after the analogy of verbs in -/i* ;
(c) the Part, is contracted, if the characteristic is a or o.
Thus,

Pf. Ind. Sing. Urtixm (^ 48 ; r. ^rm-, base l^r«-, prolonged to lrri»»-,
§ 186), Uni»»frt^rfixt, PL trTd-fAiv PI Gorg. 468 b, and rarely Urii»a^iv,
t^ri^t, (trr«-fri, Xrra'ttet^ § 58) \0rei01 (i^rnxtfri A. 434) ; Subj. (Ivra-J)
UrZ, and Iff-nix** • Opt Irvainv (poet.) ; Imp. Uri-ft (poet) Ar. Av. 206 ;
Inf. Wrifms iv. 7. 9 ; Part Ep. Irra-tif, -irot T. 79 (also Urnt^s Hes. Th.
519), commonly oontr. Xwrif (^ '22. 8) i. 3. 2, (lrT«-fl-<rr«) i^r«lr«, (Itf-rae-
«-f) \rrt»t and sometimes, by syncope, \»rcs PL Parm. 146 a, Ion. \9Tu*i
(§ 48. 1), .^r«f Hdt li. 38 ; also UrmUts PL Meno, 93 d. Plup. Sing, i^rn-
»tn or iiVnfJKiif, -ij#, -i/, P/. t^ru-fttf, t^rA-rt, X^rA-trat L 5. 1 3 (irTi{»ir«»
Cyr. Tiii. 8. 9).

i^rxM, to die (r. ^«»-, ^»«-, § 64), Pf. Ind. ^injr. ti^»»j»« (base n^v«-,
ri^vn*.), ^f, -I, FL riitm/itt PL Gorg. 492 e, rifpari, rtfvin It. 2. 17, />«.
ri#»«r«» iv. 1. 19 ; Suhj. rt^9n»»t, Th. viii. 74 ; Opt. rt^tminf, Cyr. iv. 8. 3 ;

18



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20l') AFFIXKS OF CONJUGATION. [bOOK II

Imp. rUfm^i X. 865, rt0*dTt0 PI. Leg. 933 e, &o. j Inf n^Straw Mem. i. %
16, Ttivfixitat Soph. Aj 474, and Poet. (Tf^i»«-«.i'ai) Ttfititai JEach. Ag. 539
Part, ri^mw (fern. J. 734), r%hS.-vt^ Find. Nem. lO. J 39, commonly contr.,
with « inaerted (cf. §§ 3«, 4^. l)» n^M^^. -i5#«, '«;i or .«^ vii. 4. 19, r. 331,
£p. rt^yiMvi or ri^»ii4v^, ^r^f or -«<rtff, «. 289» P. 435. Plup. Sing. IrtStfi'
muff 'USt '*h ^^' ififvttf***, 'Ti, -r«y H. Gh% tL 4* 16.

PC Ind. Sing. m*iM Cyr. i. 4. 12, and )i^i« Soph. (Ed. G. 1469 (^ 58 ,
base ^1^/-, hhtK'), Vthsxmf and ^i^Mf , ^Hmxi and ^t^n • Fl ^/^it Th. liL 53,
^i^ri, ()i)<y0-i» § 58) ^i^ari PL ApoL 29 a ; Stibj. Witt • Imp. ^<^/^i Ar.
"^esp. 373 ; Inf. ^i^atM (§ 208. 3) Rep. Ath. 1. 11, and h'^otxiyat Eur. Sup.
548 ; Part, h'^mt PI. Prot. 320 a (contr. or sync. h/^uTat Ap. Rh. 3. 753),
and WMKsit Eur. Ion, 624. Plup. Sing. ihhtMuv PL Charm. 175 a, and
*MUn, 'Utt 'U • PL *%iiiifAt9y Ui^iri, iititfat PL Leg. 685 C (Ui^MSf^Av ilL
5. 18).

