Alpheus Crosby.

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(«.) Belong to different periods^ dialects, or styles of composition; thus,
»rf/Mv, and Uter xrifvC/u (§ 295) ; ra^f»/ (§ 274. 7), A. P. Irdx^h and
later Irdynf * »«/*» (§ 267. 3), A. P. \»mv4nh and Ion. \»ainf * itnfdvfMmt
and poet ^%v4»fMu (§ 290); wtiU (t 39), A. 7riir«, and poet %^tUu

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10. J ElfPHONlC CHANa^t^ ^ ♦^\" . ^ " ^Vf/

Or, (0.) Differ in thdr «m; tlmik 1 ?f. wimuntr P^
erf, 2 Pf. «-S«W«, mtransitive, / <rMt^ (^ 39) ; i A. Urnray trans. / placed,
2 A. Urtiv, intrans. / stood (^ 48). The second tenses are more incfined than
the Jirst to an intransitive use. From the prevalence of this use in the 2d
Perf. and Plup., these tenses were formerly caHed the Perf. and Flup, middle.

Or, (y.) Are supplementary to each other. See §§ 201. N., 237. a.

NoTK. From the varbos changes whieh take place in the root; many
v«cba» together with their common themes, have others, either derived or ool>
lateral. In r^ard to some forms, it seems doubtful whether they ahookl be
rather viewed as redundant forms of the same verb, Qr as the fbrms of disUnct
but kindred verbs.

^ ^8S. The changes in the root of the Greek
verb are o( three kinds ; euphonic, emphatic, and

ANOMALOUS.

Note. The lists which fbUow ate designed both to exsmpISfy the vaiioHi
changes of the root, and likewise to present, in a olassified anrangement, all
those verbs upon whose inflection farther remark seemed to be required. It
wiU be observed, that some of the words ndght have been arranged with equal
propriety under other heads, from their eidiibitlag more than one speciss of
change in the root

A. Euphonic Changes.

^ 3ff 9« 1. Radical vowels are sometimes changed by'
pii£C£SsioN (§ 28)) a becoming », and $ and o becoming c

a. Change of m to %•

IfoTBk If the « is praoeded tsr Mowed by a KqvH, it is somatunas mtaioed
in the Perfect ^ particularly the Perfect paesioe,

%i^m«tiMt (r, ^f»-, ^i(»-)i and t2 Pf. ^«(m», to sm, poet, F. S4S; Qopk. CEd,
T. 389, 'J A. n^»e» (^ 262) Eur. Or. 1456, 1 A. P. S^M Ma^ £fc

53, 2 A. P. Q^aztif, Pind. N. 7. 4.

ii^m (r. >«e.)* to PV» P* ^cf'^* ^* ^<<e«* ^* P' >^/«««, 2 A. P. tU^HH
iii. 5. 9. Poet and Ion. Uf^i, Ar. Nub. 442, hifm, Hdt ii. 39.

i^i'Ttt, topluckj poet ^(ivrrm (§ 272), Mosch. 2. 69, F. ^(i'4^t, A. li^^pm.
2 A. 2)^«««y, Pind. P. 4. 231.

rXi»*», to wreaA, F. ^ki^t, A. fv-Xi^*, Pf. P. wUXiyftmt, f A. P. Uxix'
$n^ 2 A. P. lieXm»n»t A. M. lwXfS»^«ff. hi Hipp., Pf. IfA-niwUxa* ^
9riitX0x*»

^T^i^t0f to tunetf F. rr^(^^«#, A. t^r^^pm, Pf. P. trr^ftfMUy 1. A. P. Ur^.
Aif^ 2 A. P. Wrfdfnn Pf. JU-t^^r^*^ Ath. 104 e. 1 A. P. Ion* and Dor
Wr^Aftnh Hdt i. 130, Theoc. 7. 132. Extended forms, chiefly poet, #«^m.
^*r, ^. 53, er^dtfuu, Eur. Ale 1052, Hdt it 85, F. tr^^nfiuu Theog;
837 ; ^ftfUf, Ar. Pax, 175.

r^iwi (Ion. r^tr** Hdt il. 92), to turn, F. r^i-^, A. fr^^*, Pf. rSr^«^
(§ 236. a) and <rSr^^, Pf. P. rirfaf^fiat, 1 A. P. U^i^v, 2 A. P* Ue^Cnif^
1 A. M. commonly trans. lT^i^pdf$r.9, 2 A. M. intrans. Ir^«'«/Mi9. 2*A. 1^
|c««T«t, K, 187, F. Ft ^^efd^/mt BMgrolk



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218 HOOT OF XHfi VERB. [bOOK II

b. Chanffe of • and »to i.

The change of • and « to i is ahnost wholly confined to sjOables which be>
come long in the Pros, and Impf., by the addition of one or more conaonantB
as, ri»T», C§ 272. fi), »i^nifAi (§ 278. J), ifj^^Xirnm (§ 280).

