Alpheus Crosby.

A grammar of the Greek language online

. (page 21 of 53)
Online LibraryAlpheus CrosbyA grammar of the Greek language → online text (page 21 of 53)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


yet tvo^avf A. 308, etn^ fibroin v. 78). Synizesis is frequent when i pre-
cedes a long O vowel, and sometimes occurs in 101*, and even in tat. The Ep.,
also, often protracts t to li, and sometimes doubles the vowel of contraction 4.
Thos, ^iXtM ; 305 (yet pXoln \ 692, and ^•^•in «. 320), ptXi^/itf 4, 42, 0/»tM-
r* A. 18, 9tt(fifi£/itf X. 381, tiiS A. 515, tt^Ut w, 236 ; (ptXu B. 197, p.
Xiu I. 342, 7/^11 P. 86, Vfftt N. 539, U^ r. 254, Utctt A. 563, Utrteu 2. 95,
IrriM Z' 33, ytmrtm B. 367, ^viwrf 365 ; ftuitlat i. 1 80 (jAvfictt or /cu/^iif
/3. 202, § 243. a. 2), m7«< X. 114, for fAvfttai, »»mm • frXi^ X. 281, Wxt»

Y. 69, f^«C" ^ ^^0» ^e*?**' ^* 395, MXfv A. 477, ««Xt«f ^. 550, xaXtutv
B. 684; viixiitf A. 359, WtXtitr* A. 5, i^tiefttv 62, }^i/0 A. 61 1, tf-frirtf K.
285 , Aor. Pass. Subj. ^m/ntiat ^. 54, ^a/uiiin r. 4.S6, ia/tnif X. 246, )aA«S''*«^
H. 7V ; 2 Aor. Subj. of Verbs in -^, :^i/« FT. 83 (;»«•» Hdt. i 108 ., Si/jw
». 341^ i^f/^ 301, «»i)^ B. 34, S^iAf^iv ar. 485, :^i«Vif A. 143, ;^i/d^ai 2. 409.




REiiABKS. «. Some varieties of the Dor. change t» into t« or la^ and tm
into i«; as, fMy'f^ts Ax, Lya. 1002, ifum^ttm 183, ftr«iv/«f 198, for ^yu^tv,
-tfv^iy, if»»ufAt0»f i^mttSt

fi. The later Dor., frt>m the influence of analogy (§§ 44. 1, 248. d), hai
sometimes m for n, in verbs in -U ; as, pXM^S Theoc. S. 19, )«#«# 5. 118
80. Aor. Pass. Irv^Af Id. 4. 53.



Digitized



by Google



21t> AFFIXES OF OONJOOi^TION. | BOOK IK

^ 844« ni. The ftrtt wmd «* (a.) fieratiSe loitv and T>«r. vidatSkf
employ contraction, following the ooromen rultt, exeepi ttuU tbe Ion. some*
times uses %u for ou, and the Dor. m and w for «v and «* (§^ 44. 4, 45. 3) ; as,
^txtuivtrt Hdt. i. 133, l^jaMc/it/v vi. 1.5, »lM%twvrai i. 4, rrt^itytt/iKraM tUI. 59;
vTvftly Ar. Lys. 143, /MirrfyZt Epich. 19 (1). The Dor. « is likewise iiee4
by other dialects in fHyojm, to be cold, and in the Ion. li^iw, to awe&t ; as, ftyHv
Ar. Yeip. 446 (^/yflv* Cyr. v. 1. 11), ^tyf PI. Gorg. 517 d ; j\»i<rmi A. 598.

(b.) The £p. sometimes protracts the to *», and sometimes employs tho
combination mw after the analogy of verbs in -ii*> ; as, t^^mavra, 2. 372, t^^at.
MW« A. 119, y^nvtfrat 1. 48 ; msimm *, 108, ^7imr9 N.675, ^0^*1'^. 2\16\
2 Aor. Subj. of Verbs in -fn, y^m ^118, kh^tt A. 405, latif ft. 216, Im^n^
A. 324 (^fri 129), l^^f^u H. 299 (^a*«v "F. 537), ^ii^iy A. 137.