Pf. Ind. Sing. <31« (^ 58 ; base 1*^, «j'^), «?r^a (for «n-r^«, § 182 ; «!)«»
scarot occurs m the Att, yet Eur. Ale. 780 ; the Att. poets, by a mingling
of forms, sometimes use •tv^ms Eur. Ion, 999), «Di • PL (T^^iv, § 53) 7rp*f
ii. 4. 6, (7^«-i, § 52) /rrf, (^^vr/, the I becoming f in imitation of the other
persons) Udirt, and rarely •t^fA%t PL Ale. 141 e, tfT^n, •Tim^f Imp. (T^^j)
7^^4 ii. 1. 13. Plup. Sing. Hiuf, PL fhifitt. Sec, and poet, (^/km) ftrfut Eur.
Hec 1112, (p-rt) fim, (^W«f) fr«y .£sch. Prom. 451.

Plup. Sing, fkt* (^ 56), ^lif, jIm, i% jfttftn, -n, commonly ^» PL Bepw
328 b, frt vii. 7. 6, ^trjM Cyr. iv. 5. 55, sometimes Ion. J^ttv r. 445, Hdt.
ii. 163.

§ S3 8. In the following examples, the nude forms are
chiefly poetic, and, in part, Epic only.

«. PXTRE. &^i9Tm»t, to dine ; Pf. PL I fi^UvUfut Ar. Fr. 428, Lsf. H^t^ttm
Ath. 423 a. In imitation of these comic forms, we find also, from iuw/ut, te
tup, tthi99&/Ai9 and hhivviimi Ath. 422 e, Ar. Fr. 243.

fietifntf to go; Pf. (iiCtixei. (r. (itt-), 2 Pf PL poet. ^iCetfAttf ^iZari, (itCadn
B. 134, 3«f«(fi» Soph. El. 1386 ; Subj. PL 3 ^if«/i PI. Fhaedr. 252 e ; Inf.
^iZivai Eur. Heracl. 610, Hdt. iii. 146 , Part Ep. jStfo^f, -!/?«, -«^«f, E.
199. n. 81, Att. contr. ^if«#, -*!#«, -M^r^f, Soph. Ant. 67, 996, (Ed. C. 314,
H. Gr. vii. 2. 3, PL Phcdr. 254 b. 2 Hup. PL ICifa^t*, -An, -<r#«f B. 720.

^t^^^trxm, toMti XVt /3iCe«'«« (r. f^*-), 2 Pt Part {^^t-^i) ^S^,
'Sroe, Soph. Ant 1022.

yiyvafiect (r. y«-, yi»-, yiyt-), to become ; 2 Pf. tyiyovu, poet iV. 2 ytyauiTt
(Ep. for yiy&Ti) Horn. Batr. 143, 3 ^ty^^tf'/v A. 41 ; Inf. yiyeifiiv (Ep.
for yiy«i»aM) E. 248 ; Part Ep. ytyMf, -u7et, -tirot, V. 1&9, I. 456, Att
contr. yiyMti -»i(rat, -ttrcft Eur. Ale 532, 677. Plup. Du. 3 yiytirny ». I .^8

(AifMvet (r. ftM', Miv-, § 236. \), to be eager, pret, E. 482, f*ifA4vets iEsch.
Sept 686, ftifAon Soph. Tr. 982, PL /«t/««^i» I. 641, /tM/*«rt H. 160, fu-
fieimft R. 208, Du. fiiftavot 0. 413 ; Imp. S. 3 /itfAirat A. 304 ; Part /m*
fn&mi 'vTm, 'tHroi, A. 40, 440, 0. 118, and fitueUigy 'irtf, II. 754, B
818. Plup. PL 3 fii/ui^m9 B. 863.

Ttvrtf, to fall; 1 Pf. vivrtxet (r. «•«-, <rT#-) ; 2 Pf. Part.Ep. «^irri«f
'£rt, O. 503, and ^t^rrfms, •!/;«, -ir^j and -«r#f, ». 98, Ap. Rh. 2. 832
Att contr. «r««rrjwf, -«rr«f, Soph. Ant 697, 1018.

rirX»»»« (r. TX4i-), to Acer, pret, P/. rtrXm^it y. 311 ; Imp. rirXmii A.