§ 3G0* 2. Some roots are contracted ; as,

fimt to ting, F* 4^»fMUf ^ ?*"*» ^' ^' f^/*»h A. P. frfin* * contr. froiB
ill')**, A. 1, iti^afiMi, X' 3^^ (Juiett Theoc. 22. 26, £url Here 681), &o.
For milru, see § 185. 1.

f^vm or ^Trtt (§ 70. 1), to ruth, F. ^$m, A. jf|»« contr. from mUtm, B.
88, &c. A. P. «V»»»» r. 368.

X«««, to UMiM, F. Xowm, A. fx«v^«, Pf. P. xiXavfuu, A. P. Sx«v^fiy • contr.
from £p. XotM, ). 252, F. X«i«-*r, &c. Fitm the old r. X«^we have the £p.
Impf. or 2 A. X«i ». 361, X999 Hom. Ap. 120, Mid. Inf, xiiUm or x««r^«i
Hes. Op. 747 ; and from the same root, or from X«v- with the omission of
the connecting vowels, are the common Sorter forms of the Impf. act. and
Pres. and ImpC mid. ; as, (for Ixm^cv ix Ix«m/«cO ix«v/«iy Ar. PI. 657, Xm/^mbj,
\tSirm QjT. L 3. 1 1 , Xw€$mt ^. 216.

§361* 3. Some roots are stmcofated in the theme^
chiefly in cases of reduplication ; as, (r. yiytv-^ /</»'-) yip'ofim,
nimw, filfAvw (^ 286) : others in the 2d Aor, (§ 255. h) ; as,
it. iys^-, iyq-) ^yq6(iTip (§ 268), ^X&ov (§ 301. 3), Ep. defect
(r. Jtgi') hetfiop {\ 194. 3), found : others in other tenses ; as,

MXitf, to eatt, F. »«xSrM, tut)Ji (§ 200. 2), A. Im^Xi^*, Pf. (r. mXi^
«Xi.) »i»Xfi««, Pf. P. xUXtifMu, F. Pf. »i»Xif#«^Mu, Ar. Av. 184, A. P. UXif-
099 (U«xi^ir», Hipp.). Poet, xMvXi^rxw .£sch. Snp. 217, «v«-iMcXi^«/MM,

r. 19.

f$iXm, to ooncem (§ 222. 2) ; Ep. Pf. P. f*i/^X%rm, .fr#f, T. 343, Phip.
^/»CXM'«<fr. 516. See §§ 64. 2, 222. «.

NoTB. In regard to some forms, it seems doobtM whether they are best
reftned to syncope, or to metathesis with, in some cases, contraction ; thos^
(r. MtXt-, »X4ii-, »Xii-) »i»Xn»»»

% S69. 4. In some roots, metathesis takes place, chiefly
by changing the place of a liquid. This occurs, (a) in the
theme; as, /5Xo)axo), ^yj^axoi, &Q(oaxw {^ 281) : (b) in the 2d
Aor. (§ 255. 3) ; as, hxXfiv (§ 227. /?), s'riiji' (§ 301. 2] r^-
nor (§ 259. a), sitQa^ov (§ 288) : (c) in other tenses ; ts, /Jt-
^Aijxa, iSkii&fji^y KixiAfixa ($223).

§ S63« 5. A few roots are changed to avoid a I)DUBL1
aspiration (§ 62) ; as,



r^l^m (t. ;»^^-, ;»^i^. § 259, r^.^^ «^^-)» to Jwnrii* (Old rM^«, PInd.
^ 4. 205), P. ^^^p,^ A. f/^t^ Pt ri*^«^ Ft P. rii^M^ 1 A. P
Jfi^y, commonly 2 A. P. Ir^i^ny. Hsp. 2 Aor. intrans. or pass, ir^m^
L 55£^ Pf. «wv.(r^«^ Hipp.

Non. Sesb also^ t^m (§ 300), Mr««, »|Ar«» (§ 272). Mr (§ Slt]^

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GH. 10.] EUPHONIC AND EMPHAIIC CHANGES. * 219

r^X*' (§ >^01), T^^tt (§ 270). A few other roots have both aspirated ana
cmaspirated forms ; as, rv;^- and rvx- (§§ 270. 9, 285, 290), ;^«^. and x^e^-
(§ 27.5. O* '4'^xft to cool, F. ^^it, &c, 2 A. P. i'4^vynf, Ar. Nub. 151, and
l'4^vX'f'» .£sch. Fr. 95.

6. In a few cases, a consonant is dropped or added for the
sake of euphony or the metre ; as, XbISo), to pour out^ Ep. etSat,
77. 1 1 ; dovniw, to sounds A. idovnrjaa^t i. 8. 18, J, 504, and
fydovTtriaa^ A» 45 ; XUxfo^ to liek^ Pf. P. hlstxfjtfog Hes. Th. 826.
So, in reduplicated forms, nlfinlfjfii^ nlfinQtifii (§ 284), and in
the Att. RedupL, iygr^yoQa (§ 268), ^fivm^ to bow down^ ifivrifiv^
X8 X. 491 (for ifiT^fivxs, ^/i- being prefixed according to analogy,
§ 191. 2, ahhough the 17 is radical). With xoXoo/iaij -waofim^
to be angry, we have also the Ep. (xooofiaij § 29. a) x^^t'^^h X^^
aofieuj A. 80 (see r. 413, 414).

