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the A. irm. are trans., the other forms intrans. For Pres. Sfthj. {&»tf*t9, tSfAf^y
ittfitf (also written UifAtf, as if from 1««) T. 402, see § 242. a; for In/l
u/ttmuu, see § 250. e ; for Pres. Mid. ii»Tait see § 242. 1 . Deriv. *Atrm»fA»tf
Theoc 25. 240, A. P. ^n^y Hdt ilL 41.

U/it£Z»0 (r. U^\ to subdue, F. Uf^^^f, A. Hm/iLm^m, I A. P. liUfUtrtnw,
and poet. U^i^^ (§ 223), A. 99, Eur. Ale. 1 27, 2 A. y«, discretion.

d. -«r (G. -t«r, n.)> chiefly from adjectives in -vr ; as, ^eJut^ deep, fia^ag,
deplh ; tv^vst broad, tS^ot, breads,

e. '»$ (Or. 'ttisf, f.), from nmnerals ; as, ^110, two, Wf, duae^g Se«
If 25. III.

§ 309. III. From Other Nouns. Nouns derived from
other nouns are,

1.) Pa-trials (patria, native land)^ and similar words de*
noting persons related to some object. These end in,

a. 'Ttif (G. -Tfltf) masc., and -vtf (^ 1 34. « ; G. -nhf) fem. (with thi
preceding vowel long iq patrials ; thus, Arns, -nrm, -urns, 'tarnf, -«wfc t
and also in other nouns in -irns) ; as, "SvSa^is, Sybaris, 2vf «^trDf , a man of
Sybaris, a Sybarite, 'IvGet^irtg, a woman of Sybaris; Aiytvnrfih Tlt^irng^
l^ret^nirns, 2/*iXi«5T»ij, a man of jEgina, &c. ; voXtg, city, vaXtrtif, citizen,
woXtrif, feihale citizen ; ro\ot, bow, rJ^irns, archer, ro^irts, archeress.

b. -ii/f (G. -Utf) masc, and -ts (G. -thg) fem. (^ 118. S) ; as, 'Miytt^m^
Megara, M^ya^tvt, Megarian man, It/Uym^is, M, woman; ^ai^/tM»ov, drug,
(pa^fiutHiut, dealer in datgs, soreerer, pn^fumit, sorceress; Ivritds, horse, Urmt,
horseman, knight,

^310* 2.) Patronymics (so called from containing the
father's or ancestor's name, nntgog ovofia). These end in,

a. 'fitis (G. -ov) masc (uniting with i or « -.preceding), and -t* (G. -t J«j
fern.; 'oivs (G. -cv) masc, and -»s (G. -ethg) tern., from names of Dec I.;
and 'io^ng (G* -«v) masc, and -tag (G. -taiog^ fem., from names in 't»g, and
(especially in hexameter verse for the sake of the measure) from many which
have the hist syllable of the root long ; as, Ufitt/Aos, Priam, Yl^totfJlmy »on
of P,, Il(Mf*4g, daughter of P.; KU^a^, Ei»^««'/^«f , Kix^avig • TlnXtug,
•*•»$, IlffXii^nf • *B^m»Xngt 'i»vt, *H^nxkilhis • Atirti, 'iog, Anrtiing • B^^uifi
Boreas, B«^ue^i», son of B,, Ba^t&g, A»g, daughter of B, ; &irri»gi 0«#tmU«^
0trri«f • OifDf, -nr-ag, ^t(nT4tt^ng • linXwg, Ep. G. -w, Ep. TlnXmdht»9
A. 1.

b. -««y (G. '/vfag, rarely -Uvos) masc, and -uivn or -Im (G. -ng) i^*. only
poetic ; as, K^iv^g, Saturn, K^antv, -ttvag or A»9»g, son cf 8., A, 397 ; Ilir
kiug, IltiXu»>p, A. 188 ; *A»^irt0g, 'An^^tmni, daughter of A,, S,S19; "A^^
0r«gf * A J^fltf-rtf fj E. 4 1 2.

Rbmabk. Patronymics appear to have been, in their origin, diminutives
thus, n^ia^Anf, little Priam. See (^312. Akin to the above are a few
words in -sites, contr. -Hevg, — son, -tiis, contr. -<JJ», — daughter ; as, ^»y«-
r^t^ovs, -'^«, daughter*s son, — daughter, itiiX^iiwg, -1^, n^hew^ mece.



