Alpheus Crosby.

A grammar of the Greek language online

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of the Gen. was only a poetic license, in imitation of the Greek.

y» The Nominativb, from its high office as denoting the subject of dis-
course, became the lending caecy and was regarded as the representative of the
\vord in an its forms (its theme). Hence it was employed when the word was
spoken o( as a word, or was used without grammatical conetruction ^ § 34:i),

^ 34 1 • There are no dividing lines either between dirbct and indi-
rect, or between tubjedive, objective^ and rendual relations. Some relations
seem to faU with equal propriety under two, or even three heads, according to
the view which the mind taked of them. Hence the use of the cases not only
varies in difierent languages, and in different dialects of the same language,
but even in the same dialect, and in the compositions of the same author.

A, The Nominative,

^343. Rule II. The Subject of a finite
VERB is put in the Nominative ; as,

'E«'iiH K IriXivTffri A«^ir«f, »«} nmrirrn t/r r^f fiaetXtimf 'Afrmf^i^"
|iif , Tte^m^i^pns itMUiXXu r^ Kv^«v, and when now DarUit was dead^ end
Artaserxes wa» established m the royal authority, Titsttphemei accuses C^rtui,
L 1. 3.

^343. Rule IIL Substantives independ-

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OH. l.J NOMINATIVE. 963

ENT OF GRAMMATICAL CONSTRUCTION are pUt in

the Nominative.

Note. The Nominatiye thus employed is tenned the Nominative independ'
ernt or absohttB (ab8olutus» rdeated, free, so. from grammatical fetters). Set
§ 340. y.

To this rule may be referred the use of the Nom.,

1.) In the inscription of names^ ^t7Ze9, and divisions; as,

^vQov UvdSuaig^ The EXPEDITION of Cyrus; BiSXlov n^fw^

toy, Book First,
2 ) In exclamaiions ; as, !a dvaraXaiv* iyi»y O toretched me!

Eur. Iph. A. 1315. OdXajtay edlattay the Sea! the Sea!

TV. 7. 24.

3.) In address.

The appropriate case of address is the Voc. (^ 85). But there is often no
distinct form for this case^ and even when there is, the Nom. is sometimes
employed in its stead (§ 8l). (a) The Nom. is particularly used, when the
address is exchtmitory or deacriptive^ or when the compeilative is the same with
ttie iutject of the sentence ; as, *Cl ^iXtty Z ^«X«^, my beloved I my beloved I
Ar. Nub. 1 1 67. 'Wirimt i xmkif ri xm) r«<^«r, O Hippm»^ the noble and the
wi$e! PL Hipp. Mi^. V8I a. {b) .To the head of descriptive nddreee belong
those authoritative, contemptuous, and familiar forms, in which the person who
is addressed is described or designated as if he were a third person ; as, O; II
sixiras, . . Wthffh, but the servants, . . do you put, PL Ck>nv. 218 b. 'O 4>«-
Xn^titf . . •vr«« *A<r«XX«^Mf •«, w m^ifiuitt t TTie Phileriun there, ApoUodorus,
stop I wont you? lb. 17'2 a. (c) In forms of address which are both direct,
and likewise exclamatory or descriptive, the Voc. and Nom. may be associated ;
as, *il fk»t Z piXt Bci»x*i Eur. Cycl. 73. *il tSrot, A7a» Soph. Aj. 89.
OSrgf Z, v7 r«y ^riV at^us, iUirora Eur. Hel. 1627. *A^ia7t, x«2 «/ tiXXat
& 5. 39.

§ 344. Anacoluthon, &c. From the office of the
Nom. in denoting the subject of discourse, and from its inde-
pendent use, it is sometimes employed where the construction
would demand a different case : —

1.) In the introduction of a sentence; as, 'Tfitif Ikj . . tuf^h xm^ie vfitTf
laxi? iTvAi ; You then, . • does it now seem to you to be just the time f vii. 6, 37.
"E^Jv/iZv i Kuftf . ., tio^tv avrif, Cyrus desiring . ., it seemed best to him,
Cyr. vH. 5. 87. Kal IrrttvPm ft^ifituu xm) ^M^iXtvf »a) Kv^»f, mm)
si «ft(p* mvTthf M^ Ixmri^t^v, Mvt fAh rSf &f»f} fitt^iXia inrifpfi^tuv i. 8. 27.

