Alpheus Crosby.

A grammar of the Greek language online

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yvufAi^f rxTf ^i x*i^*^ oirXepo(n^»t, itev^ofiuu ^i r^ TfTiry, Wy ^* iv«v4*/«ff
tivuT^iypM tJj Taw Virir«t/ pufitip Cyr. iv. 3. 18. Yioivets jtivnrtts rSf fiiptart
PL Leg. 6si c. 'H ro7i /StXt^'/y l^io-/; lb'. 717 a. T^ yk^ )«X^ tS ft^
Itxetlcf KTvtfAar ovxi rfl5^«T«i Soph. (Ed. C 1026. — The Dat of the missilo
with verba of throwing will be specially observed.

§ 4 1 7. Remark. Dative of the Agent. The Dat.
sometimes expresses that through whose agency any thing takes
place ; as,

Tlavd* rifiTv trurwuTflM, aU things have been done hy tw, i. e. our worh is done,
i. 8. 12. El Vt rt KaXit . . Mw^axro UfAtv vii. 6. 32. Tit vru^et »t»avfitifm
t7n rf 2i«^»» vii. 2. 18. To7f Tt Kt^xv(eci0n , . 4vx l«f»w# Th. L 51.
TeTf "EXXi}*'! fjufo7vT» Id. iii. 64. Ti^orviXois ^vXeiv^treu Soph. Aj.
539. "TW «•«/ iv^(pa{ tl^yafrect xetxei Eur. Hec. 1085. T<»i y«f <r#r at
. . ir^of<pe^»y eixovffetifi ivesi * through whom,' i. e. * from whom,* Soph. EL
226. Ai^xTo 6t ^xrivT^af, received from him the sceptre^ B. 1 86 (the Dat.
following. Uxofieii, instead of the Gren. with ita^Aj is especially Epic, and
might perhaps be referred to § 409, thus, took for him the sceptre), (difu^n
• . lixrt V%ira$ 0. 87.

Note. This use of the Dat. is most frequent with verbs in the Perf. and
Plup. This DATIVB OF THE A6EMT with passive verbsj and that with passive
nerbals (§ 407. »), might periiaps have been referred to the same analogy.

§ 41 8. 2.) The way or manner ^ in which any thing is
done or affected, together with attendant circumstances. Thus,

Ou yaf x^etvy^, dkkk rty^ . • vt^or^trun, for'Hhey advanced not with
clamor, bid in sHence, i. 8. 11. tla^t^Juv ohx ^9 /3ia i. 4. 4. Tlf<rt^ *^?
i xiXtua-i i* 5» 8. *^^xii9«0V ivk x^»r9s ii^»v9Ti rS 'i^'wy i. 8. I. "Ti-
XaTf Tu7s xi<p»Ka7t Ir rtji vroXi/Aif ^tttxiviwtuuf lb. 6. A^o/am ^Uf Ib^
18. Ttvrtf rSf rfoit^ Wt^tvfinw vroLdfAWt rirvot^ iii. 4. 23. Wt^ttAfU"
fei.,r^ 0^f lb. 30. Tag-fiitf it^d^ug PL Pol. 280 d.

Remark. The pronoun avrig is sometimes joined to the Dat. of an i
ciated object to give emphasis ; as, M*!r ^fiZf avTa7s ra7s Tftv^tn »ar«)vrji,
test he should sink us, triremes and all [with the triremes themselves], i. 3. 1 7.
Ho)<.k»vf yk^ idn avTott vols ^ivvtts xetTax^fifAtig-fittv'a.t Cyr. i. 4. 7. T^m^ttf
mirtlis vkn^M/AMfi hi.^fiei^nvav Isocr. 1 76 b. — The preposition vvp, whidi is


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omnmon in mch adjimcts if the aMs be omitted, is sometimes expressed eren
with it ; as, *0«'»f . . ^«w mvr$7ft r«4t xfi^its Urtrf*M*» Pl« Bep. 564 c.
Gf. H. 498 and T. 482.

3. ) The respect in which any thing is taken or applied (cf
^437). Thus,

IlXn^u yt nfiSf Xu^ynf , infenor to u$ in number [in respect to nmnberj,
vn. 7. SI (§ 349). TliXtf . . Qa-^Prnxt iwoffrt i.4. 11. T9 iv-i/tef Xii>
n^ntvat rSf ^ikttf i. 9. 24. T^ ^"^P ^C'^X^'f ii« 6. 9. X^iv^ari ttal
rifintif r*&rmt W'Ku^tKrtt'n (§ 351) iiL 1. 37. Tawf ^v^'^'f lp/«^«»i-
0ri^9t lb. 42. 'kv) II /Aiv^ it(4i^ott0-if »t iit^'tTg hftSit iiL 2. 19. Tf ^i X*
rig'Tf T»v U-XsTiMV fiXm^fot Th. iv. 73. 'P/^^ fih ftikav tf»i «. 304.