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01... 9.] €OK?LKT£ XETiSfiS. S67

586 ; Inf. TgrXafAtf (Ep. for rtrkdveu) y. 209; Part, rirkn^s^ -i/7«, -«m.
w, 23, E. 873.

/5. Impure. In the nnde, fonns of the fifst four verbs mentioned below,
r passes mto h<t after the analogy either of the 2d Pers. sing., or of the
•bJKtim iaflectioii.

ivetyetf to commandy poet, preteritive, PL awy/Lnv Horn. Ap. 528 ; Imp.
avetyi Eur. Or. 119, and &vti>x^t Id. Ale 1044, kvttyirv /3. 1 95, and (»iwy«-*>)
l*ix^t0 A. 189, PL aviyirt >^. 132, mtatx^i Eur. Here. 241.

K^ot^t, commonly 2 Pf Kin^&ytt, to cry; Imp. jtix^ax^t Ar. Yesp. 198,
FZ. tcttt^ayirt lb. 4 1 5, and Jtkn^etx^i Ar. Ach. 335.

• Syi/^w, 4t> rotMe; 2 Pf. iy^vyt^ • Imp. PZ. 2 Xy^v^yt^h 2. 299 ; Inf. i^^n*-
yo^0at (as if from iy^vy^^fMu) K. 67.

Teifx**t to suffer ; 2 Pf ir<T«v^«, -P/. 2 («r«<rflf^ri, «'ir0i>rri, § 52, wi^tvTi^

1 55) «'i«-»^^ r. 99, «. 465.

fwjMB, to bt Wte, pret. (base uV, l«»-, §^ 191. 3, 236. l), PL trag. I«<y^»
Soph. Aj. 1239, Du, Ep. i;«r#y J. 27, Plup. «f*rn» A. 104.

hX'^f*^*^ *ocome; 2 Pf. lAiiXi/^a, Ep. PZ. 1 tlXnXwfifctv (§ 47. N.) 7. 81.

v-ivM^M, to <nw^ (^ 39 ; base ff-iW-, wntui-, 9t9^t0-, § 236. 1 ) ; Im]L
trag. irUuttt .^sch. Earn. 599 ; Plnp. Ep. PL 1 Iv-i^r/^^iy B. 341.

^339* v. FxTTURE Perfect, or Third Future. The
Put. Perf. unites the hose of the Perf. with the c^es of the
tui, act. and mid. ; as, (laTi^x-ao), fl 48) I(jt^^, {y^yftafp-oofim^
\^ 36) yfyQoiipofim.

Rehabks. 1. The Fat. F^. is scarcely found in Uquidjretha, or in verbs
.eg^ning with a vowel (9np6^nfiau Find. Nem. 1. 104, tl^^a-aftMi, 5 ^8, Cyr.
vii. i . 9), and is f^nent in those verbs only in which it has the seme of the
eommon future (§ 233).

2. (a) Of the Fut Perf act, l^e only examples in Attic prose are hrvniit
and ri^vii^M, both formed from Perfects having the sense of the Pres., U»rn»»
and ri^Mixa (§§ 233, 237), and both giving rise to middle forms of the same
signification (§ 166. 2), Irni^fl^MM and rt^tn^tf^MB/. (b) Other examples of a
reduplicated Fat. in the active voice are rtv^wtt Ar. Pax, 38 1 , and the Ep.
itxetx,^^»»i Horn. Merc 286, Mtxniwmj p. 153, vtmHft X. 223, «i;^«^«^A»,
O. 98 (also »f;^«^ifr0^4, y^. 266), all fh)m verbs which have reduplicated

2 Aorists (§ 1 94. 3). (c) Other examines of the Fut Perf. ndd, with the
Perf. cui.f are xixXayy^ »%xXtiyl^»fMu Ar. Yesp. 930, xix^Myet, xtx^al«fuu
Ar. Ran. 265, «i»ii^«, xtxainv^ftai, 0. 353. (d) An example of a redupli-
«ated Fat mid. with a reduplicated 2 Aor. is vri^tinrtfAeuy 0. 215.