§ 3^4. 7. In some verbs, the omission of the digamma
(^ 22. d) has given rise to different forms of the root ; as,

AXt6»t (r. AXtf', AXt-, AXtV'), to atfert, poet. .Ssch. Prom. 568, F. «Xi^«
Soph. Fr. 825, A. i|fXivr«, .ffisch. Sept. 87 ; M!d. JtXUfuu and dXt^^ftmi, to
avoid; 2. 586, «. 29, A. iXtdfutv and nXtim/inif (§ 201. 2> Deriy., AXniftt^
A. 794, JkXu0»t0 ($ 273. «).

Jkm'wvimf Ep. a^-rv^ (§ 48. 2 ; r. rNp-* rN-, rvMr-, irvv-, «>i«- $ 277),
to reoooer 6r«a<ft, X. 222, A. P. kft^nwin*, E. 697, node 2 A. M. ifAwtSf
A. 359. iVom the root mv. are formed the extended ^nU»m and wnwwm,
to make wise, JBach. Pers. 830, H. 249, and the Pf. P. itimff/uu, to be unte,
fL 377, reftned by some to «iriw, by others to *nv9»m.,

fw (r. /cF-, f»'\ to flow, F. ftvr»f»«u (§ 220), A. Ifftv^m, and better Att.
F. M. (or 2 F. P.) ftm^tfuu, 2 A. P. (or 2 A, Act r. /m-) Ij^i^ify, Pi. ^f^J^m.
Ion. Free, i^ ffifutM Hdt. viL 140. Late F. ^ivr».

9%&»ftm and rM/MM (r. #iF-» rf»-} rv-, ri-, whence r«- § 28), to rusA, poet.
Soph. TV. 645 ($ 246. «), .£sch. Pers. 25, A. ^tuAfunt (§ 201. 2) H. 208,
Ft, as Pros., Irn^/Mu, Z. 361, A. P. UUn* or U(rUw, Eur. HeL 1302, Soph.
Aj. 294, 2 A. M. UV«v» or UrV*f»> Eur. HeL 1162, S. 519. Ep. A. Act.
Unva E. 208. Lacon. 2 A. P. in^-twewm, H. Gr. i 1. 23, for kineevn. Ob-
serve the angm. and rednpL

xi^ (r. ;c«F-, X»')> *> l»w» ^« A;^ (§ 200. 2), A. f;^;«« (§ 201. 2), rare
•nd doabtftil tx^rm, P£ P. «(;^fMM, A. P. \xvhv» Ep. F. x'^^i X*^
fi. 222, A. l;t;«^«> ^X*^> ^ ^69, 2 A. M. i;^l$iiHf», A. 526» .Asch. Cho.
401. Late Ft »(;^««, Anth. Late ibrm, ;^w«.

NoTB. See, abo, 5U», »^, «-xS*» (§ 220), )«/«», »«/«s »X«i^ (§ 267. S).
An Ep. and Ion. ibrm of rxU i$ <rX4^, ^^*», &c., t. 240, Hdt. vi. 97, 2 A.
I<rx«w, y. 15 ; extended, rA^l^w, Th. L 19.

B. Emphatic Changes.

^ 36ff. Most impure roots and many piire
roots arc proxr^cted in the Present and Imper-



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220 KOOT OF THE VERJ^ [bOOK Ij

fect^ to express with more emphasis the idea of
continued action. This protractioa takes place,

^366. I. By LENGTHENING A SHORT VOWEL

as follows.

in mute verbs, & becooies i^ ; m liqmd verbs,, and is some
mule verba, I aod i/ are mij^Z^ lengthened ; in other cases, the
short vowel is usually changed to a dipJUhortg,

In mtUt verbs, the change commonly extends to all the reg-
ular tenses (§ 215. 1).

I. Change of 4 to «.

•n<rf (r. r** - , r»j«-.)» *» »^i tr«W'» F. «J4'«^ 2 Pf. iirtrtns. (5 257. ^) irV-
rf)*-*, iv. 5. V2y 2 A. P. Udvrtiu

^luh to nffH (]>or. vwMi Theoo. 2. 2a), F. Wg», A. ?4nf^«, S fl fntaaiB,
rirfi»m, iv. ^ 15, 1 A* P* lir4%h^ CoamoDiy % K P. kriv^u Pf. P. «4
r«>7bt«4 Anth.