§419. 4.) The measure of (ii^crence, especially %illi
the Comparative. Thus,

X^«»^ ^ t-vx^f S^n^^h and mmetime after [later by a considerable time],
L8. 8. n«XXf^ 3^Tt^99 ii. 5. 32. N«^i^*fv, iff /aIv ^»rr49 tXfioi, t0-
09VTf aivm^mrx tuM^rtri^f fiartXu ftM^^^fiat^ $ff it (rx^Xasart^ePf r « «■ « v r y
itxiw rv9ayti^%f4m (ianXu fr^anvfioj thinking that [bj how much] the more
rapidly he should advance^ [by so much] the more unprepared he ehotUd find the
hhtg for battle^ §fc,, i. 5. 9. 'Eviayvf «'(irCim^«;, a pear older, Ar. Ran*
1 8. n^vXaU flr^XXfTh.vii. 80. X^«v^ ^iriarfira «'«XXf Hdt. iL 1 lOw

5. ) The Dative with xQoiofiai^ to use [to supply one^s need
with, § 284. 3]. Thus,

M«yri»^ X^M**9f ^t^ng dtvination, Mem. i. 1 . 2. *E;^(«ir« reTg ^htss, ' em-
ployed,' i. 3. 1 8. Tm( 1v9-»it i^i^rtt xfi'^'^h * manage/ i. 9. 5. Xit/Uivt
;^^w§ipk%w, ' having met with,' Dem. 293. 3. T«vf X€»if*Mvt ^vrff ' asso-
datmg with,' Mem. iv. H. 1 1. *Hi Ku^st ^'•Xtfiitf i;^(ifr«, which wa» hoeiile to
Cjfruty ii. 5. 11. Ipoi^Bt 9rtJafii¥Mi ix^n^* ^ b\ 13.

NoTB. N«^/^*» has sometimes the Dat. after the analogy of ;^^««/mm •
•a, BurUut inrnftMs M^j^«rTf # , ' observing,' Th. iL 38. Eve-tUif ^ly «»)•.
0%0i iu'fuZ** Id. iii. 82.

(11.) Temporal and Local Dative.

^ 430. Rule XX. The time and place at
v^HicH are put in the Dative (cf. ^^ 378, 439) ; as,

1. Tdcb. T^ Vi^rt^ai^ [sc. «^i^a] Hxtv tiyytXtf, but the next day
Aere came a messenger, i. 2. 2 1 . "pMtro ya^^ mmuriti r^ fifAi^f fAaxuf^ett /3«-
tttXia i. 7. 14. TJ vm^atet ov» ipavna'af ci iraXifuai, «v)i rjf r^irif •
r^ ^)*7fr«(rff, vuttrit ir^tfriX^tfVTif, tcaretXatfjtCivtvrt X"^^'^ v^t^il^ov, *but
on the fourth, having passed them in the night (^ 378),' iii. 4. 37. Av^av-
%(»( Tt rri WfVfif vv»r<, Ivti S^fi^of «i', Ir^fittivtv H. Gr. ii. 1. 22. Tf/ry
tcriv) avnx^n •'' "A-vi^ov lb. i. 4. 21. T^ ^* Wicvn ?r«j, ^ nv *OXvft.wikt,
^ ri frmhitv h/»a K^txipas lb. ii. 3. 1. T£ i* aurci XC^*^* ^'^ ^ ^ same
time, lb. t. 2. 1 8. *0 Tt ^Ayn^ixdaf XV^V *^'*^ «7iriy, * at length,' lb. ir.
1. 34. *tit ^xarvi^f XC*^V «X«;^«i/f n xmi rixv itft^tnf Eur. Tro. 20u
Cfc §§ 378, 439.

2. Place. Tm r^iitam rd rt f/La^miiwi xtti "^atXaftTin luti IIX«r« .

Digitized by VjOOQIC


m7(, the victorie$ at Maraffum and Stdamii and PlattBo, PL MeoAS. 245 a.

841 b. Tnf v-aXmitf ^riyiv tcviti^mt vfrt SmlZvt Soph.Tr. 171. &u^m,t0^
K%tf*.U»» Id. (Ed. C. 401. 2«?f «r«y rrS^n vti(p9ts lb. 4)1. *0^«7f «»-
»Ai?v i^f/rov Id. Ant 226. Ki/>fy«» ati ^^ ASytf^ov £iir. El. 763.