X»vT9 Cyr. vi. 3. 2.

2.) In specifcation, description, or repetition; as, 'AxXous V i fiiyett . .
NiiX«« i<ri^^if • ^0Virir»M9titi Tinym^vSyait, », r. X., and others the
ffost Nile hath sent; Susiskanes, P,, ^., ifisch. Pers. 33. Tk rt^} UvXov v***
^/»^«ri^«y xmrk x^drtg l^aXtfiurg • 'A^nt«i«i fth . . irt^i^Xurrtt . ., 11 !•
X»it§9fnfi»i ti . . rT^Tir%htfCf*%v4 Th. iv. 23. Aiyu V iv iXXnX»i^t9
lffiS»»9 nm»s), f vX«| Ixiy^t^v puXmum Soph. Ant. 259. Quyirn^ fAtymX^
r«f«# *H(ri«»«f, *Hiri«v, 2$ }i*«m Z. 395.



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t64 SYNTAX. ^ GBMITIVB. [bOOK UL

8.) In Qwakiog of momm or wofdSp m «im:A t tbxm, Jlf0^Xnp$ vh «w» wmi '
^«» »Mfnv W^ytf/MMiy rv»»^mfrtis, he ha$ obtained the common mppeUmHon of
the vile, STCopuAitTy iffiWchin. 41. 15. Tim^tyyvm. i Kv^»t fwin/Am, Zthg I6f^
f^nx** **^ ^yc^ii^y, Cjfme gave omt at the paee'Wvrd, Jown oum ally anm
LMADMaf CjT. iU. S. 58.

B, The Genitive.

^ 84«S. That from which ant thing pro
CEEDS (§ 339) may be resolved into, i. That from
which any thing proceeds, as its point of depart
URE ; and, ii. That from which any thing pro-*
ceeds, as its cause. Hence the Greek Genitive is
either, (i.) the Genitive of Departure, or, (u.)
the Genitive of Cause ; and we have the follow-
ing general rule for subjective adjuncts (§|^329,
338) : The Point of Departure and the Cause

ARE put in the GeNITIVE. .

Note. The Gen, of departure 1$ oommonly expreaeed in TCng|i«h by tbf
preposition from, and the Cfen, of caiMo, by the preposition of.

(i.) Genitive of Departure.

§ S46« Departure may be either in place or in chamder.
Hence,

Rule IV, Words of separation and distinc-
tion govern the Genitive.

Note. There is no line of division between the two classes of words
which are mentioned in this role. Many words which are oommonly used to
denote distinction of character referred originally to separation of place (cf
i SB9), And, on the other hand, words which nsoally denote separation of
place, are often employed, by a metaphorical or transitive ose, to express d»
partore or difference in other respects.

1. Genitive of Separation,

§ S4y« Words of SEPARATION include those of removal
and distance^ of exclusion and restraint^ of cessation and faiU
ure^ of abstinence and release^ of deliverance and escape^ of
protection and freedom^ &c. ; as,

Xf^i^t^Pmt IXXnXm, to be mparated from, each other, Pl. Conv. 198 «.
Tit^)s vm iXXtn, apart from the rett, i. 4. IS. 1^fikmr§t iix» Oyr, viiii
7. 20. *X9'9X''tV ^'(^ iri2uW lb. ii. 4. 24. Ati^x*^ AkknX^t*, were dis-
tant from each other, L 10. 4. ILi^^t . . rnvrMt, far from him, i. 8. 12.
KfXy^iit r»v nmiup, he wamld prevent them from burning, i. 6> 2. BJ d««
Xdrmg i7(y«ifr§ H. Or. vii. I. 8. Tsuwfit IfU wXi^uv ir«vr#W«o *»