^36>7. 2w Gh«ag» of « to «4.

htinpuu (r. }«., Im.), It» dlml^ eliie^ poet «. 140, F. ^tffut'h A. I)£nf-
^y, (£c 7. 24, >fW^Mu, A. 125, >U«</««i, «. 2S. Kindred; Ui^**, -^l**, to
tend, Maok. Ag* 207, UrUfMUf <» tfftvici^, 2. 204, Hdl. L 216, A. )»rUr/M
{§ 201. 2>

xahti^m (t. »ac^#.), A> /^ci/^) F. Kuia^Sj A. I««^if^« (sometimes written
Uii&^tL, ct ^ 56. «>, Ff. P. »tx£ht^ftcuy A. P. U«^<^e^fiy.

xaivtt, to km, chiefly poet., F. xaw, 2 A. ?x«v«v.

9»ut (r. »«.)> to dioeO; poet., Soph. Tr. 40, F. vJieetfuu (§71) Ap. Rh. 3.
747, A. hnftra, huUt, ). 1 74, P£ P. vUttfftat, Herod. Att, A. P., i»<^r^«ir Eof.
Med. 166. £p. deriv. vmt^, A. 45.

v^AiVM, to weave, F. v^«»«, A. jlf^ffm, Pf. P. S^^/mu (§ 217. /3)> A. £•
v^«»/tfv. From the pure root v^«., £p. v^*r#i (§ 242. b) n. 105.

f«/»«r (t 42), to jAow, F. fM^ , &(x The Pf. «i^yiN» i» late, first ecow-
cmg in Dinarch., who employs it m composition with •««. Kindl«d poet,
verbs, ^attPM, to shine, ft, 383 ; from r. f «., Imp£ ^ |. 50% F. wi^n^t^fm
P. 155 ; from r. (^aiA^ Ft. ^aifimt A. 735, $oph. El. 824.

X'k" ('^ TCH-* X»^i-)> to r^wse, F. x**^^^'^ ($ 222. 2)„ PC »ix«e«»«b
]h& P. tux»tn/*tu and jU;^«te/««i« 2 A. P. i;^«(v. £p., redupL F. »ix«e*>'«^
tnX»t^fcfiuu (§ 239. 6), 2 A. M. M^«e^i|y (J 194. 3), 1 A. M. Ixn^mftmh
n. 270, 2 Pf. Ft. mx»^tit (§ 253. 1), H. f 12. Jtfie, 1 Aor. ix»'^^»,
2 F. P. xH^f**"*

3. Yariims Changee of ••

Uim (r. I«F-, }«-» >««-), to 6tir«, poet .^sch. Ag. 496, 2 Pf. as Pros, in-
trans., iOnm, T. 18. 3 A. )L lW^ii», T. 916, Pf. P. ViUvfiuu, GalL £p. 52.

mam and mm* (r. »«F-) nao-, »%- § 259, Mti^ xi'\ to bum, F. »«vriy and
HAimyMM, A. fiMiitf« avd poet Um ($ 201. 2), ibeh* Ag. 849 (Bp. Ian* A.
40, Utm, fk 176), Pt jftisMUM, Pf. P. »(»#»«m, A. P.l»#^l«f. Ion. »A* P
U&i^ Hdt tt. 180.



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«*.H. 10.] EMPHATIC CHANGES. 221

m^Mim «Dd mkimt «» weep, F. ttXmv0ifuu or »>Mo095fimt (§ 20a 8), mnd
»>Minwtt or mXdwf ($ 222), A. txXmv^, Pf. P. MkxXmuftmt, S F. OT»X«»tfr«^Mei,
Ar. Nub. 1436. F. »Xmvf^ Tbaoo. 23. 34. Late, A. P. Ux«c/^^«», Pf« P
»i»Aatfr/i««, Anth.

Note. Kiuv and »X»t are Att ftyrms, and an not contracted ($ 21S* fi).
For HMueiy »X«f/r0/MM) 2(2«i//mm, from maf^tf xXaffoftmt, yt^ttFfiuu, &C.) see
^ 220.

r(«$y*r (r. r^y-, r^tty- § 28. l), to ea«, F. r^4^^«/u«4i 2 A. Ir^yw, Pf P
oi^YA^^/MM. loB. 1 A. f^-^AT^* Horn. Batr. 126*

§3^8* 4» Cfaango«f t toM.

kyti^m (t. ^y«f-f i^Tfi^-}, to coBeetf F. Ayc^A^y A. ^y*tf», A. P. ^yi^/tft.
Ep., Pf. P. Aynyt^fAmi, A. '-'1 1, 2 A. M. nyi^if*»i9$ B. 91, Pt, sync iy^ofAtvtf,
H. 134. Ep.^fbrms, nyt^Uofiat, V, 231, i(7c^c0/««i, K. 127 ; later Ep. ityk^
^^uu Ap. BlL 3. 895.