§ 4S 1* Rkmarkb. «. To the local daitvis maj be referred the
use of the Dat to denote person* among whom, or m it^Aom any i&tn^ oceure ;
«8, Avvafitf tivfi(atit§if l;^c<9, * among men,' Eur. Bac 310. £v^i/ft«ruf
TMf r«rf oivfi^miftt PI* Prot. 343 C* Ovx «y i^tv^»u ifit) itfut^rUt UtHf
<«^«», 'in me/ Soph. (Ed. C 966. Oat »«) *0^if^^ Ai«/tif2iif xi^ii, 'in
Homer/ PI. Bep. 389 e. 'OWnij y«f «ir^ C^/»*w] >^«f «'' «» *Ayii-
mfAvova, PI. Leg. 706 d. 'A^iff'^trU T^wirrii* Z. 477. "Otfv »(ir«f Irr} ^.
Yt0^r0 itaf» Kv^A^vim «. 7 1 .

/3. The nee of the local datths in prose is chiefly confined to those ad -
ffer^ of place which are property datives ; as, TM/ry [sc. ;^^f ]• in AU region,
here (iv. 5. 36), v^i, here (vlL 2. 13), f and jTatc^, loAere (iL 2. 21), ^UUL^^
sIievAere (ii. 6. 4), »v»Xy, w a eircuUj around (L 5. 4 ; iiL 5. 14), «Zmi
(.s«7»y), erf Aome (i. 1. lO), 'A/iiMiri (» *Ainuui), ai Athene (vii 7. 57).
890 §§ 320. S 379. m,

E. The Accusative,

^499. The office of the Accusative is to ex-

the general rule for its use is the follovnng : An
Adjunct expressing Direct Limit is put in
THE Accusative.

RKMARg. In a genera] sense, all the obliqub oases may be said to ex-
press limit ; bnt the Gen. and Dot, express it less simply and less directly
than the Aee* In some connections, however, these itutirect caeee are used
interchangeably with the Ace. See §§ 341, 401, 414. «, 424. 2.

The Accusative, as the case of direct limits is
employed, —

(i.) To limit an action, by expressing its direct
object or its effect. — 'Ace, of Direct Object and

(lu) To limit a word or expression, by applying
't to a particular part, property, thing, or person. — -
Ace. OF Specification.

(hi.) To express limits of time, space, and quan-
tity. — Acc. OF Extent.

Digitized by VjOOQIC


(iv,) To limit a woid or expression, by denoting
degree^ manner^ &c. — Adverbial Acc.

Notes, (o.) These nses are not only intimately allied, bnt sometimes blend
irith each other. (6.) For the tue of the Acc to denote the tubject of the Iff
/initive, see the syntax of that mode.


^493. Rule XXI. The direct object and
the EFFECT of an action are put in the Accusative.

AmC^ Tirr«^i^vn»} taking THssapheme^f L 1. 2. 'l^onTro rnv rvX*
X»yn9t he made the levy, i. 1. 6. *T«'4tf«'riv< riAi vrifr i. 1. 1. Ai«C«X»
Afi Tot Kv^«v lb. 3. ^tXtluwa «^r«y lb. 4. *0 ^\ Ki/^«r vifiXaCm r»vg
ftvy4vraf, fuXXil^etf rr^ArtufAm IvtXii^nu "M-iXnrof lb. 7.

Note. The distinction between the direct object and the effect of an actioil
Is not always obvious, and i^ sometimes appears doubtful to which head aa
adjunct is best referred.

^ 434* Resiabks. 1. The term actum is employed in this rule to
denote whatever is eigni/ied by a verb ; and the rule properly applies only to
the adjuncts of verbe (§ B92). Adjectivei and noums^ however, sometimet
take the Acc. after the analogy of kindred verbs ; thus, 21 . . ^v|<^«f , abk
to escape you. Soph. Ant 788 (cf. *B /Ah ^vyt> rt{ Id. £L 1503). 'Ea'4.
rrtj^fvif ^ ^ftt.f rk «'^«rir«0yr« Cyr. iii. 3. 9. *£|ii^ir^ %i*tu rk l^titrtifum
PL Charm. 158 c. T« ri fiUTUt^» ^^ttrt^rtif PI. Apol. 18 b (cf. T^9
furtii^v f^evTtrrm Symp, 6. 6). X»k§ ^^•vffAV'it iBsch. Cho. 23. Tn$
B^vfitCiftv ^^im Xuirns Id. Ag. 103. Ivvifrc^a . . Maxk lb. 1090. See
atso ^ 431. 1.