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CB*.l.] OF SSPABATION. — OF piSTUfCTION. 2Sb -

eeoaf from 0je war againti me, 1 6, 6. T«»r«vr • * w. «r« v#« rSff Jk^ns Cyr*
viii. 6.3. B/«» rlXivriir*^ lb. 7. 17. Ovr«f ftXv ttvrw UfAM^rnf, pU§
mtm misMd him^ L 5. 12. 'E^i ^r^n rnf iXwi^Bfil 6r. vii. 5. 24. ty
>«u««« Ir^Xiif i|^«'X««if Eur. Ale 418. *£«'i^;^«^iy rfv iaxfvtif, we r^
fraxned from weeping^ YLVhsadxit ll7e. KjettUit . . Xvrti^tct Soph. £1. 1489.
2*lr«4 x«»Mi Id. Ph. 919. K«r«if rt^tv^lvci, lb. 1044. 'AXv^ir«»
fitiftu Id. Ant. 488. Av« tivi^eit I|i4 rtfv ^if Mtrtt^vvdM, wiU keep two mew,
from nnhxng^msS* 11. *£Xii/^i^«4 ir0VA>y, iAii;^i^«i , , 'Etv^vrtitit Eur.
Heracl. 873. 'A»i» ml^x^f *m).^X»int ii. 6. 6. VaftMv r« Ayy«} ^«^if
PI. Leg. 840 d. ¥.mia^is HtxUi, m. Rep. 496 d. "Eat/ &* »at^^y r«.
Pft^vtns lb. 573 b. Ntf^^iiTf ^ki cmI}* ituri^ov mx^«v ; Eur. Ale 43.

§ 348* Remarks. «. Words of sparing imply refraining fnm^
and those of conceding, resigning, REMrrriNG, and surrendering, imidy
parting with, or retiring from. Hence, rSif f^h ufAiri^mv iHu ^m ^i i^(r^««,
ii itmy pUasure to tpare your property^ Cyr. iii. 2. i^8. K«xfr*0ir vrt;^*^!!-
r I » «vT<^ r«v ^^«f«v, omf A^ [Sophocles] conceded to him [.^sehylus] the tftrone^
Ar. Ran. 790. *AXX« rns ifyns itvifrtsy but resigning your anger , lb*
700. Tns rmv *ExX)iyM» iXtvft^Ut . . ira(ax*'fn^»i ^iXivitft to surrender
to Philip the freedom of the Greeks, Dem. Cor. 247. 24. T^tg ^fftrCvri^m
• • tuti ^iv »ai ^«x«y ttai X»y*i* u9%iM.ti9 Cyr. vlii. 7. 10.

/3. The Gen. denoUng that from which motion proceeds is, in prose, common-
ly joined to words not m themselves expressing separation by a preposition ; bat
in poetry, often without a preposition (cf. 429. m.) ; as, Ai^Mry . . ^t^«vr«y,
hnnging from the house. Soph. El. 324. Ttfvr^t treiiittt ynt ixSv, to driee
these Mldren from the land, Eur. Med. 70. 'Ay«xof/^/r«i »«^« j30^«ii
Soph. (Ed. T. 23. 'Tfius ^|y fidtf»ff 7«-c«r^i lb. 142. Ti r* pv^aw rt-
tf-n^M Eur. Ipb. T. 1384. For adverbs in ^iy, properly genitives, see §§ 91»
320.

y. In a few rare phrases, the Gen. denotes the time from which, withont a
preposition ; as, Mtr' ixiyn ti r«vr*fy, and [after a little ftom these thhngs]
a little after Aese things, H. Gr. i. 1.2. T^iVy • . trgs ravri»/9, m the third
year [from] before these things, Hdt vi. 40. AiuT$^^ H Irtt rgurUtp, * [firom]
after,' lb. 46.

2. Genitive of DistincHon,

^ 349. Words of distinction include those of difference
and exception^ of superiority and inferiority^ &c, ; as,

Ait^^i^rmt rix*nfi w distinct from the art, PI. Polit. 260 c *Uxi»r^»
§v^9 iii^t (t 9, differed in nothing from amber, u, S, 15, Hmrut rXi^y Mi-
X^rov, all except MiUtus, i. 1.6. Ai«^«(0y rZf &XX»/v viXis/f, superior to
the other sttites, Mem. ir. 4. 15. Ilxii^u . . ii/iiSv Xti^Mtnt, vlferior to
us it number, vii. 7. 31. T« iinmm . ., t} «fxx« rZt li/x«/wy { Mem. It. 4.
25. "En ^fy K T« ii^v r«v ifc7<«^«v PI. GrOrg. 500 d. Tliri^iv irriy im^r^fMi
4 ^irl^ «} 4KXX«r«y lirirr^fitnt Pl. Meno, 87 c Ov^^y aXXir^ttf ^rtSf
•Srt wnf Upr«v ^mr^itts »Sr» rou r^i^tv (cf. § 405) Dem. Cor. 289. 14.
OSrat irXwrw J^trh ^ilrrifxiv PL Rep. 550 e. T«ly i^^jMvyrt^y «'(^im(
Cyr. viiL 2. 21.