B. Tknsb-Sions.

^ 94:4B« 1. In verbs in .^«r, the Dor. commonly employs | for 0-, in
the Put and Aor. ; as, xaftlat Theoc. I. 12, for xai'tcatt from xet^i^m, x'^i'^
5. 71, ixafn^ttv Find. N. 2. 31. This change appears also in a few o^er
verbs in which short « precedes; as, y%Xa^as Theoc. 7. 42, l^^a^a 2. 115,
from ytkeiv (§ 219. «), pieipw (§ 278). Similar forms sometimes occur in
other poets besides the Dor., for the sake of the metre ; as, ^^tn^tldfttv*
Mach, Sup. 39, iXj^tt Ar. Lys. 380, U^Xi^cj (^Xvm) Ap. Rh. I. 275.

2. In the Put act and mid., the Dor. commonly adds to the tense^sign 1,
which is then contracted with the connecting vowel ; as, (f 0-i*») f^Z Theoc
1. 145, {ftritfuu, § 45. 3) f^tvfuu 3. 38, wtmtrtTt .3. 9, &lp I. 11, «r4^^/^l7 6.
81, hliurmt Call Lav. 116, y^vXKt^Trt Ar. Ach. 746, wtt^mrtt^h 743, for
^«, fW0fuu^ &c See $ 200. S.

3. The Ep. employs the Att Fat (§ 200. 2), both uneoniracted, contracted,
and protracted; and has also other examples of the Fut with «* dropped (or
df the Pres. used as Fut) ; as, ifou A. 365, l^vov^s 454, ;^ii;a» /3. 2-22. Sd
i»yiym»9rtu (from Pf. base ytym», see §§ 238. «, 239. c) Horn. Yen. 198.

4. The formation of the I Aor. withont r is extended, (a) in th6 Ion. and
poet language, to a very fow liquids, in which the characteristic is preceded
by a diphthong (cf. § 222. 2), or by another consonant; thus, itvrw^f A*
mSy Jt9rnv(M .£0dL Ptom. 28, l^av^dftn* Hipp., tS^mr* Ap. Bh. 4. 1I33»
w^^mtv Hipp. L 80 : (6) in the Alex, and Hellenist dialects, to A number of
verbs which in the dassie Greek employ the 2 Aor. ; as, Mmr% Mt 35. 36,
m9itXmr» Acts 7. 21.

5. For the doubling of r by the poets, especially the Ep., to make a short
vowel bng by position (jMiXirrtr« A. 54, tfttwtrn 76, Ix^w^trnt 147), See § 71.
For Ep. examples of r retained in liquid verbs, see § 56, &, In jf (xxm» H
651, ^. 334, the X is doubled to compensate for the loss (f the r.

C, Ck)NNECTlNO V0WEU8.

^ 346* 1. For -««. eoMfMcdve, the Dor. and .£ol. sometimes employ
n- (§ 44. 4); as, UiXnr^a Theoo. 29. 4, for i^iXi«f, iv^«» 11. 4, for tv^i7v,
&yfi9 Sapph. 1. 19. For the Dor. forms in -tf and -ly, see $ 183. N.

2. The Dor. and .£ol. sometimes give to the Perf. the connectmg vowd of
the Pros. (§ 185), especially m the Inf. ; as, hhixst Theoc 15. 58, for ^«i»
•a, w*9-09^nf 10. 1 (see 1. above), ivai<rii 5. 7, ^%9»i$u 5. 28; lof. %^%t»m



Digitized



by Google



CH. 9.] DULBJTIC FORMb. 211

1. 102» ytySiMu* Find. O. 6. 81), rt^fcmi* Sapph. S. 15; Part. •i^.X^avrcf
Find. P. 4. 318, rtp^»*9Tiit 325. Instances likewise occur in the £p. of the
Peif. passing over into the form of the Pres., and of the Plop, into that of
tiie Impf. ; as, »$»kny»9Ttti M. 1 25, if^ytvrt Hes. Sc. 228 ; I^i^hxm* i. 439,
irip9M0f Hes. Th. 152.

KoTB. In this way new verbs arose, not confined to the £p. ; as, from
ifitytti kftiytt, vo order, O. 43, A. 287, Hdt. vii. 104, Impf. iif0yf I. 578
{i^atyft H. 394), F. avj»^ «-. 404, A. Htmltt, Hes. Sc 479 ; from «fXi»«,
«Xi»«, to destroy f 2. 17^, A. 10, Soph. Ant. 1286 ; from yiy^fttf yiyinat
and yi9<«viVxA», to cry aloud,

3. In the Snbjnnctive, the Ep. often retains the old short connective
(§ 177), for the sake of the metre; ba^ ityii^ofAiv A, 142, ttfttty \yu^9fi,tt
B. 440, ^tifAi0ta. H, 87, ^^itreu T. 173, ii^«^i» A. 363, tfittt 0. 18.