2. Many verbs, which according to the preceding rules govern the Oen, or
the Dat; are likewise construed with the Accusative (see §§ 341, 401,
42!2. R.); as, *il^tXtif f/u* t«cv ^tXavt, . . /SA^rriiv ^\ rtiiit Ix^fvs PL
Bep. 3S4*b (cf. § 403). n^«i;^«tfriv W /«Hrm nf^it iit 2. 19 (cf. § 350).
*Ami^ uarn^X^ ^h*^ ^* Euthyd. 283 b (cf. § 350. R.). Avtrnfiut •Sri n
mlfiivtat ii. 5. 4 (cf. ^ 375. /5). Mfr«)«rf » murttf wu^»vf iv. 5. 5 (cf.
Tb. 6, and § 367). Aiytn n UUivty »vr«vf vii. 5. 9 (cf. § 402).

^ 43tS* 3. Attraction. A word which is properly construed other-
wise sometimes becomes the direct object of a verb by attraction (§ 329. N.),
especially in the poets. This sometimes results in hypaUage, or an interchange
of construction {tnraXX»y4i, exchange). Thus, E/ 3f fA £^* mt) Xiyn V^n^x**
[^« fAi Xiyntt or Xiytnt]t if you bad aboays begun your addresses to me thuSf
Soph. £1. 556. Atrv'irmv yitg . . »«r«(^«, / will begin lamentations for my
r, Eur. Andr. 1 199. Cf. §§ 427. 9, 431, 433.

%l. A verb, of which the proper ol^ect or effect is a distinct sentence, often
takes the subject (or some other prominent word) cf that sentence in the Acc,
bgr attvacUoB ; as, "Htiu alrlw.trt ^ir«« ix*h he knew [him] that he aeeu-
pied ^centre, L 8. 21. Tkt yk^ iittfStXnf r«v i^utv Mttnteap, fui «'ff»
MM'«A.«f#t/i| iiL 5. 18. "B-Xtyx** «^» nvxXf 9t»9»9 x^f^** ^'** ^^'^^^^^ ^
lb, 14. OU»f l^f»t i^» f* mmre^tt^vy^fH ir. 5. 29. 'CU kf ^
KmXXif*ax»*t ^ Urslu iv. 7. 11*


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5. PERiFimAsis. The place of a verb is often supplied by an Ace. of th§
kindred noun joined with such v^ba as v-otiv (or more frequently v-dnofAtu),
Myvyl^Ut Tifififiu, &C. ; thus, Kv^fit l^irmnv xai ti^t^fii* rHv *EXX«y«> ivoinr$^
[= V^^ru.ff% mm) fi^iP/iti^t T»us "EXAifva*], Cyrut made a review and numbering
of [= reviewed and numbered] the Greeka, L 2. 9. ^l^firant ^•mrm lb. 14.
Tnv ito^tUf WattTra i* 7. 20.

6. Such periphrases sometimes take an Aoc by virtue of the implied verb ,
as, 2»ivi» fih »«} «v2^««'«3« i^vmyiiv <r«»ir«/*iMf [= i^a-ar* J, Th«
viii. 62. Th X'^i'^* »«T«Jf«/a»7f Xi/av Wm7t» [^ Ix«»A«ti<] lb. 41. 'A
Xfif ri fitr^ivf . . f9-ovihf ix^tv [= rwnJ^i/y] Eur. Here. 709. T« J* •» /m« -
rf H Xnrrtv lirxuf 3oph. (Ed. C. 583. T</ »ti raxuf i5J* «»•««■«■»» •Ifittyaf
• . 'A^ajMi^ytfVA [^ r/ wX* a»0^i«>«-A>i tl/Mt^ug *AyetfAifAUva\ Id. £1. 122.
In like manner, Tovr* K&f* t^u vrifits [==t r4vr» »a) iy^ 9r»tu\ Eur. Ixm^
fi72. Yet see §§ 333. 5, 434.

§430* 7. Ellipsis. The ver6 which governs the Ace. is sometioMS
imStted; particularly,

«.) In EMPHATIC ADDBESS ; as, OJ«f , S ri ♦•! [sc xiyat OT »ax£], Tim
Ihere, hoi you / mean^ Ai. Av. 274 (§ 343. 6). 21 J^, A rnv uvtvfat U
leQtit xa^a, <phst n xara^nl f»,n ^ti^axiitat r£i% \ Soph. Ant. 441.