§311« 3.) Female Appellatives. These end in,

from those iB<
See § 134.

Digitized by VjOOQIC



a. 'tg (G. '»i»g), chiefly from inaaculines c^ Dec. I., and from those ia •sis
as, "hMvirng, master, itewirig, mistress (%i80 ^trvMMt, cf. b). See § 134. «•



CH. ll.J. NOUITS. 24il

b. -«<y& (G. -Iff), chieflj from maacnlines in -mv; as, xUv, -•f «#, fiioit,
kiatva^ U(mesa ; ri»r«v, -«v0f , cirtuoit, r%»recn» • A«xa>v, -*>»•;, j9/>artoii, AiC-
»«<m. Also from some in -•; ; as, i^iAf, ^focf, S-ioivo, goddeat (^ 74. i), X^»«f

c -fiil (6. 'umt\ frt>m fi»^iXivf, king, and /i^ivf, priest; thus, fim^/XMu,
fueem, H^tm, priutesa, ,

d. -##« (-«•«, § 70. 1 ; G. -nf), from several endings of Dec. IIL ; as,
KiXilt -mty CUicianj KiXi#r« (cf. § 273), «f»«^ -»«f, sovereign, ivarrm, ^i,
^iif hireling, Siirr«, AiCug, 'uog, Lybiecn, Ki^vftra,

Note. See, also, §§ 306. N., 309, 310.

§ 319. 4.) Diminutives (sometiines expressing o^ec-
tum^ oflen cotUempt). These end in,

a. -Mv (G. 'too, n.), with a syllable often prefixed (-i}<«y, -^^f*, -vXkitv,
-»)^i«y, 'v^tof, &c.). — b. 'i0xos (G. -•», m.), -iVjsn (G. -w, f.). Thus, <r«r#,
dtildt Diminutives, ff'm^itfy, /t^ cAi/<f, 9raihtr»oi, young boy^ 9ruiiiv»fii young
girl, itmiia»i»9j v'eu'iafi^tsv, 9raihet^vX>jof, 9rattia^t9x»'i, trttiiiv*£^tov * fnit^aJ^
youlk, /Ai4^ti»409, fiu^x/ii»9, fAU^axvXXt»¥t /Ati»a»uXXiii09j fAH^Kxiaxos, ftu^etxi'
•"»« • xi^rij gif'U xo^tovt »»fU»fi, xt^tffxiov, xo^iho*, xt^iriov (for 'a^tov, on ac-
oowit of the preceding ^), xe^xrihcv • tH^ot, isUmd, ^nfvh^tof • T^Sin, animalf
{J^ntfitw) ^iih09, Zatid^iavj ^mu^tov, *€i iMx^xrif, £ iMx^etrtiw, O Socrates /
i&or Soekyt Ar. Nub. 22'2.

c 'if (G. 'ttof and -tiaf, f.) ; as, »^wn» fountain,^ x^wU* -7^«« • rivM^
tabie, xncbxUi 'i^9t, tablet*

d. 'ihut (G. -<«r, m., only of the young of animals) ; as, atrig, eai^%
Atrtiius, eaglet; Xeiym, hare, Xttyt^ivs*

e. 'ix^n, -axvn, 'vXXit, 'uXoi (Dor.), &c. ; as, iroXti, city, ^•xix^n • ^Uh^
wine-Jar, ^t^dxtti • kxaviis, finch, itxavtuXXit • i^Mf, 'ttr^s, love, i^mvuXf^
darling, Theoc 3. 7.

Note. Some diminutives (especially in -taf) have lost their peculiar force *
thus, d^^, commonly in prose ^^iov, wild beast. Some proper names have di«
minutive forms, sometimes made by abbreviation ; as, MiytXXaf \juymty
great), 'A/Aa^uXXU (JtfAa^et, channel), Atevvs, "M-tifits (§ 1 26. 2).