Remark. The verb Xti^rofMu governs the Gen. in a variety of senses,
which are naturally connected with each other, but which mig^t be rafemd,
« syntax, to different heads. Thus, St^^to . . riv XiXttf*f*ifs9 )«;•»» 'laft



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9M^ SYNTAX. — GENITIV*. [bOOK lU

§ttm {jft by] ilie «pcar,* i. e. * the reKcs of war* (§5 347, 981), iSech. Ag
517* S^sM viXka^^ «» fuex^kf XtXtif»/titotf 'not left far behind,' t. e
' doftdy pursuing/ Id. Pr. 857. FyM^ff y •JiX^«5 MiXti^^cv XiXij^
/*iv«f , • left behind by/ «. e. ' infferior to/ Eur. Suppl. 904. Em) tU fiUt f*m
0$v XiXu^^ivfi ^iXof \ *bereftof* (§ 357), Soph. Ant. 548. Tvmpuaf Xu-
ir»fiiiMf devoid of underttanding, Soph. EL 474. AiXufitf»»t rSt iv ^'EkXnnw
vifitff, 'am ignorant of/ Eur. Hd. 1246.

§ 3 SO. Words of SUPEBIORITY include, —

a.) Words of authority y potoer^ precedence^ and preemirience
Thus,

Ti#r«fS^vnt &iX*** thrSt, that Tissaphemes should govern than, I. I. 8
*^y^mri7t . . wAfrttt sovereign over all, v. 4. 15. 'HyiTr* «••£» tf-r^a*
TtvfMtTOf, led the army^'tv. 1.6. n^trC«i/ii» tmi* vttXXHv atoXimv, to IoAs
ronil of most cities, PI. Leg. 752 e. *E»e «<•«»'*'' '*•'» 'ExXiiiraJir iii. 4. 26.
•Of »(ai9tt vT^etrw Soph. A/. 1050. "Of ttifvf*ff x^**'^* ^^* lAe^ 19-
B«r4X(^*>y tthrmf ▼. 6.37. Aitf-r'^Kv ^A^EMwr Eur. I(m, 1036. See
also § 389.

Otfx «tfr«f IflirXttf^fv, in mortS x^ttrSf i
II«v r» ^r^«ri}yirf ratr^i t «*•? ^ ^a) Xt«y
"E^irT* d^vAr^tfD tSv oi* iyttr* eSxohv i
Svdc^ritf » f « r tf- *f V ^Xfts, »ux *lf^f » ^ « r *» y • Soph. Aj. 109!/

ItKKARK. The primitive sense of the verb ^^x" &PP^ra to have been to
tahe the lead. But, in early warfare, the same individual led the march, ruled
tiie host, and began the onset. Hence this verb came to signify to rule, and
to begin ; and, in both these senses, it retained the Gen. which belonged to it
as a verb of precedence. Thus, *A.¥6^ti<rmv &^x^n, to rule men, Cyr. i. 1.3.
^uyns ti(X"*i ^ ^^ fivhtf iii- 2. 17. Tav X«y«» tk ^x**^* J^ iit 2.7
K«iMy Xiystf nmrfi^x** Symp. 8. 1. *

§851« /?.) Adjectives and adverbs in the compcaralio^
degree^ and words derived from them.

An comparatives may be ranked with words of superiority, as denoting th*
possession of a property in a higher degree.

Rule V. The comparative degree governs
the Genitive ; as,

K^i irrfvi lauT9u, more power^ than himsdf, i, 2. 26. T*rv lititmf ir^s^
X»9 hmrrpf, they ran faster tiuin the horses, i* 5. 2, Ttvrtv ^ti/ri^«» PL
Lsg. 894 d. *Av*>ri#« rHv pMriiv i. 4. 17. *TfAaf »v itoXu if^ou tfm^**
i. 3, 16. *ACfo»»fA»t dl i0'Ti(fitrt rnf fitaxitt hut Ahroconuu came after Iht
battle, i 7. 12. T$ i^rtfaitf. Tti$ fitmxnt PL Menex. 240 c 'Hrr«^t^«
•hrwOjT, Y. 3. 33. Ttfttu$ ravrt/v l9'X$§ftMrurt ilL 1. 37.