4kJifw <r. At^-, ilfi(-), to raiee, poet and Ion., F. it^ cMitr. *«^«?, .fisch*
Pen. 795, A. ifii^m, Pf. P. iTi^/mu (for «f«^T«, see § 236. </), A. P. itie^tiv •
coramonlj «3^m (r. '«#., syna, from ili^. § 261, «;^. § 267), F. 'Af«i, A. ^^a,
5uA;. "•e*' (§ 56. «), Pf. ^^»«, Pf. P. ;r«^tMM, A. P. 4(^ify, 1 A. M. n^ficti^,
'a^mfitm, 'a^aifAfiVy Eur. Or. 3, 2 A. M. poet. n^e/Anvj 'i^tptat^ *&^oifititf Soph.
EI. 34. JEoL Aif^, Sapph. 44(7 3> Poet, deriv., iit#f^*/MM, F. 108, it^rei.
{«r, Ap. Rh.- 1. 738, &^fun Soph. Ant. 903, a7»i}fAat (§ 29S. 3), ^. 144.

iyiiftt (r. l^c^., i^^. § 261, lyu(-), to rmcie, F. I^^, 2 Pf., as Pies, in-
trans., (the sync, root prefixed, by a pecoliar Att redupl., § 263. 6) ly^nyo^ct,
Pf. P. lynyifftttiy A. P. nyi^^f, 2 A. IL ny^ofinv. For ly^ny^u ly^nyofjOai,
see § 238. ^. 2 Pf. P^ 3 iy^fiyi^iwt (as from r. lyt^-) K. 419. Hipp, haa
Vl^'^yt^v and i7f/^r«. Deriv., E^. i7^fi^«^«*'» v* 6, Xy^w^ti «. 33; late

f?>^ (r. &X-, iX*. § 259), to ro2/ «p, jireM Aorc^ Ep. E. 203, A. fXr«
($ 56. /3) A. 409, Pf. P. UX/Mu, n. 662, 2 A. P. iiXny, N. 408. Att
forms, i7xx*» or c7xx«^ Ar. Nub. 761, Th. ii. 76, and 7xx«r Soph. Ant 340.
Deriv. i/Xuv or i/xU, .^rjM^ i/Xvm, -vr*» (Ef>., A. P. cXvWWv, "i^ 393 ; Deriv.
ilxSfdm, A. 156, uXUpmZttf T. 492), ixi^^M, -ilt (poet and Ion. i<x/rr« or
i;x;rr«»,.«:fich. Pr. 1085, Hdt u. 38), iXtXit^, .i^t, Ep. A. 530.

3>iiy«r, to «m£te, poet, F. 5tv*l, 2 A. Umv, Ar. Av. 54, 1 A. tfuva, T. 481.

»ti(m (r. zm^^ «f^. § 259), to aAeor, F. xt^S, A. l»Ci#a, Pf. P. xixatftuh
F. »(^rM, Mosch. 'J. 32, A. 7»f^r«, ». 456, Ui^^«/»D«, .£sdi. Pers. 952 (§ 56*
^), 1 A. P. Ui^fi9, Find. P. 4. 146, 2 A. P. i«i£^tfy, Anth.

f*tiff4/Mmi (r. /Mc^-)) ^ obtain^ chiefly poet, I. 616, 2 Pf Ifi/M^a, A. 278,
Pf. P. ilftm^rmt (} 191. 1), it Aa« been fated, PL Rep. 566 a, P». tifut^ivsu
lifter Ep. fAifiiffirxt Ap. Bh. 1 . 646, Dor. fuf$i^»xrtu Tim. Locr. 95 a.

a^i/XA*, to owe, ought (Ep. ;^XX« S. 462), F. i^Xnftt (§ 222. 2), 1 A.
«^4Xi}^«, 2. A., used only in the expression of a wish, A^iXn, Pf. m^iiXnxa.
Kindred verbs, ipixxt, to aetitcty poet, (for ^xxiii, see § 245. 5), i^Xirxdvttj
to buiur (§ 289), li^tXuv, to OMMt.

iri/Mr (r. r*^-), to- fierce, F. «'ff«^, Pf. P. friwrn^fuu, A. I«t4^ A. 465,
2 A. P. lT«e«f»f Hdt 4. 94, Ath. 349 c

r«'«4(f «, to 9oWt P. riri^, A. twufo, Pf. P. teTm^fuu, 2 A. P. iff^i^^»ji».

rtifw (r. r«».), to «<retoA, F. rf»^ A. Xtmb, Pf. «-iT««« (§ 217. «), Pf. P
rUikfuu, A. P. lr«#ii». Kindred £p. fonns, r«r«<M», B. S90, A. iV. rtthm$
it;*

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it^^ ROOT Ot THE VR&6. [bOOK H.

N. 534 ; r«y&» P. 890, F. rtt'tt^m^ Ac. ; Jmp. rn (ootftr. from rAt, r. r»-*
H. 219 ; 2 Aor. Pt, nrmytip (§ 194. 3 ; r. rtPy.) A. 591.

^^ci>*», to dettroy, F. ^^i^iS, A. I^iif«, 1 Pf. tpia^M, 2 Pf. f^/«^ Pf. P
i^tcffuuf 2 A. P. l^^i^^if*. F. ^ifr«, N. 625, F. M. pU^uf^u Hdt yiil
108, ^tt^Upuu ix. 42, 2 A. M. l^«^U«-« (§ 248. /) Id. viii. 90.