4. In the following poet chiefly Ep. forms, the connecting vowel is omitted :

•.) Of Pure Verbs. «yvAr, to accomplish; Impf. HvOr* «. 243, '£»£«-•
Theoc 2. 92, "ifefitg 7. 10.

i^vM, Ion. and Poet, si^v^t, to draw. Mid. to draw to one^s sdf, to protect ; Act
Inf. i/^v^iMii Hes. Op. 816; &Iid. t^Dras Ap. Kh. 1208, ti^tarat A. 239,
iciif* X. 507, if^5r« A. 138, gt^iir^ 11. 542, t^vvro Theoc. 25. 76, «7^i/»Ttf M.
454, t^ufPat i. 484, il^vf^ttt yj,, 82 ; Pass. ?^t/r« Hes. Th. 301 ; fh)m the
shorter ^ueftmt, iffvr* Soph. (Ed. T. 1352, ftetT« 2. 515, /v0'^a< 0. 141 ; Iter.
fvwxiu ft. 730.

nuft to thake, wivrtu Soph. Tr. 645^

frtvrmt, he tahee his stand, purposes, F. 83, ^Ttvfrmi JEach. Pen. 49, mv««
B. 597, X. 583.

rmvvm, to stretch ; raiSreu P. 393.

/L) Of Impure Verbs. n«, ocanm. Itrfm, to satf hd, O/umw A. S45.

XfiVw, to leave; Impf. Ixi/vr* Ap. Rh. 1. 45.

rl^ to lay waste. Inf. Pass. («'i^.#/ai, § 60) w-S^^m IL 708.

fi(t, to bear; Imp. pi^t L 171.

fuki^wm, to woateh (r. ^i;X«».) ; Imp. ir^«^vX«;^^f (c£ $ 288. /3) Horn.
Ap. 538.

Z>. Flexxbuk Endings.

% 347. a. 2<i Perf. ^n^ (a) For the ibnn ^«, see § 182. H.
(h) For nnoontraeted, rarioosly contracted, and protracted objective fcHins,
■ee § 243. (c) The Ep. sometimes drops r m the Perf. and Plop. pass. ; as,
(Ai/t^nm <t. 442, contr. ftiftfif 0. 18, Theoc 21. 41, ^iCXnm E. 284, U^v
n. 585. (^ On the other hand, in the S. S., we find «■ retained in some
fo&tract ibrms, and in the Presents having the sense of the Fat 9'U/tm, ^my-
/MM* thni, {ftmyx^ms) Mm»x»^»» Bom. 2. 17, HmMtu Lk. 16. 25, ir/irou.
p£ywm Id. 17. 8.

b. lie Ptrs. PUamd Du. The Dor. nses -/Mf for .^t (§ 70. 3) ; as, ^i.
hixofut Theoc I. 16, tSi^fMi 2. 25. For the endings .^r^« and .^t^0y,
see ^ 212.

^ 948. c Sd Fers. PL (a) For the Dor. .m-i, see § 181. «.
^6) The iEoL oses -wtj for .mi#4, and -Mt^t for -d^t (^ 45. 5) ; as, »^r«iri



Digitized



by Google



212 AFFIXES OF CONJUGATIOir. BOOK H

Ale. 7 (t), rr^^Mr/ Find, P. 9. 1 10, fair/ Sipph. 35 (88). (c) In the Alex-"
andrine Gre^ we find -at for -m^t of the Perf., and -omv for -«» of the Ini|}f.
as, vi^^Txav Lye 252, l^y^xay St. Jn. 17. 7 (SO j«^7«i» Horn. Batr. 179)
U^ei^offuv Lyc. 21, Ma^at LXX. Ps. 79. 1, «J«X«aw<r«» Rom. 3. 13. So, in
the Opt., i7vif»9 Ps. 35. SSf vomveti^ett Deut. 1. 44, for iItmiv, <r»tnrtM9
{d) Rare instances occur in the poets of -art in the Perf. with a short penult
(cf. § 45. 5) ; thus the old reading Xt\cyx^^** A.. 304, nvivKxvn Antim