§ 3 1 3. 5.) AuGMENTATivEs, words implying increase^
either of numhery size, or degree. They end in,

a. -«» (G. -«v«(, m.). This ending may express either a place, an emunal,
or a person, in whidi any thing exists in numbers, or in large size or degree;
as, &fjtwtXt, vine, ift^rtXtiv, vineyard, /«•«■«> {Iwoi), horse-stable, «v^^«», yv-
MMJMvv {&fn^, yvvn), apartments for men, women, slwt {tnof), wine-cellar ; x**'
Xt, Up, x**^h A fish with a long snout ; ytai»t, jaw, yvaJtv, glutton ; irXmr
ros, breadth, IlAirtfv. As & designation of place, -mm is also used ; as, p»-
^Mutt (Jtitf), rose-bed.

b. -«( (G. -ux»f, m,), applied, like the preceding, to persons and animals,
but harsher in its expression ; as, 9rX»ur»t, .wealth, irXavraJi, a rich dtwL So
XdS^^S, greedy, Xx^ttl^ sea-wolf.

Remark. Many derivative nouns are properly adjectives
used substantively.



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34(< DEBITJITION. [hOOK I

B. ADJEcmrBs.
^ ft 1 4. L Prom Verbs. These end in,

a. 'tftif, 'fit -«>, acHve; as, i^X"* ^ ^'^f &(X**'fi ^'^ ^ ^^* ye*^*^ **
^ktcHh*, ycf»mif^ ekaoipHve, fftaphic. This endiog is mofB freqnendy pre*
oeded by r (cf. ^ S06. a, b) ; as, wMnrmif (wMtm), poetic. Bat sm § S15. b^

b. •^t^^tdti 'd, '0f, ttcthej as, r^^Ar, to »mv6f vmtn^t$t, »avm0 (cf. § 306. b).

0. 'if*»tt -«* (and -ff, 'fi, *«f )» impljing fitnesi, both aelxoe and poMtee, ano
annexed after the analogy (^ different verbal noons; as, r^i^i», r(«^fi
(§ S05. b), r^i^ifMs, ftttBd to impart or to rtte<M mmMment^ fuOritUma, dig*
aromt, Xi^if*H {xi»»/*^ xfi'*t\ JU foriue.

d. 'fMtt, '/M9 (6. 'fMf»t)t active i as^ Uil«, ft> jxty, Ulii^imms c f w p awi oii a ii;
ftf^i/Mn (jiifAvnfiMt\ mindfuL

a. -«vr, -If, -^y, pamoe, signifying Mcrf wluck is done, dther as a matter of
fagt (like tiie Lat Part pass, in •'tut)j or m(H« commonly as a matter of kabU
Qi po uibil ityi thus, i^dtt, to see, i^drht seen, visible.

t "tint, '&, '•vt passive, expressing necessity or obUffatton (Bke the Lat
Part. In -ndus) ; «8» irstiv, to make^ wun^Usj Aa^ loAtcft is to be made.

'. NoiBb Verbals in -rit and -riis commonly follow, in respect to the ibrm
if the root, the analogy of the 1 Aor. pass. ; as, mt^w, to take, Pf. P. fj^nfmi^
A. P. ^^Unv, m^trit, Mt^tridt • vmvM, to stopy Pf. P. ^iwmitfutt, A. P. Wmwtn*^
^awrift irtufT^iat* •

g. -fi#, -If, 'iff passive (compare the Part, in -fttwi) ; as, #tC«, to revere^
{nC-vig) 0tf»,fi(j revered, m'^fuvit (vr^Hm), longed for.

h. 'iifiU (-4 -•»)» '»s (6> '£iH\ &c ; as, ;^«X«4», to slaeken, %»> m^it,
Atck; pi^v, to bear, p»(as, frui^ul; Xiyv, to choose, X^y^g, chosen; Xmth
(Xi/r^^ remaining.

§S1S* n. From Nouns. These have the following
atidiQgs, with, in general, the significations that are annexed :

a.* 'ft, belonging to ; if a vowel precedes, commonly uniting with it in a
diphthong (-«Mf, -uos, -^toty -««(, -moi), and often, without respect to this,
assuming the form -iMf (Ion. -ti'toi, § 46. B.), especially from names of persons
and animals. Many patriuls (properly adjectives, but often used substantively)
belong to this class. Thus, •vfavis, heaven, •h^titnf, bdonging to heaven, heaven-
llh fvw i^^t\ of mtader, murderous ; ky*^9% {ky^£), pertaining to the
/ w' lwa , *Ain9mt QAJUfeu), Athenian, ^t {^'u), divine, 'AfytTn ("A^Hi
^-•iX 'drgivCf if«f (tm), Ion. «•/> (imt, -•-•»), of <At morning, wmx*'***
<«ri;ttf|)i of a cubits length ; M^w^uog {Avifttvos), human, *0p4(ii»t (•O^nf^),
MomenOi ^(u»f (B4(), of wild beasts.