/3.) In ENTREATT ; as, M^, it^U ft SiMV [sc ixtrtv»i]y rX^s /t,t v'foiaSwtUf
I beteech you by the gods, do not forsake me, Eur. Ale. 275. (Observe the
arrangement, which is frequent in earnest entreaty ; and compare, in Lat.,
Per omnea te deos oro Hor. Ode i. 8. 1. Per te ego deot oro Ter. Andr.
ui. 3. 6.)

y.) In PROHlBniON; as, Mi^ r^tias Irt [sc vtott7T%\ No more delayg!
Soph. Ant. 577. Mii fttt /lu^iavf, fttiil "iiffcofUos ^ivovs [sc Xiyt], Doni
talk to me cf your ten thousand or twenty thousand mercenaries^ Dem. 45. 1 1.
Mn fMi ir^i^aurn Ar. Ach. 345*

J.) In swearixg; as, Oy, rotV "Oxvfi^cv [sc ofitvvfu. Cf. § 428], No,
by this Olympus I Soph. Ant. 758. Ov rkf Atis ttfr^avait Id. El. 1063.^
By this eUipsis may be explained the use of the Ace with the particles vW,
»«/, and ftei (of which the two first are affirmative, and the last, unless pre-
ceded by mt, commonly negative), acc(mling to the foUowing

Special Rule. Adverbs of swearino are followed by the Accusative ;
as. Nil A/«, Fes, by Jupiter I i. 7. 9. Nee) r^ 'Sui vi. 6. 34. *A>.X«, fiuk
rovs B^uvg, ohx tyotyt tiurovg hti^M, but, by the gods, I will not pursue them^
i. 4. 8. N«i fiti. Aia, Yes, indeed I v. 8. 6.

§ 4b» # • 8. The Ace, required by a .transitive verb is sometunes omU'
ted; as, 'Ov-irt n vr^is S^m^ fitvXMrt hmrtkUmt [sc. rtiv #)«»] i. .5. 7. (X iv.
5. 11. Avxiof Hxxft [sc w !«•«•#»] i. 10. 15. Compare Tltt^tXavfws
CjT, viii. 3. 28, with ^'EXauwrdt riv lit^tf lb. 29 ; and Ha^t^Mutrnf j^
TrfTtfy, with n^««-fX«i/yA>i* xhrdlt Cyr. v. 3. 55, ^

9. An elliptical or unusual construction of a verb and Ace is sometimes
employed, especially by the poets, «)r energy of expression ; as, "E^i^
[= Ki't^m W«'tu'\ ^oXvxtfMv ^efof Soph. Aj. 55. AJf* i^tuf» [«» m/ia rnv yn9
hutf txtx, or alfitart rh* ynt iJii/ra] lb. 376. Tiyyu imx^um 4;^w»f Id. tr.
849. Thrift fiw Eur. Sup. 1205. Cf. §§ 425, 481, 433.


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1. Aecusative of the Direct OhfecL

^498* I. Thb Ace. is often translated into English with
a preposition ; thus,

'Ofitpg/u Si«vf nmi Stif, 1 twear by godt and godde»$e$, vi. 6. 17. OZru
ft^f yk^ «vr««v Wui^»^»Afnt for them have been gmUy of perj^try against tftem,
UL 1 . 22. *H/tf«f . . %Z vfiS*, doing well to m, L e. treating m$ wdl, ii. S. 23.
*0 h giyXts iuvmrmi Wrk iC»X§»f, the siglut te equivalent to ieven obdU, i. 5. 6.
OtXif iXX» itnufitivfi U. 2. 13. M«;^«r B^a^^tTrt, you have no fear of batHetf
i'lL 2. 20. ^uXnrrifittf»p . • H/tms, guarding against au, ii. 5. 3. *A,*'»ii\u
uirti itari^t, having run away from ^eir fathers, vL 4. 8. *0 neXaut fi
•tXirui, the jackdaw hat departed from me, L e. has ^ft me, Ar. Ay. 86. 'H/-
^xMnfUv »mi ^0Vf »mi Mf^vrtvf vr^aitttntu nvriv, we were ashamed before hoUh
gods and men to desert him, iL 3. 22. A/V;^vvira< ri ir^»yfim, he is aJutmed
of the act, Eur. Ion, 3G7. T^vf yk^ tuftCtig Sf«} ^vne^ntfrm ai ^ni^twi, for
the gods do not refoice in the death of the pious, Id. Hipp. 1340. A7 n .
Xo^vtvri, r«v r«^iav Immx*** *danoe in honor o^' Soph. Ant. 1153. *Ex<ir-
rtr . • "A^ri^Mf Eur. Iph. A. 1480.