§ S69. 5. Change of r to r.

»xt»«, to 6etM2, F. »>.US, A. l»Xry« (§ 56), Pf. P. mUxtf^m (§ 217. «/
1 A. P. UXSt99 and IxXiVtiv, 2 A. P. Uxt»i}v.

r^tfiat, to n(6, to loeor, F. r^i^atf A. fr^i^j^a, Pf. rir^t^, Pf. P. rSr^^c^MU^

1 A. P. Ir^^n*, commonly 2 A. P. Ir^Ctif*

6. Change of r into ii.

^XiiV*' (r. i(X«^-« AXtip.), to anoint, F. 4lX«;<4^«, A. HXit^P*, Pf. 4Xi(xrfM
(§ 191. 2) and Hxu^m, Pf. P. kXrtXiftfAcu and HXtt/tfuu, 1 A. P. 4Xi;^#ii«,

2 A. P. liXi^y.

l^t/««, to AreoA, F. \^*im, 1 A. 4ffii|«, Ar. Vesp. 649, and 4ffi|«, Hipp.,
2 A. 4ff<»«y, P. 295, Pf. P. l^^iyfiat, Hipp. Collat., Ep. l^ix^m, t. 83.

l^fiVw, to cost ctoum, F. X^u^atj A. ^(ii>^a, A. P. h^pinf* 2 A., eomm.
tntrana., tt^tTn, £. 47, Plup. P. c^i^i rr« H. 15, late Pf. F. l^^ttufMu.

See, also, XiiV« (t 37) and rtiV« (Y 39).

7. Change of • into «».

i!»«^ (r. «»«^ A»«v.)i ft> ^^^o*** P* kmoirofMUt A. i!f»«vr«, 2 Pf. A»««««»
8 Plup. 4»ii«;iiy (§ 191. 2), A. P. «»«vV#«». Late, F. ^x^Jr**, Pf. P. 4f»«9.
r/MM. Ep. kuMJUtty Horn. Merc 423.

^370* 8. Change of if mto 0.

IXytm, to aj^ltcf, F. kXy9tS, A. 4fXy9Mi, A. P. iiXyMnf,
9%u^»fMu and )v^«/MM, to lament, F. i^d^*?/!**!, A. »)i^i{/«fi».
wxtuty to woMh, F. rX^nS; A. twXffwmj Pf. P. wi^XSfuu (§ 217. •), A. P
IwxUfiv.

rt(p»» (r. Sd^., ri;^. § 263), to fumigate, to hum, F. SuV**, Pf. P. rUuftfrnt^
2 A. P. IrlJ^iff.

9. Change of 9 into iv.

«iv^« (r. kyt-y »ii^.)> A> A><^ poet 2Sach. Pr. 571, F. »cvrM, 1 A. I»im»»
«. 263, 2 A. I»i^«», 7. \6 (jiixutn, § 194. 3), 2 Pt »(»iv#c. Soph. EL 1 12a
Ep. KtvUiim, r. 453.

Tii/;t;*»^ <» prepare, poet., F. n^«r, A. Ir««;5«, Pf. P. rirvyfuu, A. P. M^h^
Pf. P«. intrans. riTii;;t;'^f A*- 423, Pf. P. nTiJ;t;«r«i (^ 248. /) ^. 63, Plup,
lrirff;;^«r« A. 808, Pf. P. Jnf, nrii;;^W«< X' ^04, F. Pf. rint^«;MM, M.
345, A. P. Irtvxhh Hipp. ELindred verbs, rtfyx**^ (§ 290), rtrmt/mt
(5 285).

^iwy^S and sometimes ^«yyig.« (§ 200), to ^, F. ftv^»/Mu and ^tft|«S>Mi.
(§ 200. 3), 1 A. t^tu^a, commonlj 2 A. tpyyov, 2 Pf. «^ft»>^ I^ PH Pt.
^fvlirtt (cf. 274. >) «I». 6, ff-i^t/y^Sy^f «. 18.

Digitized by VjOOQIC



OH. 10. 1 EMPHATIC CHANGES. 22A

10. Change of i, in the diphthong ci, to «.

»Xt/« and xXptff to shut, F. »Xi«r*r and xXiir«, A. IzXu^ai and tttXy^m,
Pf. P. »%xXue/tMi, »(»Xii/BMM, and MtKXif/Mti, F. Pf. »f»XiiV«/»«i, Ar. Lys.
1072, A. P..UXf;r#fff. Ion. »Xtff*», ./r**, Hdt. iii. 117; Dor. F. ttXafsfi or
»Xf(M llieoc. 6. 32, A. I»X«^«, &c, as from xkd^m or »Xf^*r (§ 245. 1).

^ 371. II. By the addition of consonants,
usually either t, ct, v, ctx, or f.