^OTBS. m. From the neuter of these adjectives has come a class of sub-
stantives denoting an appropriated building or other place, instrument, &c ; as,
ktimtw QAJnvm), ^nfiTut, Mavtf-iTfv, temple of Minerva, of Theseus, of the
Muses, M0v^$&9 (»«»^ivf), barber's shopf y^ninfuunlsf {y^fAfimrtut)^ writing^
tablet, cf. § 307.

«k Before -*^ and -tt (§ SOS. a), «• oflen passes into •• ; as, iMUifrii, gear^
l»Wi»f, of a gear, UtXnrut (TAtknrof), MUesian, ii»f4t*M (u^mturt), i»-



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•?H. 11.] ADJECTinS. — PSOfTOUNS. 3»19

b. -/«««, •«, 'if Qf y precede^ -jmi ; if simple t or ii, -S»«f ; while -miot
oommouly makes -«i'»««), relating to. These a^ectires in jm; are often formed
from words that are themselves derivative. They apph to things rather than
to permma. When used of the latter, they commonly signify related to in
^^lalUy* or Jit for^ and are mostly derived from personal appellations. Thus,
vijcm, art, T»x*t»ot, relating to art, artutic ; J«»X»,-, stew, l«9Xi»es, »ervile ;
AiCvt, Libyan, AjC»»§t» pertaimng to the Libyam or Ubya ; E^ivitH, Carina
dUuit, K»^it0ta»if • ^wov^ut, spondee, ^ff^Himxis, spondee ; *Axmit, jichaan,
*Kxntnis, and less Att. 'A^^iixis • ^unrns, poet, ^Mnrtxis, poetic, ftir»^M»tf
Qn'TM^ rhetorical, rr^mrfiytxit {ar^ctr»yos), fit for a generoL See ^ 314. a.

c -i«f, -«, -•», an4 'Tt»f, -«, -•» (proparoxytone), denoting material, -en ; aa,
Xei^^*Sj 90^ Xi^^**f (T 18)» golden, IvXiwg j(^'x#»), wooden,

d. -/mi, seldom -f »•«, expressing time or crso nfa io t ; as, ii/in^ffit (l|^S^«)»
^ f/«|f, n^iirtfr (^ri^**), 2n>e/, Ji^iivof (^«;, -•-•0» m ountainoue,

e. -rvff, -ifNf, -4ry«r, patrials, from names of dties and countries oat of
Greece ; as, T«^«»rr»«f (Tn(»t, -mvrtt), Tarentine, Kvlt»ti9«s (Kv^tM^f), Cyzif
eene, 2a^tt»0s {Im^htt), SartBan.

f« -^if, -•^•»» -«f^»#» -«Ai»f, -«X«f, -ArXif , "Ut (-4#ri, -t», G. -«»r#*), 'tHing (-•#,
G. -i«f ; oontr. from 'e-uint, from in*!, form), expressing fulnes$ or 9110^ ;
as, aUxi*f i»*^X*f)» tihameftd, paU^is {^oCh), feeufnl, irsffi^ig irivtt), pau^ul^
^m^emJiisf {Bm^r^s), courageoua, d^rnrnXit (^nvrnm), deceitful, ^tietXit (jP*i«i\
parmmoiwme, iXniH iJiXn), woody, m'v^ius {^ru^, -i/^«f), fiery, ;^«^W (xH*f\
gtaeefid, efnntSht (*f ^)b wasp-Ske, yJ^aftfiuHins {^aftftof), sandy.

^ S 1 0. in. From Adjectives and Adverbs. 1. From
some adjectives and adverbs, derivadves are formed in the
same manner as from nouns ; thus, xa^a^o^, dean^ xaddgiog^
cl^eanlyj iXfv&igiog {iXtv&f(fog)y liberal^ &iiXvx6g {^^kvg)^ jemi'
ntnc, x^joipog {x^ig)y of yesterday.