(e) In the nude Impf. and 2 Aor., and in the Aor. pass., the £p. and Dor.
often retain the older ending -» (§ 181. y) ; as, la-r** A. 535, Pind. P. 4.
240 (frrD<r«« N. 488), ?•» M. S3, Pmd. I. 1. 34, n'Mt Id. P. 3. 114, H/^v
Horn. Cer. 437, ty*»t Pind. P. 4. 214, and lytot* lb. 9. 137, l(pSt i. 481,
Pind. P. 1. 82, ^yi^iv A. 57, rg«^i» 251, (pimtht 200, Mosch. 2. 33, i^/x«-
ht Theoc. 7. 60, ^«»iv Pind. 0. 10. 101. So, in imitation of the Ep., 1x0.
^i^^ff Ar. Pax, 1283, U^v(pht Eur. Hipp. 1247. We even find, as 3 Pera.
pL, nti^M Ap. Rh. 4. 1 700, ftuf 2. 65,

(/) In the Ion., the endings -areu and -ar*, for .fVM and -tr* (§ 213. &;,
are the conunon forms in the Perf. and Plup., are very frequent in the Opt,
and are also employed in the Impf., 2 Aor., and nude Pres. ind. Before these
endings, a short vowel in the root is not lengthened (§ 218), except in the
ooets for the sake of the metre, the connective .i> is used instead of -0-
(§ 203), a. and sometimes it become i, and consonants are changed according
to § 213. R. Thus, •Wiarett Hdt. i. 142, for cfXfivrott, tarctt P. 131, Hdt. it.
8f>, uarat (§ 47. N.) B. 137, tmrt H. 414, tlctro V, 149, for tfvreuy ^tra, «•«.
(poSnart <I>. 206 ; \CouXiar6 Hdt. i. 4, for ICevXtfrt, a^txtetrt 1 52 ; ^uuecreu
Id. ii. 142, iiunaro W, 114, atet^rfrrieirat ix. 9, for tufecvrmt, &e. ; xUreu
A. 659, Hdt. i. 14, xtUreu H. 527, Ixiar* Hdt. i. 167, xiiarc ^.418,
i,T9x%xXi»T» Hdt. ix. 50, for xtTvrat^ &c (so, with an intervening consonant,
iffi^itetreii Y. 284, i^n^Har* n. 95, from i^tiiJ) y Tivfi^r»i (r. r^/C-) Id*
ii. 93, JiJi;^«T«i (r. hix-, Ion. h»-) 65 (yet J^^ixeirai vii. 209, cf § 69. «),
«f;^«^i)a«-«i i. 1 40, Uxtvaiaro vii. 67 (so, as if from verbs in .^«, UifX.«^«r«
n. 86, axfiX'^^etTtti P. 637, X^etietrat u, 354, -r* M. 431, UretXai^etrt Hdt.
vii. 89) ; ^ovX$iaro Hdt. i. 3, vti^cfetro iv. 1 39, yivveLictro ii. 47. The Opt
forms in -ara are likewise used by the Att. poets ; as, ^%%xietv Soph. CEd. C
44, rtftypctmrt 602, vv^omt§ 921.

(^) In the Imperative, a third form is found in Dor. inscriptions, made b}
prefixing » to the flex, ending of the Sing. (cf. § 172) ; as, ^ofvvri (com
pare Lat. /octtmto), i^t^ivtit, cf. § 177) Ithiwti Inscr. Corc3nr.

d. For the Subj. ibrms in .fu and .r/, see § 181. /3. For the Dor. Sing. 3
in -Tj, see § 181. «. For the Dor. Sing. 1 in -^p, and Da. 3 in -vi^ '^$i$
(for -^nf, -«»», -r^fff), cf. §§ 44. 1, 24.3. c iS.

§ 3 419* e. Iterative Form, The Ion., especially the Ep., to express
with more emphasis the idea of repeated or continued action, often prolongs
the flex, endings of the Impf. and Aor., in the sing, and the 3d Pers. pi., tc
-«-»«f, -9*if, -tf'xi(v), '^xoy in the subjective inflection^ and to -tf-xd/Kut, -rxu
(-11/, -0(/), -#xir«, -rxtfyrtf in the objective. This form, which is called the iterw
tive (itero, to repeat) is likewise used by the Dor. poets, and sometimes in
lyric p*)rtion8 by the tragic. It sometimes appears to be used for metrical
effect, rather than for special emphasis. It cummonly wants the augment.
Thus, Impf. i^tvxtt, luHU in the habit of carrying^ N. 257, i^ta-xis E. 472,
l;t»*»« 126, Hdt. vi. 12, PL S lx*'»»^ J. 627, for tJ^'v, -m, -i, -•!., vipaiu^utw,
the kepi wearing, $, 104, i,X\vt9Xtv 105, ri^Q-irJti, MfATi^nn Ildt. L 100,



Digitized



by Google



GH. 9.] DIALECTIC FOHMS.