§ 430* II. To this head may be referred the use of the
Ace. with VERBS OF MOTION, to denote the place or person to
which (§§ 339, 422) ; as,

*X^ti%Tat riw dX4^, wiU eome to a woody spot. Yen. 10. 6. 'Arrv Ejt>.
f$ii49 /MXtif Soph. (Ed. T. 35. *Hx^«« trnr^is i^x»'^* '^^^" ^^' ^ ^93.
Ilv^«tff yns frXii/r "htXnimf Eur. Med. 7. *A^i»tT» ;^^«v« lb. 12. Tiiy^t
MBtfrr«Xt7f ;^^«v« lb. 682. "BCnt rikf fuXiprnt lb. 92a X^tU r'n n Btr.
r«X«^f ;^^«Mi «'S^«'K I Id. Ale 479. Ky/#nv )* «&^»My r»fi* A. 317. '^Cnt
fUt y, 162.

NoTBB. «. Hus nse of the Aoc is chiefly poetic, and eq>ecia]ljr Einc^
Instead of the common o(»istniction with a preposition.

/3. The poets soYnetimes even join an Aec of the place with verbs of stand
ing, sitting, or fying (as implying oeet^pation) ; thos, 2rif/* at ^» i^ rifi*
k/u^n^ r^iUt, ml V \fimi* kXX»9 atfitw Ear. Or. 1251. 0«rr«vr* k»(a» lb.
S7 1. T^iwain nmfitlttv <p6tCH lb. 956. Tiir§9 . . hntn xtTrai Soph. Fh. 144.

§ 430* III. Cattsatiyes govern the Ace, together with
the case of the included verb ; as,

Mj^ /» kfmfAf^0fit nnnSf, do not remind me ef [canse me to remember]
my woes, Ear. Ale 1045 (§ 376. y), 'Ay»^yffr*» yk^ iftrnt *ni rah . •
mfltnaus iii. 2. 1 1 (§ 424. 2). 3»uXu n y«v#» it^Sraw kn^drav ^U» i Ear.
Cyd. 149. T««v ^mhtt .* ytverie* nlfmrtf PI. Rq>. 537 a (§ 375. «).
UoXXk Moi nUa nni vntrtUvk imv;^mw &/»mt PL Goi^. 522 a. See alw
S 357.

Rkmark. Hie verbs h? and xt^ axe sometimes constmed by the poets aa
eam s at iv e s ; thas, 2) hi n^«^if#i«f , you have need of Qt needs yoa of] a Fro-
metheus, JRactk. Prom. 86 (§ 357). Uifu itaXXau ^i hi Ear. Blpp. 23. Ti
yd^ /» titi vrKihut { Ear. Sappl. 789 (cf. 2f/ n yk( vemiimt ri h7 Id. Med.
565, and § 403). Ti xr* ^'^•^ « ^^ ^' ^^"^ (^"* Person reads T/ hit f i'-
JUv, denying that this use of x€^ '^ Attic). 1\ x^ • • «m)«w y» 14.


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2. Accusative of the E^ect.

% 4l3'It The EFFECT of a verb includest whatever the
agent does or makes. Hence any verb may take an Ace.
expressing or defining its action. The Ace. thus employed is
either, «. a novn kindred^ in its origin or signification^ to tbs
verh^ or /?. a neuter adjective used substantively^ or /. a noun
simply defining or characterizing the action,

m. KiNDBED Noun.

had ffomed ^is ncce$9, vi 3. 6. 'Cls «»/v^vy«v fiUv ^Sfith A<^ teeun a Hfe we
Uve, Eur. Med. 248. ^r^avnynfofrei ifitl raiirnf rhf wv^amytav i. S. 15-
Tafju7v ya/Mf rav^i Eur. Med. 587. Ti <r(««'yf XSn t«9 TmvpfTcir4f yi>MV i
lb. 1041. *^Eitrtf*tXovvrai ira^aw iirtfitiXtiaf PL Prot. 325 e. B«^<XiuB» itatrmv
iiKMiardrnv fiartktvofAtvM PL Leg. 680 e. ^tvyiraf Jtutpvyim* lb. 877 c
T«v hfiv MMXoOfAttov itiKifMV Wr^arfuffrnt Th. i. 112. *H«^ay ^^o^nfitu ^tnit
£ur. Ph. 1379. Ilt!itif*» »ovpot U ni/f i^n^art iEsdi. Pers. 305. Atutmtf
^«ir/«tf Vt^yfia i^eixtfrof lb. 79. Tifv^' ^'^•wfiaxai* Xh^av Soph. (Ed. C 1166.
*n^;^0«>y«'0 rfi9 »a^it»/ay vL 1. 7. Tlo^turth i* ^fuf r»vf ir^Tw$ fraJfAt^
U. 2. 12. "Ex^w rh Sin iu. 1. 6. "^^if hyn<nw«M . . Hn iv. 1. 24. T^i.
«*! r«i r^i^^fiui Siwt Hdt. yi. 1 r9.