Of these consonants, t is chiefly added to lahial roots ; a, to
palatal and lingual roots ; y (without further addition, § 289. 2),
to liquid and pure roots ; ax, {;, &c., to pure roots. In a few
instances, the close terminations are affixed to the protracted
root

§ 373* 1. Addition of r (see § 52).
«. To Labial Roots.

drvi (r. il^., ib«'r-)» A> fauten to, to tet on fire, F. iVa^'**, A. l^^^«, Pf. P.
iT/t^AM, A. P. ^^tfv (of^^tf*, Hdt. i. 1 9, U^^i}», y. 543). Kindred, k^Jut, to
kmdie. Ion. ^^«err*r, A. f|f^a«-dt, Hdt. iii. 69, ArapUxt (§ 296).

^aitTM (r. /3«^., ^cvr-), to dip, F. A«'«^*'> A. IC«^^4t, Pf. P. fiiCm/A/iUUt
1 A. P. lU^ftiv, commonly 2 A. P. iU(ptif.

fi^Jirrtt (r. /3X«C0> to hurt, F. ^X«^;'ftr, A. KXtt^^a, Pf. fiiSXm^m, Pf. P*
fiiCXmatfuu, 1 A. P. ICx^fiP, 2 A. P. iex«^Ci}y. F. Pf. fi%Zxi^»iM, Hipp.
Ep. fiXdSofMu, T. 82.

2^(v«'r*» (r. ^(vf •)» to fear tAe ^/letA, poet Ear. EI. 1 50, F. ^^u^J^t, I A.
U^v^a, n. 324, 2 A. Op*. ^r^^^f^^M T. 187, A. P. S^(v>^tfy, i. 435.

^^rr« (r. S«f .)> to 6ury, F. ^l^^^*r, A. Um^^a, Pf. P. rUafifuu, 3 F. rt-
ii^4fMu, Soph. Aj. 577, 2 A. P. iriC^ (§ 263). 1 A. P. UJilpif,^, Hdt iL
8 1 . From the r. S«f - in another sense, come tiie Ep. and Ion. ^2 Pf., as Pres.,
vk0iinr», to he amazed, A. 243, Hdt ii. 156, 2 A. Ir«^«v, I. 193 ; and the
late 1 Pf. trans, rita^, Ath. 258 c

^f^trr^ (r. ^^'\ to brook in pieces, F. ^(i^i, Pf. P. rii^uptfrn.
A. ^^(va/'*, Hipp., 1 A. P. U^y(p9m, Anth., 2 A. P. ir^6(pn* (§ 263), P. 363*

»mpt9rrm (r. X4t/tfr-), to bend, F. xtifi^ptt, A. I»«e^^^«, Pf. P. »i»af*fuu
(§ 217. ^), A. P. Udft^tif. Kindred, yvc^v-r*^.

»X««'«-*' (r. »X«r., »Xtfr. § 259), to «toa/, F. »Xi^t, A. l«Xf^^«, Pf. »f*
»X«^« (§ 236. a), Pf. P. »UXi/AfMu, 1 A. P. Uxc^tfv, commonly 2 A. P.
UXi^rtfv. Late 2 A. txXturov.

mirr»f (r. am-.)* to etU, to strike, F. »«^», A. I»«^^•, Pf. «Sx«^«, Pf. P. »(•
jM^VMM, 3 F. MjJs^ipM, Ar. Ban. 1223, 2 A. P. l»««-iiir. 2 Pf. /^ Mjct^tif
N. 60.

«(v«^« (r. »(vC.)» to Aid^i F. »fv>^«r, A. U^a, Pf. P. xi»^ofmm, 1 A. P
Ufv^nv, sometimes 2 A. P. U^vCiry. In Hipp., Pf. »i»(vpm, F. Pf. »t»^in^««
f$m4. For »^Mrr«r»t, see $ 249. d,

f^^m.ir. fa^.), to stitdi, F. fJi^m, A. ?//«^^«, Pf. P. f/^A^ 2 A. P

ftd^rm (r. AMie«'-)* ^ '"^ V>^ F* A<^«»f 0. 137, 1 A. tfut^^a, Ar. Bq



Digitized by



Goo^e



tiil^ ROOT OF THB VERB. [bOOK II

197. Ep 2 A. pAfm^wn, shortened ^//u««-«» (§f 194. 3, 255. >, 263. 6j,
and ItMMxn, Hes. Sc 231, 2 Pf. ftifui^^a. Id. Op. 202.

r^«-9w (r. rvtr., riMrr.), F. ru^rwrn (§ 222. l), 2 A. 4r«Nr«s PC P. virtf
wvnfMu snd rirv^^Mu, 2 A. P. Iruwnu Ion. 1 A. Irt^«, A. 531, iri/^c/tii*
Hdt. u. 40. For nrvvrstnt, aee § 194. 3.

fi. To Other Boots.

kfta^t avtrt (t. iw-, Jtrvr-), to aoeompUihf F. a^tw^t A. ^fvfimn, Pf. ht'mm
Pf. P. nvv*tMMu A. P. ntvffintt Hes. Sc. 3 1 1 . The simpler form '£»« like*
wise occurs in the Prss. and Impf. For il^w, &c., see $ 246. «

«•/»«» (t. ri»-» r/»c. § 259), to h^gei^ *> 6r% /©rK*, F. rVim^ ^tnUMAj
rVitfuu, I A. 2r4»i oommonly 2 A. 7rf««v, 2 Pf. rWMMh A. P- irix^wt*
Late Pf. P. rtrc^r^M. For rtzufffas, see § 200. y.