§ 3S9« y.) Multiple and proportional words (§ 138)
Thus,

n«XX««-X«r««tff ^:a£y tturSf^ many times your own nvm^er, iii. 2. 14,



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OK. l.j OF GAUSS. 267

^vrifttff TftwXatrimf )) riif ^^tinif rtrdfrnv IS^, rnf 4iori^»t 'itirXiiv
9rif»trrfit Ik, r^i^Xti* rUf r^inn • riit V t»Tti9j t« ir^tiirns ixrmvXmg-imf
lOtf^ffv ^ l«'r«x«ii<»«r««'X«r/«» riis ir^tims (a. b = 2 a, c=s1^6bk
S a. da 2 6. tsSc. f=^8a. gmsQT a) PL llm. 35, b, c A); vUtt
W »rt/M»« ii^iX^if {«;r«f Eur. EL 1092.

(it.) Genitive of Cause.

^3S3. To the head of cause may be reter-
red, I. That from which any thing is derived,

FORMED, SUPPLIED, Of TAKEN ; II. That which

exerts an influence, as an excitement, occasion,
or condition ; III. That which produces any
thing, as its active or efficient cause ; and
IV. That which constitutes any thing what
it is.

In the first of these divisions, the prevailing idea is that of
source ; in the second, that of infu&nee ; in the third, that of
tuition ; and in the fourth, tnat of property. Or we may say,
in general, that the first division presents the material cause :
the second, the motive cause ; the third, the efficient cause ; and
the fourth, the constituent cause. It scarcely needs to be re*
narked, that the four divisions are continually blending with
each other in their branches and analogies.

^ 3«S4. I. That from which any thing is de-
rived, FORMED, supplied, Or TAKEN. To this

division belong, 1. the Genitive of Origin^ 2. the
Genitive of Materialy 3. the Genitive of Supply^
and 4. the Genitive of the Whole^ or the Gemtive
Partitive.

1 and 2. Crenitive of Origin and of Material.

^9SS. Rule VI. The origin, source, and
material are put in the Genitive ; as,

^mfti§9 tut) Uttfu^drtigf yiytofrmt weuiu ^m, of DariuM and Posy'
tatU are bom two children^ L 1. 1. <P«/vr»«r /i»U mi S-v^m Wiwainftiveut tkt
doon being made of the pahn'tree^ Cyr. yii. 5. 22. 'ULias /tnTfit . . (pvvrtf
PL Menez. d39 a. "Tl* V Kxm^nt Sofdi. Tr. 401. Ot^i rh ua^Sy^
pvfttfns rt»N^n# vrMTl* Eur. Med. 804. T/ kie^Xminut £f rnt ^(A^nfi
ITActf adptmtage tkemld ytm derive from ytmr atfAorittf f Cyr. viL 5. 56. A«.
ffif#»# rSi9 iHi^rmf it»rSf Ji^»Xm6^rmi lb. SI. "K^nfttdrnv iv^ftm EuB.
Hal. »S5. E^«» THt Xiypp PI. Rep. 3S9 b Th »^^»X^t j?«» Ar.



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96b SYNTAX. — GENITIVE. [bOOK |U .

Bod. 524. OTm; fttfUmr wXii iL 3. 14 (cf. 07»«ir re ». r. X. L 5. 10/
IIi^M-rt^ . . iiv^|*rv Soph. El. 895. A/^my . . ^i«vr«y v^crff »«) «'«
X«i/, 'boiling with water/ PI. Phsdo, IIS a. 'M.tfvo'fth <rw vixr«^«fPL
Conv. 203 b. Imit Xiyt*t vfuit Avri«f iiVr/« t PL Phaedr. 227 b.

■ Note. The Gen, of taurce or material oocnra, especially in the Epic poet^
fbr other forms of construction, particulariy the instrumental Dot. ; as, Il^rw.
' }\ irvfig tfitu0 ^u(tT^», and bum the gates with raging fire [from fiie, as tht
source], B. 415. W.u^i ftuXa^AfAtw H. 410. X»t^ vtypmfAivas wXtnt k>JH,
having washed his hands [with water from] m the foaming sea, /3. 261. Atw
t^fat lufptTaf wrafiflo Z. 508.