2. The adjective has in. Greek, as in other languages, two
strengthened forms, of which the one may be termed dutd^
denoting choice between two objects, and the other plural^ de-
noting choice among a nitmher of objects.

The most obvious examples of these atrengthened forms are the eomparathe
and superlatioe degrese, oommoaly so ci^ed. Other examples of the oon^Mtra^
tive or dual strengthened form are, (a) the correlatives vrirtff ; whether of tht
two f wTt^ig, Xrt^H (formed from the 3d Pers. pron. as the podtive, ^ 28,
$ 1 4 1 , or, as some think, from the numeral its'), one of the two, olVirt^^t, •«*«.
rt^os, U«rt^«(, ifA^irt^»s (see f 63, and compare the Lat. uter, neuter, alter,
and the Eng. whether, either, ndther, otiier) ; (6) the following impl3ring a con-
sideration of two objects m properties ; hJ^rt^it (poet.), Lat. <texter, right
(rather than left), n^tm^f, sinister, left, hun^Hj second, hfitin^ti noster, our
(Mt|Mr than yours, or any one's else), &f*ir$^, vaster, yomr, e^irt^, their, &c
r*| 84). Other examples of the euperlaUve or pbiral strengthened form are,
(r) Hm co nWii ti w i wirrt \ whdeh m order f or, one of how many f iwiern^
UmeTH (1 6S) ; (d) all ordmak axoept ^t^rs^ (tee f S^)*

C. Pronouns.
^317. For the formation of the most commrn pronoam,



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250 DBRTVATIOlf. [bOOK It

see §§ 141 - 154. The Greek abounds in correlative pronouns
and adverbs (see fl 63), in respect to many of which it will be
observed that, when they begin with w-, they are indefinite^ or
interrogative (with a change of accent) ; with t-, definite ol
demonstrative ; with the rough breathings relative definite^ and
with 07r>, relative indefinite. Thus, itoaog ; how much 7 noooq^
of a certain quantity^ loaog., Toaoviog and toaoadt (^ 150. a),
so much^ oooq^ as nrnch^ onoaogy how much soever ; noxs ; when 7
TroTc, at some time^ tots, then^ ore, wlien, onotey whensoever.

D. Verbs.

^318* I. From Nouns and Adjectives. Of these
the chief endings and the prevailing significations are as fol-
lows.

a. 'itfy -ii/«, and (mostly from noans of Dec I.) -i^, to be or do that
which is pointed out by the primitiye ; as, ^/Xof, friend, ^ikint, to be aftiaui,
to lovty tt^atfMvim (jkv^mlfMt*, -•99s)t to be proaperoutj Atv^w {^'''^X^f)* to be
unforUmatey w«ktf*itt (^triXtfiUf), to wage war ; ^•vXivm (^•i;X«f ), to be a slave,
to eerve, f^ftXivm (fimnXtuf), to reign, XH*^** (x*t*f)* ^ dance; rpkfuut
{rikfim), to be bold, to dare, rtftAm (rtfin), to honor,

b. 'om (mostly from words of Dec. II.), -«/»» and 'vim (mostly from ad-
jectives), to make that which is pointed out by the primitive ; as, ^nX«f , m»-
dent, ^nkim, to make evident, 'havXut (J^wXtt), to make one a elave^ to enaUxoe^
Xi^^*" (x(*'^^^)» ^ *"^'^ golden, to gild, wrt^im (^rn^v), to make winged, to
furnish with wings, rTt^etviat {ffri^aift), to croum ; Xfv»«/»« {ktuxis), to
whiten, rti/Mtifm (ftifjia), to signify, niuvv (Jiivf^, to sweeten,

c. -i^Af, and (chiefly when formed from words which have « or n in the
last syllable, or when preceded by i, cf. §§ 310. a, 315. b) -«?»; from names
of persons or animals, imitative (denoting the jadoption <^ the manners, language,
ojnnions, party, &c.) ; from other words, used in various senses, but mostiy
active ; as, Mt>^i^A> (M^af), to imitate or favor the Medes, 'ExXkiti^a*, to speak
Greek, Am^i^v and A«^i«^w, to live, talk, sing, or dress like the Dorians, <l>iX4ff'.
r/^Af, to be of Philip^s party, iXMVtxil^t (^iXiivtil), to play the fox ; ^Xturi^m
(frXft/Tvf ), to make rich, tuimfA^til^v, to esteem happy, ^i^i^« (^^C^^)* ^* harvest,
Ifi^tif (^(ts)t to contend, i^^rd^tit (b^rn), to wtake a feast, ^ix«^« (}*M$i), to
j^uige, ^mvfiui^M {^mSftu), to wonder,