Beuabks. 1« In like maimer, an adjective sometimes takes an Aoc. of the
Ipnjlred noun (§ 424. 1) ; as, Mitri rt tf<p»s m r^r Ixtnttt g^^flat, ftnrt kftM-
ths «^» eifiuifimv, being neither wise wiUi their wisdom, nor foolish with their fol*
ly, PL ApoL 22 e. 1Smx»us vtarat x»»iav PL Rep. 490 d. A0vX«f rkt ^-
y'trrat B^ttvrtmi xui i»vXtm$ lb. 579 d.

2. It win be observed, that usually an adjective is joined ynih the Ace.
of the kindred noun, and the whole phrase is an emphatic substitution for an
adverb. Thus, *Xls &xiv^Sv0v fiSew l^£fi.$v = 'fU atxtt^vvMt ^Sfitv. This ad-
jective not unfirequently occurs with an ellipsis of the noun ; as, T0 Ht^ftxh
'fix**'*'* ['^ hx^f^^ ^i- ^* ^0* Hence appears to have arisen the c(»i8tnio-
tion in § 432.

^ 4L33* fi. Nbuteb Adjectivb.

Tttmvra /th vrt^aitixit vttaura ^ A. t^i, [he has done such things, and
sajs such things] such has 6ee^ his conduct, and such is his languags, I. 6. 9.
Xiyui ovx <^;^«^i«'ra iL K'l3. T»vt« x^^igantTcu lb. 10. Ti^ Avx»*»
Uu^t L 2. 10. Mfi^U '^%uitv0en L 9. 7. W%ya ^^wnf»s iii. 1. 27. *A»i.
x^ayi TI •••Xi^ixiir viL 3. 33. 'SL^ntarhti ri rp fr^xrt^, to maie soms
use 0/ the army, Cyr. viiu 1.14. Ti aorS Xi^^V * ^^ would you do with
him? lb. L 4. 13. T/ vtftitiw »«) ^tip^avrtxig fixiirtif i why do yom
(ook gram and thoughtful? Eur. Ale 773. K«X»» /SxStr* Id. Cyd. 553.
Kxi9'ro9 (IXtTti Ar. Yesp. 900.

Remarks. 1. This construction (upon which see § 431. 2) ia closely al-
ii^ with the adoerbial use of the neuter adjective § 440), and is, perhaps^
its origi^.

2. The Me, of the neuter adjective is very extensive in its use, and oftea
occurs where a substantive would have been constnicted differently ; thua,
T^#i ftUrt «rXi«yixr«v »i>x p0';^i/vir«, It fnh rf B-i^tt r#? nkUv, i» h r^


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Xtif^t rtS ^^;^««# Agw. 5. 3. XP. 'Of^^m rt\ AIK. T«if ^v;^fvi
At. Plat. 896.

S. The Ace of the neuter pronotm is sometimes used to denote that on oe»
eowU of which any thmg is done (viewed originally as the effect or reeuH of
the action); as, *A V 9x009, but what I came for, Soph. CEd. C. 1291.
T« vr' iyi t^itivhv, therefore [on acoomit of these things] / made haste, iv. 1.
21. T; rA ity^k Mr«#Ct#i<av, 'why/ vL 3. 25. T«vr* i^inifkn* Id. (Ed.
T. 1005. 'AXX' »hrk rmura mmi y«w Hm PI. Plot SIO e. Ni^r«r«f V
If n^Mi^lwv i xmi fu y^t i9r%\%infA'^%9 'Btxa, Hec IS. *E»«7v« ^ ktOfui,
irt fMi ^MiTMem. iv. 3. 15.

NoTB. So with ;^fii>Ms thitig, expressed, Ti ;^#ii/m( »fr««i i «% db ifnw
A« th^ret Eur. Herad. 633. See lb. 646, 709 ; Id. Ale 512 ; &c

§ 433* y. DsFoimvB Noun.