§ 3<S0. That of which one discourses or thinks may be
regarded as the material of his discourse or thoughts ; thus we
speak of the matter of discourse^ a matter of complaint^ the
mbject-matter of a composition^ &c. Hence, not unffequently
both in immediate dependence upon another word, and even in
the introduction of a sentence,

Rule VII. The theme of discourse or of
THOUGHT is put in the Genitive. Thus,

T«tf T»l»r§p •It nmXSs ix** Xiyuf, 7r<, ». r, >.,^ it is no^ well to sajf tf tk§
bowman, that, ^., PL Rep. 439 b. Ai«^f«^iv«f «tfr«y, S^n* ftlv ;^«^«» nmi
plttv t%M9f observing in respect to diem, how great and what a country they Aoee,
iiL 1. 19. Tiff ^ y'jveitnttt t* • . xttaa^rMTf but in respect to the wife, if the
manages iU, (Ec 3. i i. T«v »«^i^y)fr«v ri ^ns { l^ph. EL 817. KXvttr-
r« irtniif, having he ird respecting Xer son, Id. Ant. 1 182. Mayri7c, . . M «-mD*
IXV**^^ r^^crff Id. QiAi. C. 354. ILmrmfuJitfti rov Kv^tv ioxguftw, if
. . MfuZ* Cyr. viiL 1. 40. T«S il tltnah irk»v ftSiXXav inftti^rom^ S<rn jm«
fttwin^vtrau Th. i. 52. 0W« yn^ iro» rHv ytwtiitt nufZv^n rmirt (pvru my*
rHv ri ^4»e PL Rep. 375 e. Ti^tym^itv ^np^/Mt nmieu^iit Id. L 140 (cL
Ti irtfi Miya^itn ^n^ir/iM umhXwvt 139). Ti ti rSv irtXXiiv naXS*^
mof ktt^mirmjtyn 7<r«'*rv» i} i/jtmrivf, . • S^m xmrit va rnvrii l^u i But
what ofj ^,9 PI. Phsdo, 78 d. Tnt Hi 0ns pfi^is, tf vv Mu»m Eur
Andr.361. Cf. ^ 438. 7.

NoTB. For the Gen,- of the theme may be often snbeiitated another case^
more frequently the Nom., in the sacoeeding danse ; ihna, Ei tk i yytk »m»
tuTMU, but tf the wife manages ilL

3. CrenUioe of Supply.

^ 8«S7« Supply may be either abundant or d^ectwe.
flence,

Rule VIII. Words of plenty and want gov-
ern the Genitive ; as,

«. Of PLBirrr. 'Ay^mf ^^/Ar* wX^^nt, fuU of wUd beasts, L 8. 7«
^pik^mt . . l«'//M«'X«V«» %^(r§uj theg fOled Iks skuu with h^ff, L 5. lOu
Itvvmv iXttt enough of these things, ▼. 7, 12. Ktifutf ittXXSf mmi iym$m9
yt^«^r««hr. 6, 27. Mif'rj^ yk^ ^•XXnt lirs^iuf IrWv iL 5. 9. T^ ^
Unrimp i Xifn IvtwX^trfn I 10. 12. n«^«}iiV«v . . infiet rctvcWf K«>.



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cjr. l.J oFstrpiLT. — PAniista. . _, ' 969i*




umf V %t fti irXpv^iPf zmxiif Ear. Or. 394. 3^^Mp^. v. ^A«rvij^ 7.
42. Tfin^nf • • ^t^ttyfiifn M^i^iv GSc 8. 8.

3* Of Want. Tory Iwirn^t/ofv ^^avuT, he win loarU provisions, n. 2. 12,
2^<y)«yiir*fv . . ^i?, there is need of slingers, iii. 3. 16. Otuv av ix^riitt
iftauTov rri(iir«4^4, of what hopes I should deprive myself ii. 5. 10. *Av-
fi^iHt^mt &^»(iiv i. 7. 3. 'H ypvx** yffit^h rou rMfturts PL Crat. 403 b.
Vvfiyttrigf ifi ireifTt^v PI. Rep. 361 b. *Oxiyov itn^avrot xaraXtvffSn
vat i. 5. 14. IlokXSv Ivi^ti ethrSff ^0-Ti vii. 1. 41. 'TfAUf V l^nfit*'^*'
i. ;5. 6* *'A^fcmra . . x t y « nui^^tt i. 8. 20. Ot/AMy ri ^^a,€m }(nTa vou (a $
ftv/itvct i Eur. Ale 380. 'O^^ay^v ^/Xtft/ irar^eg Eur. £1.914. X^if.
fAATott ^ ^h riynrif lb. 37. *£^^4X«t/r« V • Xi^og rSt l^^tMV L 10. 13.