113



^i^tn Theoc 25. 1 38, )r«vir»i Soph. Ant. 963, ^;tir«iT« H. 1 40, ^tXt9Kta

X. 43:i, i/(£/ryir««vr« i/. 7, ^wvyi/tf-xir* £. 857 ; 2 Aor. Iha-xt l\ 2 i 7, kd^s<rK$
Hdt. iv. 7fii, iX«Cir»*» 130, ^vtrxtv 0. 271, yi»ir»»T« X. 208, oXiirxtro .>8d
1 Aor. (only poet.), rr^iypetrxov 2. 546, «r«r»f X. 599, yuv»i<7arxfr0 A. 566

Notes, (a) That the connecting vowel before -•■»- is i rather than •,
follpws from § 20;J. (6) Before -r»., a short vowel remains, and i takes the
place oi u; a&f 9ri.9x%v T. 217, for t^rin (r. rr«-:, Wxav I. SSI, avit^xt
Hes. Th. 157, for avin, ^m»«i» A. 64, for l^avn (^ 199), wx«» H. I5S, for
i}y, »«Xfr»f Ap. Kh. 4. 1514, fur UaXu (xttXitrxt (. 402, for IxaXii), waXt-
r»ir« 0. SS8, for IxaXtTra^ xirxtro ^.41, for txuro. (c) Verbs in -«a» have
commonly the iterative Impf. in -««■»«», sometimes doubling the a for the sake
of the metre (cf. 24y. b) ; as, iag-xts T. 295, for i?af, lanreietfxov B. 5S9 ;
so PI. 1 vixtirxt/itv X. 5 1 2, for iuxUfisv. (d) There appears to be a blending
of Impf. and Aor. forms (or formation as if from a theme in -««), in »(i/<r-
reirxt 0. 272, y$xr»ffxn O. 23, fei^a^xt Hes. Th. 835, «y«rrfi«#»f Horn.
Ap. 403, from x^uvrtt fi^rrtf f*t^ify and dtttwi'nt,

§ 3tS0« f. Injbdtioe. In the Inf., instead of -vc/, the Dor. and i£ol
commonly retain the old ending -v (§ 176), or, with the Ep., reduplicate this
entiing to -^i» (cf. §§ 174, 176), which may be still farther prolonged (chiefly
by the poets) to -^iv«4. (a) Thus the .£ol. forms the Aor. pass. inf. in -dv,
the Dor. in -S/uiy, and the Ep. fwhich also employs the common form) in
-M/(£ff<M as, fAiHrfinit Ale 28(29), o^ycr^nv (for ava,fi,tnriii*at) Theoc 29. 26 ;
%tax^JvifAtit Til. v. 79 ; ofAOMt^v/nvat A. 1 87. (b) In other tenses, the nude
Inf. has commonly in the Dor. the form -/uiy, in the i£ol. -v and -^cy«i, and
in the Ep. -mm, -fuv, and -^ivoj ; as, ^i/ttv Theoc 5. 21, Pind. P. 4. 492,
X. 315, BifuvM Inscr. Cum., B. 285, Pmd. O. 14. 15, ^7wu A. 26 (cf. 57),
fifiif Pind. O. 1. 55, Ufttp Th. v. 77, A. 379, )«^cmm A. 98, 116, «. 317,
hZfcu 316, ywfUfms «. 411 ; »/»£» (§ 251. 2) Ale. 86(15), ivrXtif 11(3);
«-f^»«»f» O. 497, TUvdfttfot it 225, n^iv A. 719, iifAtWi N. 27S. So i<rr«-
fAtvat Hdt. i. 1 7. Before -fuv and -^i»«4, a short vowel in the 2 Aor. does
not [Mss into a diphthong (§ 224. K). (c) In likti manner the non-Attic
poets employ, for -m (originally -i», § 1 76), the prolonged -ifis* and -i^«»«i ;
as, v<ij»«tf-tv) ixouimf A. 547, Pind. O. 3. 44, Theoc. 8. 8S, itxwifjuvat X. 380,
itlifjtit Y. Ill, itlfifAifat 50, ;^«x«ri/(£i» A. 78, ix^i^fMEi 151. ((i) So, in the
Perf., vtvXnyifAw 11. 728. For the Perf. inf. in -ii» or -if», see § 246. 2.
The common form in -^mm first occurs in Hdt. (e) Verbs in -um and -ut have
a contract form in -^futat ; as, {ya-iv) ynfin^M S. 502, ruvn/tivM u, 1 37,
xaXftfMVM K. 125, irtti^tuu r. 174, from ^«««, «*»»««, xaXuv, $rfv^i*». Tet
{kifAtittt) "dfittvtit 4>. 70. In iytfifAtitat v. 213, from itytviaa^ and »^ifitfitven
lies. Op. 22, from «(««, the connecting vowel is omitted.

