Alpheus Crosby.

A grammar of the Greek language online

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masoar, a« the Dat. mii^ be used tat the Geo. (§ 412), '^/Ut^n [— ^J
Utem iftsx^ n^n^ • • ti^M^f JBa6b, Fkw 144»


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§4»55. 9. Attraction. An adjective is sometimes at-^
tracted by a substantive either, (a,) governing^ or (/J.) in ap*
'position with^ its real subject ; as,

«. Taiif/LOf mlfAet . . ^ttr^ify the blood of my father. Soph. CEd. T. 1 40O
OvfAdf . . 9raif xatiif Eur. Andr. 584. H'uuv m'^os &Xkti9 l^riav 0'»(tv0'»fim*
Id. Ale 538. MtX«va g-ToX./tc¥ «'i«rX*)y lb. 'il5. ^tTnes «»^^«y ^vtmtfcm
Soph. Ant. 793. HaXtag xo*r»u ^ivit Id. Ph. 1123. *H ri*»«» Jjfr c^^tt
. . (ikafrov0-a Id. CEd. T. 1 375. — In most of these cases, the Gen. with the
Vord which governs it may be regarded as forming a complex idea, which thf
adjective modifies. This construction is chiefly poetic

^. 0/ yct( i^fimXfM), uAxXjwtw St [for *»M-«f ], for the «ye«, bang the i
beautiful of objects (§ 450), PI. Rep. 420 a Twg y«^ fniyt^rm i^fifMifrnxi"
Tag, avMT»Vf ^ Svrettf ftiyirrnv ^\ aZ^Bt* [for 0vr«(] fiXdCriv xeXiMf, ««'«X-
Xdmiv ilvhv PI. Leg. 735 e. TLeivTa & ^n »>s l^iag alrks auras [for athrit
«rr«J if1lraXMfAZi1^afA^9 PL Parm. 1 53 a. "HXiCf . • <r«yr*)v XafAT^ararai, the nMy
the most splendid [sc thing] of all things^ Mem. iv. 7. 8 (this is the common
construction when the superlative is foUowed by a Gen. partitive of different
gender from the subject of the sentence).

Note. An adjective is sometimes, in the poets, attracted by*ja Yoc ; aa^
"OkCn »S(t yifota [for SxCiag, »*f(c, y,], may you be happy, boy, Theoc 1 7. 66»
. 'lit ^vcTfiv* rv, Ivrrnn [for -•f] . • ^etnif Soph. Ph. 75d. Cf. Sic venias ho*
dieme TibulL L 7. 58.

§ 4«SO* 10. An adjective sometimes agrees with a sub-
stantive instead of governing it in the Gen. partitive (§§ 358-
360) ; as,

Ili^i fiiras fuxreiti about midnight [the middle of the night], i. 7. 1 (c£
"Ev fitU^ fvxran Cyr. V. 3. 52). Ai« ftivnt ^\ rns iraXtatg, and through the
midst of the city, i. 2. 23. T* &XXa rr^arn/^o*, M« rest of the army, lb. 25.
'Ey V Hii^etft fiks itwi, and going on [the extremities of the feet] tiptoe. Ear.
Ion, 1166.

§45y. 11. Adjectives are often used for adverbs and
adjuncts, and, by the poets, even for appositives, and dependent
clauses ; to express,

•. Toes; as, *A.^tx9Wfrm • • r^tratTst [= rn '•^'«» V^ff ]» **^ arrive on
A« third day, y. 3. 2 (g£ iii. 4. 37, and % 420). l,»»Tctia$ ^r^anitrtt U. 2.
17. n^tfr^^ft Kii^tfv . . a^intr^ L 2. 25. T$X$vr£f ij^aXiitaunv, at last
he became angry, iv. 5. 16.

fi. Place; as, ^xfivavfM* l^atii^tat, we encamp in the open air, v. 5. 21
(cf. 'T*** ttis ail4(iecs iv. 4. 14). At^tof ^ftyyifitvaf vi. 1. 23. 'E^i/M^
l<pirTi»i Soph. CEd. T. 32. 0tiX£ffftaf lx(i^PaTt lb. 1411. ^atrft %'
vtrt^irovTiaf Id. Ant. 785. 0i;^«/«v 9t;^nh Id. EL 313. Mir«»v/«i«f
&T»e, nmid the waves of woe, Eur. Ale. 91 (§ 383. a). UaXXk 3* a^S ravras
[srr«vr*} or r^i, § 421. /3] ir^aCaTa, and I see here many aheep, iiL 5. 9.
*T3^afAfif S^av atvrie tin* Our at, i^*f, i^trhv ^^a^i^^trat, *here he COmes,'
PI. Rep. 327 b. *Cii init S^^«) as CAe man if Aere, Soph. CEd. C. 32. II*.
ftvavrati yk^ •T^i ^ rtfts lb. 111. *AXX* SfV iwdlsiv l» Hfntn rig t(X%rm
Eor. Ale 137. 'Or %1fi *0(irrir# Id. Or. 380. *Ie«f \%%'!%st . . ^i^rms.
* aiU there.' #. 339.