Note. The Gen. which belongs to yiofAou and x^K^ ^ ^'^^ ^f ^"^^ ^"^7
be retained by them in the derived senses, to desire, to request, to ewtreaU
Thus, 'AXAfv §vrtv9t «y Hn^^t, whatever else you may desire, 1.4. IS^
Efiti ;^«(4r«M Jv Af 99V hn^S, grant me what I would entreat of you (^ 380),
Cyr. y. 5. S5* A/r;^^«y yu^ &fifm rtu fiaxgw XCV^**^ fii*u Soph. Aj. 473*

4. Genitive Partitive.

§ 858. Rule IX. The whole of which a
PART IS TAKEN is put in the Genitive ; as,

*B/u^tf r«v 7Xtv rr^«riv^«r«f , half of the whole army, yi. 2. 10.

Note. This Gen. has reoeived the names of the Gen, of the whole, and Xh»
Gen, partitive ; the fooner from its denoting the whole, and the latter from its
denoting this whole in a state of dwisioh (partio or partior, to divide, from
fX9,part).

% SS9« JIem^rks. 1. The partitive construction may
be employed, —

a.) To express quantity y degree^ condition^ place, time, 6cc.
considered aa a limitation of a general idea, or as a part of an
extended whole. Thus,

Mi»^^ y iw» XMx*»^t obtaining a Kttle sleqa [a SQiaH portion of deep],
iiL 1. 1 1. *£» rtoCrif , . r«v ntMfu it^Mrrn* in such imminent danger [in
sach a degree of], L 7. 5. '0 V $U rtSji* SC^mtf IXnXu^tv, ' to such a pitch
of ins(deiioe,* Dem. 51* 1. Kmi «i ft>h h rourcf ^a^a^Ktvns ^fett, 'in this state
(^ preparation,* Th. ii. 1 7. SwtWim U rt!ur» avayxtif Th. i. 49. *Efr} /jtiya
I;^M^*ir«y ^tntifitvs lb. 118. *^/AC»ki7y irpv rm Xnuvmv x*'t*fy ^ make an m«
eursion somewhere upon their territory, or upon some pirt of, 8^c., Cyr. vi. 1. 42.
*Hy fitUn fifAi^as, it was mid-day, L 8. 8. Tns Sif*i(»s i'^l h, it v>as late in
theday [sXb. late hour of the day], H. Gr. ii. 1. 23. E/f rSi* nui^etf, to this
day, Eur. Ale. 9, Phoen. 425.

/J.) To express the whole as the sum of all the parts. Thus^

•Ef rwf kyaUm Si trifyr* fyi«-r«v *'#^««f, and in the good dwell all the quaB^
Um of wisdom, Eur. Ale 60 J . Oi ^b 'Atntam it «'«yr) Ih k9vfdmt ^#«y Th.
vii. 55, 'Ey «'«yT} XCX0V %U PI Rep. 579 b.

% 360. 2. The whole is sometimes put in the case which
23 •



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970 STlfTlX. — GBNTHTB. [BOOK Uf

belongs to the part, the part agreeiog ivith the whole mstea^a
of governing it (^'^ 333. 5, 334. 9) ; as,

*A»»u9fAt9 ufitZt • . Uiauf o^xnvovv U rttTg «ix««if , toe ftear Aat you, aome of
you, quarter in the houses ; for Vjcawv Uitus, x. r. X. v. 5. II. HtXoiraffwrt*
»a) «/ J^vfAfim^ot rit 2uo fii^n . . WtCetXoVf for Tliko^ttfnrSMf xa) rZv ^vfi/tei
X***» *• *"• ^« 1^* U. 47. A/^v/Mft cixia <rir%^os &(» irirt^ef aifui^u Eur
Ph. 1289.