§ 940. VI. The student will observe, in respect to the
complete tenses, the following particulars, which are far more
striking in the Act. than in the Pass, voice (§ 256) ; 1. their
defective formation ; 2. the entire want of these tenses in many
verbs ; 3. the comparative infrequency of their use ; and 4. their
more frequent occurrence in the later than in the earlier
writers.



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208 AFFIXES OF CONJUGATION. [bOOK U.

DLAXECTIC FORMS.

A, Contraction.

§ S 411 • Forms which are contracted in the Att. (and which are alat
commonly contracted in the Dor., but often with a different vowel of contrac-
tion) mure frequently remain uncontracted in Ion. prose, while the Ep. has
great freedom in the employment of either uncoiitractedy contracted^ or variously
protracted forms. Here belong, Ontract Verbs in .«*>, -lar, and-«M (^ 216)^
the Uquid, Att., and Dor. Fut. (§ '200), the Aor. Pass. Sabj. (§ 199), the
Subj. of Verbs m -fii (§ 226), and the 2d Pers. Sing, in -tu and -« (§ 210
S). In these forms, the first vowel is either (I.) a, (II.) i or i}, or (UL) e^
Of these, i or fi is far the most frequently uncontracted.

§ 343* I. TTte first vowd a. (a.) In the Ion., the « is commonly
contracted or changed into i (§ 44. 2) ; and when » with an O vowel is con-
tracted into «, i is often inserted (§48. 1, cf. § 35). Thus we find, as va-
rious readings, i^mtTu^ i^iovrtf^ and a^Lvtrif, Hdt. i. 82, 99. So IttfSfAiw
i. 120, ot^iofMt ii. 131, ;^(«(r^dM vii. 141, ;^(nr^aM ( SB. a) i. 47, ;^^ii«-^ai
157, ix(iti*T» 53, x^it* (for ;^(««i') 155, ifAn^mviar» (for Iftn^atinrt^ one f
dropped ; see §§ 243. 2, 248, /) y. 6'6 • Subj. of Verbs in -fu, ^wutfttim
iv. 97, 2 Aor. srU^iv or xriAf^fv ;^. 216, for «r<uv^iy, contr. »T£fitt (see also
b. below).

Note. In the 2 Pers., the termination -m* commonly remains ; as, 1;^^*
r«« Hdt. i. 117, Wlfrmt viL 209.

(b.) In the Ep., protracted fbrms are ipade by doubling the vowel of con*
traction, either in whole, or in part (i. e. by inserting one of its elements, or
its corresponding short vowel, commonly « with *», and £ with «, § 48) ; and
sometimes by prolonging a short vowel, particularly i used for « to n ; as,
i^auty contr. 0^*1 r. 234, protracted i^itt E. 244, i^atit i^ig A. 202, i^mft
H. 44^, i^ecMv i(£v E. 87-^, e^ot^v A. 350, i^cmvatt A. 9, i^ar^ai X. 156,
i^matfffiat r. 107, i^ivn A. 347, avrioMretv A. 31, ««-;^«X«^ B. 2!)3, uv^xXm'.
fv 297, ifAvaiovTo 686, ytkietvTK 9» 40, ytXtitvrts HI, aA.«M (Imp. for ayAoVj
-«) f. 377 ; fA^eutvSxt «. 39, fAtvottmm N. 79 (/ui»«/»i«y M. 59), $^a^*i0'/ «. 324 ;
%ftio4ftt 317, iiZm9t(M H. 157 {itZSfAi 13:^), {fnveito^ fitti^Vy fi*»i) fAVM» Ap. Rh.
]. 896, »«<i<r««r>j F. 387 ; fAtfMvnria-i 0. 8', for fi-ttotvari, xi^otn I. 20:^ for
si^ai* Att. Fut.'U««»r< N. 315, ii.'319, sXaay i. 290 (see § 200. 2); x^tfMi
H. S3 *. 2 Aor. Subj. of Verbs in .^<, mi»jj P. 30, rrjtjj E. 598, ^rtUftt* O.
297 (rTift»A*«» A. 348), ^Htt^t P. 95, ^Tii«T«» «•. 183; '/Si/*» Z. 113, for ^S
(1 ^7), /3i)i} I. 501, fit/»fAtt K. 97 {^iufittt Udt. vii. 50. 2).