d. -*> with simply a strengthening of the penult> more frequentiy active $
as, nu^i^of, pure, xaiai^tn, to purify, ftuftiXXtt (xTMittXot), to variegate, ftttXue'-
9m (jiaX&xos)j to soften,

§819. II. From Other Verbs. These are

1.) Desideratives, formed in -ftiat, from the Fut.; as, ytX^ to laugh,
ytXartw, to wish to laugh, PL Phado, 64 b, ncoXifttfi^um (r^Xi^U), to adM
for war, Th. L 33. Desideratives are also formed in 'idv (rarely -dm), diieily
from verbal nouns ; as, ^v^mvm, to team, fteJtivtit, disciple, fsMtnrtdm, to wiak
to become a disciple, Ar. Nub. 1 83, ffr^ttmydat {rrfarnyit), to desire military
command, vii. 1. 33, ^»furdw {^»itmr»s), to desire death, PI. Phaodo, 64 b.

2.) Tarioufl prQl(mc«d fbnns in -C«, -r»», &c. (see §§ 265 -SOO), mbm-



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CH. ll.J VERBS. ADVERBS 2&I.

timet freqiteiUatieB or mfeiutoe, as, /iVr^, to iknm^ fs^Tdlm, to throw to imdfroi,
rrS»«, to »igh, #rt»«^«», to iigk deeply ; sometimes utc^ve, as, i^i^ to be a$
the age of puberty^ fi€eif»at, to come to the age of puberty ; sometimes coMo^ttw^
as, fitt0uttf to be intoxicated^ fufvfxM, to intoxicate ; sometimes diminutioe, as,
l^ttrn'mrdrnf to cheat, l^av-mrvXXv (cf. ^ SI 2), to cheat a Utile, to hutnbug, Ar.
£q. 1 144 ; bat often scarce differing in force from the primitiye fonn
(§§ 254-258,265).

E. Adverbs.

^ 390. Most adverbs belong to the foUowmg classes.

I. Oblique Cases of Nouns and Adjectives, employed
as circumstantial adjuncts (see Syntax). With an adjective
thus employed, a noun is strictly to be supplied. Many of
these oblique cases have antique forms, and many belong to
themes that are not in use. Examples,

1. 6ENTnvBa» (a) in -#», denoting the place whence (§ 91) : (6) m •«»
denoting the place where ; aa, tS [sc rmv or ;^Aff i«v], tn which place, where^
§tiirw, Acre, iftau, in the tame place, ttHaftw, nowhere: (c) in -nr ; as, alftmif
of a sudden, l^nt, in order : (d) ir^unif {'e'^«i&, cf a gift, gratie, &c

2. Datives, (a) in -m, -«#i of Dec II. sing., and in -ifr4(»), -#r4(v) of
Dec. I. pi., denoting the place where (in adverbs in -m derived from pronoons,
this commonly passes into the idea of whither, see f 63. and compare the &-
miliar use of u^ere, there, &c,, in English) ; as, *Ajfvtntvh ot Athene ; see
§§ 90, 96. 5 : (b) in -p (-n), -f (-«), -m of Dec. I., and in -i of Dec HI,
denoting wag, place where, or time when ; as, rnvr^ [sc i^f ] m Ait wag, thMt^
[sc x'^^f] ^ ^^ P^^i^ A^*^ ^rntrmxnj cverg wag, eoergwhere, irtl^, on foot^
tiif, prioatefy, ;^«^/, on the ground, ^riXtu, m olden time, Innrt, bg the wUl of^
X^ (§ 89. fi, d), Ayx** ^*^^9 V» '^^H* I* ^^^*

Note. Adverbial Datives of Dec. I. are written by most editors with an
i snbsc, except when they have no Nom. in use, and by some even fheo*
See § 25. fi,