g. PartieipU, For the .£ol. contraction into «m and m in the Part., see
§ 45. 5 ; thus, xi^fmtt Ale. 27, yi^^mt Pind. P. I. 86, ^^iyi^a$r» 8. 37, |ii;^«i-
r« Sapph. 1. 9, ix»*^» 77(76), Pind. P. 8. 4, Theoc 1. 96. For the Fem.
••»#«, the Laconic uses -«« ; as, UXifTMa, »Xuv«, Sf/^ra^^««y (§ 70. V.), for
\xXt99wmy xXutfwm, ^tt^^^^avfiif, Ai. Lys. 1297, 1299, 1313. So M^«
1293 (§ 45. 5).

E. Verbs dt -^i*

§ 3ff 1* 1. The Ion. and Dor. employ more freely than the Att Hm
IbnnB with a connecting vowel (§ 325), especially hi the Ptes. sing, of verba
mhom Gharactflrialio is • or • ; aa, rsPut Pind. P. 8. 14, rtfum. 192, Hdt. t



Digitized



by Google



214 AFFIXES OF OONJXJtATION. [bOOK 11

1S3, IthTt I. 164, ^>«r519, Hdt. L 107 ; Urf lb. W. 109, Imp. suJi^rm I
202 ; it^t^'uvrt (nxiradnpL, for 9r^»rt$i£n) A. 291 ; 2 Aor. Opt. it^900{Mr»
Hdt L 5S ; Inf. rvf<«r» Theog. 565, hiSt (§ 244. a) Theoc 29. 9.

2. On the other hand, the iBoL, Dor., and Ep. retam the form hi -^ m
Bome verbs, which m the Att. and m Ion. prme have only the form in -« ; a^
tttiXtifu Sapph. 1. 16, i^fu 2. 1 1, fiXtifu 79(23), alnifu Hes. Op. 681, vmn*
/At Theoc. 7. 40, for mcXU, «(««, &c; AAxn^h ^'^nri, fi^itnn r. Ill, 112,
for «vc;^M, &c. (nnlesB rather Subj. «»t;^fyr«, &c) ; f«(*iMii B. 107.

3. The Ion. changes a characteristic before another « to i (cf. 242. a), and
8(»metimes inserts i before « (§ 48. 1) ; as, {Ifreid^t, § 58) Uridn Hdt. v«
7 i , luuarat (§ 248. /), tfrimr0 Hdt. iv. 166. So» in the nude Perf., Uridn
Hdt i. 200, irrUrc v. 49.

4. The Ep. sometimee differs tram the common language in the length of
the characteristic vowel (§ 224) ; as, Int ntnfiutat H^. 247, 'itiwtai H. 4*25,
^tvyw/At^ n. 145, for ri^MM, Ac; FaiL ri^i^^tM* K. d4 ; Imp. 7xir/«, ^I'UA
y. 380 (so nude Perf. Umrt A. 243, 246, for 7rr«rO : 2 Aor. ^j^r«v M.
469, fi»Tti9 A. 327, for fCnrav, &c

5. For the Impf. Irsfn* and i|iir, the Ion. has Irih* Hdt iii. 155, and jf«
3. 313, onaugmented f« A. 321, Hdt ii. 19. So !«$ Hdt i. 187, ^» A. 381,
l«n Hdt iv. 119, }«r«v tx. 31. C£ §^ 179, 201. N, 252. b.