Notes. I . « is not prefixed, when the flexible ending begins with r ; as
in «(«-«-i, ifi-rat. Yet "i&reti Hes. Sc 101, for irat (« being resolved into
«i, § 29).

2. We also find in Ion. prose, in imitation of the Ep., xofAi»t^i Hdt. iv. 191t
ny^^iatw vi. 1 1. So Dor. xoft^tttrt Theoc 4. 57.

(c.) The Dor. sometimes contracts « with an O sound following into £
and commonly a with an E sound following into n {h 45. 1,4); as, vtivivn
Theoc 15, 148, ^i«<r««y«^«f Ar. Ach. 751 ; 1 Aor. Sing, 2 Wmla Theoc. 4
28, for iT*i^««, ^, H^m. Ar. Ach. 913; roXft^s Theoc. 5. 35, X^i 64, o^nn 1 10
r«y«» Ar. Ach. 778, \^»trn 800. The latter contraction appears in some Ion
prose-writers (as Hipp. ; so ^vfunrm Hdt iv. 75) ; and in the Ep. ifim I



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OH. 9.] DIALECTIC FORMS. 209

S43 (written hy tamit t^m, as if from If^/u^, and in the Dn. forms, «*£«#•»
hiTti9 A. 136, ^vXtlrn* N. 202, etnmfrnrnf «*• 333, ^mthVhv M. 266.

§ 343*- II. The JirU vowd % or n, (a.) In Ion. prose, contraction
m commonlj omitted, except as m and too often become %v \ as, tm/« Hdt. i.
88, iTMUf 39, l«'«/ft 22, v^itifUff 78, w'Mftf/cciftff 68, w-Mivn 131, v^tttufjtm-
i^tvfitfos ix. 1 1 ; Fat. rtiftmtim lb. i. 75, »t^)cf luf 35, l^utf 5 ; Aor. Subj
mrat(i0ii0 lb. ill 65, f«v/A»#4 i. 41, ^Urrj iv. 71 (see § 226. l) ; 2 Pers. fitu.
XtMSy rtuiitat lb. L 90, iyiM* 35, Utu vii. 209.

Notes. 1. In like manner, t«, used for «• (§ 242. a), may become v ; as,
•i^Tivf Hdt. iu. 140, tl^mnvfrmt 62 (ii^ArruvvTM v. 13). So in the Dor.,
^urtvf X^AOC i. 81, TtXivvri 90^ fbr ytk^ptrt, &C

2. If If is followed by another distinct vowel, one t is often dropped ; afl^
faCimt, ptCU Hdt. vii. 52 (f tfCiv i. 9), for poCiuu, poZuo, So Ep. Uxi« fl,
202, flrjwxtt or ff-A^xUi ^ 8 1 1 . A similar omission of • appears in dt»*Mtu
Theog. 73.

3. After thto analogy of the contract Pres., the Ion. extends the 2 Aor. Inf.
in 'ii9, as if formed by contraction, to -tuf ; as, tiiup, vu^iu* Hdt i. 32, ^v.
yiu9 1, B. 393 {(pvyiTv 401), Wtiiw A. 363.

4. The Ion. oft^i renders impure verbs pure, by the insertion of its favorite
• (§ 48. 1) ; as, ^u/*CeiXXMfit94f (cf. ^intCtikXiro) Hdt. L 6S, lyi/;^if 118, «yi«.
fiU9§f iiL 14, itivtioua-s 98.

(b.) The Ep. conmionly omits contraction if the last vowel is *», ^, m, or tv
(^except in the Aor. pass, snbj., and in the Perf. subj. tii£) ; but otherwise
employs or omits it according to the metre (i«, when contracted, becoming tv ;



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