S. Accusatives ; as, infun*, at the moment, x^i ^ account of, }{»n9f Sktt
and the Neat sing, and pi. of acyectives. ,

^391. II. Derivatives signifying, (1.) Manneb, in,

a. -^, from a^ectives. Hie adverb may be formed by changing y of the
Gen. pi. into t ; as, ^a^it, 6. pL ^9^£v, wise, v^Zf, wisdg, rm^vst rax^t
wwift, rmxi»Ht wnfUy, ^a^Ss (fn^ns, ^i^vv, -«?»), Ion. ra^ivf, eoidentig.

b. -«)«v or -^ay Tperhaps kindred with iitt, form), chiefly from noons ; Ant
or -4^ifv, chiefly from verbs (those in '£ifi* commonly conforming to other
verbals) ; and -}« ; as, ^Xnfiniof {trXifi^i), in the form of bricks, Hdt. ii. 96,
^TfSiiv {fi»T(vs)t in clusters, B. 8$, Jitetipatiiv, or 'im (^y«^«/y«), openlg,
AtfvC^itv, or -itc {x^u^rrai), secreUg, 0ir»^£ifiv (#«'i/^«», vwa^aii), ecatterisigfy
lliese appear to be Ace forms (cf. § 320. S) ; thus, Sing. fern, -hv, neat
•}#y, PL neat -^a,

c -I or -ti, especially trom hnitative verbs (§ SIS. o, -iC« becoming 't^Ot
and in oompoands of i- prtoaHoe, mbrit^ and «*&# • as, Mii^«r4 Uhe the Msdee,
'EXXnfi^h in the Greek language, dfurti (juHit)t without pag^ ^^ft»X^ M^



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ni OOMPOSXTUUf . [ BOOK fl.

dj^Zff^ <» '^ irfrtoW *■«&, «^;^<e< (x**^)* "^ O'*'* ««» *«»< •^A^^
(lii^), wM M« wAofe P^opie. These appear to be Dat. forma (cf. § a£0. SC

^ •! added to a palatal ; as, mtet-uiyvvfu (r. fuy-, \ 294), to nujr up,
4n(^X confusedfy, pdhttell, «'a^aAX«^(9'a^-aXX«rr«, ^ 274. 7), atUmatefy.

(2.) Time when, in -t* (Dor. -jc«), or> for more specific ex*
pression, in -/xa ; as, aXloit (olkXo<;)^ at another time^ txiiUa
(avTo;), €U, the very momejU. See tl 68.

(3.) Place whither, in -at (which appears to be a soAened
form of -de, ^ 322. HI.,, or at least kindred with it) ; as, oi^
popSfji^ id heaven^ iniiat^ thither^ kej^cutfe, to the other side*
Bee IT 68.

(4.) Number, in -dxig. See fl 25. II.

§ 393* in. Prepositions with their Cases ; as, (91^0
«(^ov) n^ovgyovy before the work^ to the purpose^ naoaxQfifia^
i^Mfi the afairy immediately ^ (dt' o) d<o, on account, of which^
wherefore^ {^p nodw idm) ^Tio^coy, in the way of the feet,
*A^nvait (from U^ip'o^, and -d^, an inseparable preposition de-
moting direction towards^ %% 51. N., 150. 4), to Athens.

rV. Derivatives from Prepositions, or Prepositions
u«£D without Cases ; as, fya (^£), vjithout^ %Xa(» (ai;), witMn
^is, Ifesides.

II. Formation of Compound Words.

^ 33 d* In composition, the word which modifies or limits
the other, usually precedes; as, vofio-^itfig (vofAogj tidr,fii)
law-maker.

The exceptioDB ooDnst mainly of a verb or preposition followed by a notm,
§tA ace fbr tha noet part poetic Among the verbs which are moat frequently
80 placed in proee are f rxMr, to love, and ftr^ut, to hate ; thus, ftX-avi^WHt
i'lomng^ fuart.^ifrns, Fersian'hcUer.