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y. Maivnkr; as, TLvnZM\y.nr6 . . at *EXXif rircvrMKXA) VtfXf if }»«0r»4, <ft«
HelluponHc eitiei contributed wittingly ^ i. I. 9. *0 fih \»ifv itttvUf (cf. *0 fih
Ixavfitf raXewrntfSf) Mem. ii. 1. 18. Oi ti ^r^mriZTm,* i^f^«yr« n^imf xa.)
th4ut i?«'«yr« JLg'fAtfti vii. 2. 9. Kar^ytriy raS' 9(xi»f i^acut Soph. (Ed*
C. 1637. 'A»i/#«i r^i;t:*» '^'> *<^^ *^^ speed, Ar. Plut 229^ Tws nxpeht
uwfiriviovf ««'i^i^«r«y H. Gr. U. 4. 19.

i, Effect; as, l&S^ti/i»f [^^m tS^ti/Mf iJvtu] . • tutfAnvtf ^rifia, hutk
your mouth to silence [bo that it should be silent], ^sch. Ag. 1 247. T*ly «**>»
^^S^xTMv if/tfiMTttp ntrtifuptst [deprived of your sightless eyes] rendered
sightless by the loss of your eyes, Soph. CEd. C. 1200. 2v xai ^ixatif «)/-
»9Uf ^^tvetf wa^ag-w^ Id. Ant. 791* Mi/^«»' IxnvS Xiyn Id. Tr. 679*
X«^ rtlin^n • . iirxUetf Ear. Ale. 35.

I. Various Relations and CmcuifSTAirGEB ; as, *Axx«i il ^r«v l|«.
xt&x'*^*** iV***?;, * bemdes,' i. 7. 1 1 . Ov ><'«^ ^v X*f*f '^^ £ X X « «v$iv ^Iv*
)^0» i. 5. 5. SvXifas watatfi/iiftUt made of wood, y. 2. 5. *A9^(o^ii(»»
[ss ^y^^«; ^«(iyr«f] . . »1fMir»f, hondddcd blood, Soph. Ant. 1022. M«r^«.
xrir«9 aJfui, the blood of a mother slam, Eur. Or. 833. ll»Xvl»x(v9
[sss ^-oXXHv imx(v»09] itipvav Id. El. 126. MiX«^<rft<rX«i/f wr»kfAtvi Id.
Ale. 819. *A(ifrix**( • • «y^» Soph. Aj. 935. *0$«/;^ii^i [=•$«''
;^ii^«ir] rtrv xrcMT^ .£sch. Cho. 23. YlafA/tnTif [= «'«»rwy /ciirt^] ri yij
Id. Pr. 90» Tovit iffAfi^rtt^ [=> «'«»rw( or xxri 9ritr» fji,nrfi{\ vix^w
Soph. Ant. 1282. *EXiy«| »^<rr«^«»Tif[= i^tvrtt fAOtfrtf] Id. Ph. 1338.

§ 458* Notes. 1. In cases like the above, the adjective form ap-
pears to be assumed through the attraction of the substantive, or in other words,
for the sake of binding tc^ther more closely the different parts of the sen-
tence, and giving greater unity to the expression. It will be observed that,
m some of the examples, the adjective simply forms an emphatic pleonasm.

"?. In some instances, a Genitive unth its adjective appear to have been chang-
ed into two adjectives agreeing with the governing stUtstantive ; as, Uivrtif r*
Aiymitn [for «'«vr«» r AiyttUu] Iv* a»r«v «X<^iy«v, and upon the harbourless
coast of the jEgean Sea, Eur. Ale 595. ll§rxfAi^ ^^f^Hf *"• ^^^^ irtrxfuS
N^ri^«tf] xm^f, unth the oar of the nether stream, lb. 459.

3. Derivative and compound adjectives are formed in Greek with great free-
dom, and the latter, especially among the poets, often appear to have taken
the place of a simple adjective or noun, by a species of emphatic or graphic
pleonasm; as, 'iitvtifiiruxMt [s^ /juvavfl irtiXtvf, singly-bridled [=s single]
horses, Eur. Ale 428# *Ay'%Xate fiovfUatf [= ^«5»] Soph. (Ed. T. 26. —
The poets often repeat a noun in composition with i- privative or a similar
word, to express emphatically the idea of negation or of evil; as, "M-nrn^ Afin'
Ttt^, our [unmotherly mother] mother, yet no mother, Soph. El. 1 154. Tafi»f
AyMfM9 Eur. HeL 690 (cf. Innvptis . . nuptiis Cic de Or. iii. 58). *Cl wmrt^
mvi^atrt^ iEsch. Gho. 315.