§ StS3. 6. Diaketk fomu of i<>;, to 6e (t 55). (a) Those which
arise fixmi different modes of lengthening the radical syllable (§ 230. 3) :
lf»fii Theoc. 20. 32, Sapph. 2. 15, Irr/ (i assmned after the analogy of the
ether persons) A. 176, Theoc 5. 75, S. 3 Uri (» hiserted instead of f) Id. 1.
17, ufitiv £. 873, Hdt i. 97 ; Inf. i/ntv (for which some give the form iT^if,
of. § 70. 3) Theoc. 2. 41. (6) Uncontracted forms, and forms like those of
verbs m -«»: Uftf B. 125, tm A. 119, Hdt iv. 98, Ipn B. :i66, U^t I. 140,
Hdt i. 155, Ut I. 284, U 142, Hdt vii. 6, U» B. 27, Hdt i. 86, Uvta V,
159, U7ra Pind. P. 4. 471, Theoc. 2. 64, i^ir^ 76, (l-vrr«, § 58) 7tf<r« or
ktrr^ Tim. Locr. 96 a, in A. 762, i^vrtf Theoc 2. 3. (c) Variously pro-
tracted forms: In* (1 P.) A. 762, (3 P.) B. 642, Hdt vii. 143, Im Theoc
19. 8, ftfr/« X. 435, iTif* A. 808, •?« Y. 47; Impf. iter. (§ 249. b\ Xtrxn
n P.) H. 153, (3 P.) Hdt 1. 196, Um Ib^ E. 536, iEsch. Pers. 656.
Id) Middle forms: Uo, commonly Ur» a. 302, Sapph. 1. 28, c7ar« v. 106
(for ff»r«, cf. 8. 1 UfAfiv • others read i7ar«, Ep. for n*Ta from fT/iMM). (e) Old
•ihort and nnaugmented forms : i^iv Call Fr. 294, Uav A. 267, Pind. P. 4.
371, W«» Id. O. 9. 79. (/) For tTg U, 515, Hdt vii. 9, see § 230. «;
for P. 3 if ri Pind. O. 9. 158, Th. v. 77, Theoc 5. 109, § 181. « ; for l«, ?»,
tttft ^(i), 7«rf, f«r«v, § 251. 5 ; -for f^s T. 202, and i^ri, § 181. /3; for
i7«r^« Theog. 715, fW«, § 182; for tTf*ig, Zfttt Theoc 15. 9, ifuf 14. 29»
§ 247. b ; for Imp£ S. 3 (^^r) it Theoc 2. 90, § 2r>0. 9^ ; for Inf. jf^i* A.
299, l^iMu r. 40, ifi/tif Pind. O. 5. 38, Theoc 7. 28, Soph. Ant 623, f^
^i»ai A. 117, Sapph. 2. 2, i/uf Theoc 2. 41, il^* (for which some write
itfAtf, cf. a above) Th. v. 79, Tim. Locr. 93 a, c^ivm or H/Mfm* Ar. Ach. 775»
§ 250. 6; for 70'r«^« A. 267, 7r0^fT«< A. 164, .£sch. Pers. 121 {Utrm A.
21 1), § 71 ; for Uuu A. 563, frruM 2. 95, § 243 ; for U^f Theoc 10. 5,
iffttroi Eur. Iph. A. 782, Wwurm B. 393, Theoc 7. 67, Uwfrm Th. y. 77,
§ 245. 2.

7. DiakeOe Fomu t^ gjfu, to ffo (^ 56), (a) The protractiQii of 7 U m
f § S24) likewise appears hi P. 3 tlrt (or Iri, or perhaps liW from iVA <» ^



Digitized



by Google



CH. 10.] ROOT OF THB VEEB. 216

Hei. fie 1 1», Tbeog. 11«, tU only Sophr. « (23), iftr (by some ascribed to
ilfii, to be) I. 496, it 1^9, f7r«#e«i S. S, tUmr* A. I5J8, fiimr* O. 415, iii-
r«r^»)» 544, (b) In the Impf., we find both nude forms and fbnna with a
oonnecting vowel, from the root /-, both miaugmented, doubly augmented
(^ 1^9), and doubly augmented with contraction ; thus, (ntt, of. 251. 5) n'm
(from which may be fonned by contr. the Att. J«, § '2S1. b) J. 427, Hdt. *.
4ii, art A, 47, Hdt i. 65, J« M. 371, U B. 872^ Plofut ». 251, /#«» A. 494,
tC^av K. 1 97, adt i. 62, ^h)* a^'. 370, trn* A. 347'. (c) The Opt. Uin (only
T. 209) is formed, as if from the root U- (cf § 231. d). (d) The Inf. "t^*
Ath. 580 c, is the regular nude form, (e) For th see § 230. « ; for gUfim
K. 450, ry^^a K. 67, § 18if; for Jywi I. 701, § 181. /3; for 7»fitif B. 440.
§ 246. 3; for 7^» A. 170, Find. 0. 6. 108, r^iy«« T. 32, 7ftfMf<u i^65^
I 250. b,

F. Pebfbct Pabticipijl

§ 9^3. 1. In Perf. Participles ending in -«$; pore, the Ep. moiv
frequently lengthens the preceding Towel ; and the Part, is then declined in
•««>•# or -i?r«#, according to the metre. If the preceding yowel remains short,
the form in -«r«f is commonly required by the metre. Thus, 0tim^nirtf y.
139, »cx/wii«r«r A. 801, »i»/»tfA;T« x. 31. See, also, §§ 237, 238.