§ 334. A. The first word has commonly its radical foi-m
with simply euphonic changes. These changes, besides those
which die general rules of orthoepy require, consist chiefly,

1 .) In the insertion of a union-voioel, which, after a substantive or adjective,
18 commonly -«-, but sometimes -»»-, ►«-, or -/- ; and, after a vtrh^ -1-, -/-, -•-,
-•I-, or -M-; as, m'aii-i.r^iCtit (»«<*>, -ieSi TflMj instructer^ tt*-6->,oyH (^/»«,
\iyM)f advocate, iufjuw^yis (Ion. '^vtfAi-o-i^yify from "hnfAtoe and ?gy#v), artisan,
(yd-d-fur^la, from y««, contr. yn, and^tr^U, §§ 35, 98. «) yiMfntr^loy ge-
ohtetry, (fM-9-»»^»t • f£es, tuit, and KOQU0) u»/»o(»t, keeper of a temple^ ^ettarm
•-pi^ot and 'ti'^ifPt {B-avarof, ^i^«>), death-bringing, JEach. Ag. 1 1 76, Cho.
869, ^p-n-fi^tt and ••-fi^Af (I'P^s, -•«?, pif), sword-bearing, iya^-m-tiftf
i^cyt^ ti^\ ^hr% of the markat, ii^-t.n^^f (ir^^s, ^^\ foot-btdk, Hdt.
iLm, w^^.yn^ (wv^^ yiy*futt\ fsre-hmm. H^n-^tf (fiiti ^h\ W^
W»WS ^semt^wUsH (pmn, 9rsXiii)^ half-gray, N. 861 ; l^-i^«e« i^K^



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*M. IL] FIRST W1>UX<->^LA8T WOBD.

A. 419, X4«'-«-««(m (Xt/rtf, «'«^)» Uawing tm^Bfoat*

S.) In the inaortioii of r, Mmmonlj eonnaMed bj n unioii-Ttfwd efthef to
tbe saocMding or pr tc odia g word, mA MmetunM fv«a to both ; aB» {^it*^
ao'm'tt) ^^pa^vrit {fiv'ra^ tifitit), coward, rtXt-r-^ifs {riXti 'i-^fy ^«(«')»
fu^UiiHg, »t^M€^(«f, homedy f «»#^«^*f, hght-bringing ; XS-^frikiif (Xww, rU«),

^^^•f (j§iy*B/mf fi^Cte^gf), mixed wUh barbariant; Bf9^^^4j^Ut {Btcti l^

iMNiiidM^, A. 5 1 1 . &I Dome of thne oA6es» th« «r appMn t6 kat« been bor-
rowed from the theme or the Dat pL of nouie, «nd ia «tketB| pertuipa> ftott
the Aor. of yerba^ fa a yerbal.

3.) In adopting a thorter form from the them«^ or an eariy root ; as, »//•-
^Ca^ns {joufMif •«r«f, ^9mt), hiood-ba£hodt iptk'i'WMg (piki'tt from ^i^Ht
v^Mf), labor-Mag, *

NoTBs. «• Tbe mode in irkaA. the ooostitQeBt words are united (rflen
depends, espeoial^ in verseb upon the quantity of the syllables which oompese
lliem.

/}. In some oomponnds, cidefly poetic, the first word has a ibrm like that
of the Dat. sing, or pi. withont change ; as, 9¥»rt-iroXtt roamh^f by nigkt,
Ear. Ion, 718, tttxt^f^^nrfitt wcH-ap p roa tke t , £. SI.

§ S9ff» RsMASKS. 1. If tlMfiivt word is a iNirtidlK, It fs commonly
VBcfaaaged except by the general Unre of eapfaony. For elision in pxeposi*
tions, see §§ 41, 4i', 192. 1. *A^^i, like ri^/, often retains its voweL in
the other prepodtions, tbe elision is rarely omitted, except in the Ion., par-
Henlkriy in the Ep. belbre some words wMch begin with the dtgamfiia. For
elision before a consonant, see § 48. 2. 11^ sometimee' unites witli a yowd
Islkming by crasls; as, ir^^trr*; ^r^»Swr»f, ^^r-ix'' *fhc*'> *• ^» MO
^ 192. 1.

2. Some particles occur only in composition, and are hence called uuepara^
Ms. Of these, the most important are^

a.) JU, commonly denoting privathn or negatidnf and then called A" pfha
the, as, i'lraig, without ckUdrem, 2-#«^, unwiee; but sometimes denoting
MnioHj collection, or intensiiy, as, a-ltX^^f (hx^vt), brother, m-rivng (rtivw),



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