Note. ThiB form of construction chiefly occurs when several parts ara
sucoessively mentioned ; as, Oi»ieu, at ftU ireXXxi lirnrTtixtfavj ix.iytu ^ irc-
(tno'uvf the houeeSf the greater part had been demolished^ and but few renudned^
Th. i. 89. Op yk^ rA(P»v fSfv rei Ka^tyy^rat K^tAfv, rov /uin it^orWas, row )*
arifMifut tx*t I Soph. Ant. 2K In the following example, the second part
has three subdivisions ; Ko) «/ ^ivot, •/ ^iv . . &vrox^(*^'^** * m ^, . . «? f^h • .
iiri^X^vreut «/ ^i . ., i«V« ^* 97 Th. vii. iS.

3. It is often at the option of the writer whetho* he will employ the Gen.
partitive or a simpler form of construction. The two forms are sometimes
combined; as, £7r* tZv ^tig^ ttrt fi^grSt ^t i t»vt» 9'^a^f»t%, 'a god, or
one of mortals,' Soph. El. 199. n«v th B-iUp H !«<>«»» iv-a^yit \ Eur.
Hec 164. Otii , , ^aivoort nAs ImSfttvtt, H ^i«lv w gltfavmf Id. £L

Mess.

§ 301* According to Rule IX., any word referring to a
part, whether sukstantive^ adjective^ adverb^ or verby may take
with it a Gen. denoting the whole. Thus,

A. Substantives.

T^ r(tT99 t*i^»s T9U . . i*wt»»v, the third part of the eavaby^ C^ ii, !•
6* Tft^y xiXr«0-r*l» ng &9ii^, a certain man of the Uf^geteers^ iv. 8. 4. T«r9
*£xXiiy*f» Tli tx"* iirXirmg aviCti r^tuxttrUvg i. 1.2. Xf<«»«yr« ptv^tm*
^ag ^rfmrtmg L 4. 5. ETir' mfh^ riHv fnri^tf Ar. £q. 425.

Rbmarkb. «. When place isdesignsted foymentioning both tiie eoimiry and
file tamm, tha fomNr, as tiie whide, may be put in the Grcn., and may precede
the latter; as, 0/ ^ *A/nv«?M • • i^fti^ttfr* rtig Xi/»^«vifr0f/ iv *EA4Mivri, ant^
the Athenians touched tqton the Cherroneae at Eleus [at Eleiis, a town c^ the
Cherronese], H. Gr. ii 1. 20. Qi XliXtfronfffMi <ntr *Xvr»mng ig 'EAjmtiVm
»«} 0f/*r^i itfC«X«fr«f, <A« Pafopt w w gwant innmdatg AtHom ae far as Ekusia
and ThriOf Th. L 114. *0 ^ rr^«r»f rSf HtXt^f^m^iut w^7it9 kpi»sr»
rng *A'rTt»nt U Oi^nrt w^Srof^ 'came vpon Attica first at CEnoe,' Ji, ii. 18.

{i» The Gen., in all cases in which it is strictly partitive, may be regarded
as properly depending upon a substantive denoting the part ; and therefore
the use of this G«n. in connection with adjectives, verbs, and adverbs may
be referred to eUipeis. Thus, TSv &x.Xmv 'ExXifvwv rms [sc. A^^tg"]. *E^i»v.
ftMtvi rt [sc. fti^9g2 rng (pak»yy«g (§ 362. /3). E/Vi J* avrSf [sc ^rtrmfAst
r4¥tg^t otg oLV £9 ^avraT&ft haCecinn, TLgXi/MV^ zm f*Mxm oh fAtt^f [sc
i*^«f] tLvr^ ( § S64). Ynt y* mIm/imv, Le.lv •iHivi fti^i rm yng (§ S6S).

y. If the substantive denoting the part is expressed, and that denoting tht
whole is a form of the same word, the latter is commonly omitted ; as, T^ut
&»^^tg tSv ytfairifMf [sc. avl^eHv], three men of the more aged, v. 7. 1 7. Ave
rSv r^ifCvraTttf t^T^urnyi, iii. 2. 37. E«Vi^«»»t« r^ i^x^^'^'t*^* ^t*K^ ^^
•Sfmftiu»£9 Symp. 7. 2.



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im. l.| *PAETITIVB. tTl

^ 863« B. AiMBonvn.

NoTB. The ad*ebt3veB which are most frequently nsed to denote a part
are termed partUives.

«. Thb Abtiglb. T«vf ^ mirSv Jiwixruft, r§hs )' l^C«X(9^ tbif



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