2. In some fiam. forms, the antepenult is shortened on account of the rerae^
as, XiXiMviat ^. 85 (XcXDJM^r X. 141), /«c/MUvr«i A. 435 (j*t/Aii»tit K. S62)
Jk^i^vUt r. 331, radkytmv L 208.



CHAPTER X.

ROOT OF THE VERB.

^ 3ff 4. The root of the Greek verb, although
not properly varied by inflection, yet received many
changes in the progress of the language. These
changes affected the different tenses unequally, so
that there are but few primitive verbs in which the
root appears in only a single form.

Note. The earlier, intermediate, and later forms of the root .
may be termed, for the sake of brevity, old^ middle^ and new
roots. The final syllable of the earliest form of the root is
commonly short ; and the oldest roots of the language are mon-
osyllabic.

§ 988* The tenses may be arranged, with respect to the
degree in which they exhibit the departure of the root from it9
original form^ in the following order.

I. The Second Aobist and Second Future.

RmfAltra « TbB 2d Aor. act and mid. it aimpty the Impf. of im old root

Jigitized by VjOOQIC



216 ROOT OF THE VERB. [bOOK li

(§ 1 78. 2) ; thus tki^4P and Ixswifin* (1 37) are fonned from the old root X/w^
in precisely the same way as IXM«'«y and iXu^rifinv from the new root Xuif,

jS. The 2d Aor. and Fat. pass, are chiefly found in impure verbs which wani
the 2d Aor. act, and tnicL They affix -«» and -n^sfMu (§ 180) to the slm*
plest form of the root.

y. These tenses (except the nude 2 Aor. act, § 224. 2) have commonly a
short syllable before the affix (§ 254. N.).

^. In a few verbs, tiie original root appears to have received some change
even in the 2 Aor. ; chiefly, in accordance with the prevailing analogy of the
tense, to render the root tnonost/Uainc, or its last syllabU short (§ 254. N.), or
to enable it to receive the nude form (§ 227. ^).

^ 3tS6* II. The Perfect and Pluperfect Passive.
These tenses have not only a more complete, uniform, and
simple formation than the Perf. and Plup. act, (§§ 179, 186
235), but are likewise more common, and are formed in some
verbs (see tQiqiia^ § 263, qt^Bi^m^ § 268, &c.) from an earlier
root.

m. The Perfect and Pluperfect Active. For the van .
0U3 formations of these tenses, see §§ 179, 186, 234 - 238

IV. The First Aorist and Future.

V. The Present and Imperfect. These tenses, with
very few exceptions, exhibit the root in its latest and most pro-
tracted form.

§ 8t57« Remarks. 1. The 2 Aor. and 2 Put are widely distin-
goi^ed from the other tenses by their attachment to the original farm of the
root ; while the Pres. and Impf. are distinguished no less widely by their t»-
clination to depart from this form. The other tenses differ comparatively but
little from each other in the form of .the root. If the verb has three roots,
they are conmionly formed from the middle root See, for example, XafiCavm
(§ 290).

2. Many verbs are DSFEcnvE, either from the want of a complete forma-
tion, or from the disuse of some of their frrms. In both cases, the defect is
often supplied by other verbs having the same signification (§301). .In the
poets, especially the older, we find many fragments of verbs belonging to the '
earlier language. These occur often in but a single tense, and sometimes in
only a single form of that tense ; as, 2 A. S^. 3 lff^«;^«, rang^ A. 420, J«a«
(r. ^f«.), appeared^ ^. 242, 1 A. XxMuvvtit, hreaihed^ X. 467, X/y^i, twanged,
A. 1 25, Pf. Ft, Kixa^noret^ gasping^ E. 698.

3. On the other hand, many verbs are redundant, either through a douhU
formaiion from the same root, or tiie use of forms frt)m different roots. It
should be observed, however, that two or more forms of the same tense, with
few exceptions, either,



Online LibraryAlpheus CrosbyA grammar of the Greek language → online text (page 21 of 53)