<t»iC«y fixiit»t9, lookmg terror, Mach, Sept 498. *H fiwXh . . KXi^p*
fivrv, the eemate looked muetard, Ar. Eq. 629. 'A^n Wt^uiratf .£sch. Sept
53. *Ax^ii«» Wtttt Ar. Av. 1121. 'At^ttv r«v 2ir»Xj»«» vi. I. 6.
*EXa'i)«f XiytttL 2. 11. *0Xvfii9ria uin»v»o'ri, having conquered in tht
Olympic gamci, Th. i. 126. Nm»ffx«rf vauf^axi^t Id* vii. 66, Nimxhxo.
r« •vriv «'ay»^«Ti«y Symp. L 2. 'H9r«v/^«vr0 ti irmi%s (Mf eirmit»9, • .
^dXn* ti »mi flTvy^^v »«) ir«7»^i»r<«v Iti^m iv. 8. 27. n«XX«|
0^dxng irmfrm IscMcr. 71 e. Xt^nytvvrtt ^mg') Affie-tm, Dem. 535. 13.

3. Double Accusative.

^434. The same verb often governs two ac-
cusatives, which may be,

I.) The DIRECT OBJECT and the effect, in apposition with
each other (§ 331) ; as with verbs of makings appointing^
choosing, esteeming^ naming, dsc. Thus,

'BmriXim n Ivtin^mt^ they made you king, vH. 7. S2. Sr^Aruyty ti mMv
kiriittlii, and he had appointed him general,!. 1,2, Tlmri^a ^fiti inaXttrt,
you called me foAer, vii. 6. 38. *0m; V kv iaivriv tXnrai rr^«nfy«v v. 7.
28. OSg ti 2v(M Si«tff iv«/(*«^«v i. 4. 9. *0v *rv«^a^f AMfeif^ny «'«rii^
Eur. Sup. 1218. "OtoftM ri n uaXtTv iftZf XV^* * I^ I^^^ ^^^* ^f^-
rr«»XSi RXm^avto t«v uiit ivt^Ut /tM* i^^^M^ar* kyaiiit PL Meno, 93 d.
0i}( nytfAitnt eriX%M9 ivrasitvftt^ft PL Rep.' 546 b. Ku^h t» er^tinv/im
mmritii^t }»)i»« fM^, Cyme divided the army into twehe parte, Cyr. viL
5. 13.

NoTR. The infinitive $Thu is often used irith these verbs ; as, N«/im^« yk^
ipMt I/m) iTvm Ml) ir«T^i^» »«2 fiXtvt L 3. 6. 2«^<rrj^» ^ tm Ufuml^tpet , •
cjf if»)^ ibm PI. Plrot 311 e.

§ 43«S« II.) The DiBECT OBJECT and the effect, not in
apposition ; as with verbs of doing, saying, ^. Thus,

Ef rif rt kyatif 4 nmnU er»t^0%t%9 ahrn, if any one had done him any

good or evil, L 9. 11. Tk ^iyifrm nnxk l^ya^i /»!»«< rkg itiXut PI. Rep.

495 b. *H)i»i$r«^tf revTtf •»)•» vii. 6. 22. *Hx/«m( rmvr 4SfiX««-ti

itrnfrnt IHm. 855. 7. ^AvrtrUetrfni iUnf Ix^^*^* Eur. Herad. 859



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TmSra nmi »«/vC^ir* mMv Id. Bac 616. *Orav U ra7t r^ayaf^ieus mXXH
>.»vs ra Ux»Tm xiyttwif, 'say the worst things to each other/ Mem. ii. 3.
9. II0X3S 9-($s vKXwf fit^ii ilit7ir»f Soph. £1. 520. T« # t ^ v ' l«-ii » « -
X«^' l»%h»»$ Id. Aj. 1107. "Emi »Xv«f, «S vvv rv niv^* mrtfAal^tts wiXtp
Id. (Ed. T. SS9. '£^fv#i(^«» •»)» #« Id. (Ed. C. 1145. T/ . . y^d^
ypii$9 it n fMVwetii U rm^ifi Eor. Tro. 1188. TtfZrn t^^'t i;^^«i^<r
r* lyti Soph. £1. 1034. *n^»«r«» «ri^vr«f row fr^ariwrdtf r»tn fttyU'rtvf
if»»vg Th. viiL 75. M«Xir«f ^ iy^aypetra rnv ^^a^iiy ravmv PL
ApoL 19 a. Tm^ti fu lvfT»xi*^t^ 7*^^** Eur. Tro. S57. Krvflrnrs
xfira fAiki&v trXttytiv Id. Or. 1467. *AA.X' ^7y«v 7^»«ir #0 imc^a »««-«#•
/«0«>« Id. HeL 835. 'Avmitig-ai ^•vXfiat ioayyiXim f$ Ar. Plat. 764.
"ilLXTtminf i rii9 &» "Mm^Sih fudx"* ^'^ ^m^ta^tus ftnnfttf /Rftchin .
79. 36.

§ 436* ni.) Two OBJECTS differently related, but which
are both regarded as direct ; as with verbs of asking and re-

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