§ 373* 2. ADDITION OF r.

This letter is sometimes simply prefixed or ^!a^ to the
characteristic^ but commonly unites with it, if a palatal^ to form
aa (tt, <J 70. 1), or less frequently f, and, if a lingwd^ to form
f (§ 51. N.), or less frequently oa (rr).

Notes. (I.) Palatals in .^» are mostly onomatopes. (2.) lingaals in
-Zm are mostly derivatiyes, wanting the second tenses, and, by reason of eu-
phonic changes, nowhere exhibiting the root in its simple form. The charac-
teristic may, however, be often determined from another word. It is most
frequently ^, and may be assumed to be this letter, if not known to be another.
(3.) In a few instances, r unites with yy to form ^, and even with a labial to
form ^ or rr.

a. Prefixed.

^X60nm (r. iXvs., AXiirx-), to avoid, poet, F. JkXv^, A. ilfXn^. Extendea
Ep. forms, «Xvr«^ Z. 443, «Xvr»4ra x- 3^*

Urm» (r. ir»., f2». § 260, liVie.), to UkeH, Ep. F. 19? (also U%m ). 279),
PC P., as Prss., Ipyftm, to be like, Eur. Ale 1063, Plup P. AT^/kuv, ). 790'.
llie common trans, form is ii»«^«, .<^r*r, &c., and the conmon intrans., the
prat. %•*%• (^ 238. /3), for which are also used the simplet s7«« (having in th€
3d Pers. pL the irr^ular form iii&in Ar. Av. 96 ; cf. Irik* *» ^237. Zhm\ antf
Ion. Jtxm, Hdt i. 155 ; Plup., as Impf., i^»iiv (§ 189. 5,, F i?|*r, Ar. Nub.
1001. Ep. Impf. mtrans. (or Pf.) tlm 2. 520.

hivtt and Wt'rtt (r. Ivir-, iy^*'. § 259, iMrr-), lo ^eol^ fc^ poet. A. 64.),
a 761, Soph. (Ed. T. 350, F. Ui^ot, H. 447, and Iw^fiwm (^ 222) t. 98
2 A. iMrv-jf, Eur. Sup. 435. Kindred, Ui^rm and Iv/r^-^ (<i 276. 0, to re-
|iroac&, £^. P. 438, O. 198, 2 A. nnv&wn and Uivrrfy (§ 19 ^ S). BeUifed
to iTr^f (1301.7).

Aiir»*r (r. Xmm'}, to srmwd; to utter, poet, F. Xauntofuu (^ 222), A. ix«xi}.
#«, commonly 2 A. Ixa««», 2 Pf. Xix«»« ( <) 236. £.). 2 A. M. XtXaxavro
(^ 194. 3). For UXAjtvla, see ^ 253. 2. Deriv. forms, Fp. Xnitiw, /. 379
Dor. XMnim, Theoc. 2. 24, Att X«»«^«f, .£sch. Sup. 872.

^. AflUxed.

«xi|« (r. «Xi»-, 4tXi5.), to iwirvf q^, poet in the Act, F. IXtlwt, Z. 109^
'Kl|iir«, y. 346, and ^Xi^«, ifisoh. Sup. 105 J, 2 A. «X ;i»w (i§ 194. %

Digitized by VjOOQIC



«m 10.] SMPHATIO CHAIfOES. S2S

261), ;fx»«/«. (5k 299) -ffiach. Fr. 417 ; Mid. to repel, P. «Xi£|rr^ci, viJ. 7. 3
A. iiXtlafinv^ i. S. 6.

i)«^«fMi<, to 6tte, Ion. and Poet, F. »i»liv»fia$j Hipp., A. 4f)«|iS/ufy, Anib^
Ft P. iHmyfMu, Act •)«(*>, to gmart from a 6tto, Symp. 4. 27.

^ 974. 7. Uniting with a Palatal to ibnn r^ (rr).

»3LXA0^»t or «XX4irr« (r. rnXXmy-^^ to cAonge, F» aXXi^at, A. iTXJL*!*, Pd'
4iXX«;^«, Pfl P. jfXXayyMM, 1 A. P. nXXd^^nv, 2 A. P. 4xx«yif».

rX4r#w (r. 4'X«f7.), to eirS^ in «6mpo8itioD with in or xaroj to s<rtAe trt^A
Urror, F. «>Xif|«, A. {vXtf^c, 2 Pf. Tri^rXn^, Pf- P' irf«rXny/M««, 8 F. fl^v-Xi?-
(o^MM, Ar. Eq. 272, 1 A. P. iwX^x^mf eommofUy 9 A. P. l^rXnynv, bat iff.



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