^ 4«59« 12. Anacoltjthon. An adjective sometimes
differs in case from its subject, through a change of construc-
tion (cf. § 333. 7) ; as,

Bifif . . fifxiiv iret^xyyiXXu XaCirrH r«wf iv^fxt, he commands Xenias tit
• eome, taking his men (cf. HmfmyyiXXu ^4f ri KXia^xf >^^»*'*'* ^»m), i. S. 1.
^imCanUrmt /aUtu i TX»u$ ahr»it U^f«yi} ii 4. 24. *K^»Cx't^ns . . t^
^m PL Lig. 986 a. See the syntax of ^he Infinitiy* and PartidpU.


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NoTB. The VM of other cases with the Oemiue partUkfe (as in §§ 3M
866) maj be referred to simple ellipsis.

IL Use of the Degrees.

[The following observations apply both to adjbgtivbs and advebbs.]

^ 4mO« I. Words are compared not only by inflection
(§§ 155-163), but also by the use of adverbs denoting more
■0 and most ; as,

MeikXtP flx«*i mon agreeable^ Soph. Ph. 886. Tdn ft^Ju^a ^iXwt, <ft#
moit Jriendfyy viL 8. 1 1. *il wXitfTtt fui(M Soph. EL 13^26.

NoTBS. (a) The two methods are sometimes nnitad for emphasis or
perspicuity (c(. ^§ 161. 1, 462) ; as, 0av*w )' «y tU fuiXXev ivTvx*f^*tt <9
T^ifj and dying he wovld be happier, /or happier Acm Umng, Ew. Hec 37 7«
Tif tiXXff fiaXXtv ifitm^^(»s i Mach. Sept. 67 3» TltXv 0S9 t^iTrTtv . . fuHX-
X^f «Mv. 6. 11 (ef. lb. 12). yUXt^rm hnirttrtf Th. vii. 42. TJ^y vrXts^rw
n^ivTwt ^sSv Kf/g-^/v Enr. Ale. 790. *ft fiiytrrtt Ix^/rrti ywmt Id. Med. 1 323.
(6) So the Comp. and Sap. are united, ^H wm^Zf tnhm wxi»f afti^m IxfitS^
Ix^i^rtt In fiet Soph. £1. 201.

§461. II. The COMPARATIVE is commonly construed
with the particle ^, than^ or with the Genitive of distinction ;
and the superlative with the Genitive partitive. Thus,

^XwffK morn (AaXXn n • • 'A^ra^S^^ny, hmng him more Ihan Ariaxerxea^
L 1. 4. See §§ 351. 362»^, 363. y.

Rebiarks. 1. The Comp. is sometimes construed with other partides,
which commonly strengthen the expression (cf. 460. «) ; as, "EAxxtt* . • w^i
TOO ^tvytiv, more honorable [in preference to fleeing] than to flee, PI Ptuede,
99 a. *Kvr) r§9 «'A.i«y, more [instead of you] than youy Soph. Tr. 577.
Tlv»voTt^at «*«(« r« . . fitnifianuifttftbf more frequent [beyond] than lAr
recollections^ Th. i. 23* Hfh i^ttfretf . . irXiiAr, more [in comparison witk
all] than aU, Id. vii 58. IXi^ft r^v ^utraf ft^eirt^u PI. GoTg. 487 d.
"Err/v woXt/A^f evx (i*Xciv re w'Xitfv, ikXXk ^aveivfis, [war is not of arms tha
more, but of expenditure] war does not require arms more than money y Id. L 83
(§ S87). Tat»r l^rl x^iivvtt ^xhv ux *A^'yt!ois frwtTvf 'better [but not to
fall] than to fall,' Eur. Heracl. 231. *A.'roSvnf»cv^^ *^oTt^§f irftp inXt
ylynirfiat o79t n^ttv Cyr. V. 2. 9 (cf. Hfiri^of n 01 ^iXtt itet^n^Kp lb. vit 5. 41),
Otf ir^oTt(»¥ Wa,v0ttfT»y Xms . , xari^Tfi^av Lys. 174. 6. 'Eir} yet^ri^t xvvn-
^•f n, 216. — In the most of t!iese examples, two forms of construction ap-
pear to have been united.

2. The construction of the Gren. with the Ck>mp. is often dliptieal; as,-
*Eirii irXttMv X(^*^y ^' ^*^ f* Ji^i^xuv toTs xirttf riiv Mait, since the time ia
greater, which I must please those below, than those here [than that during which
I must {Jease those here], Soph. Ant. 74. See § 391. y*

S. By a mixture of the two methods of construction which belong to th«
Comp., — (a) When a numeral, or other word of quantity, follows ^Xmss^
itXim, ixmrrtfy or ftt7»v, ii is sometimes omitted, though the Gen. is not em*
ployed; as, * iL*«»'rti*tv^i rHv ivi^Sf §v puTdv v^vraxa^icuf, *not less than 500^
vi. 4. 84. See § 45a ), andof: Abn ompfiMt erant qtdngmUi, C3$m. yUL lOu—



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QH) To the Gen. gvnnud by the Oomp., a qwdfieatiaa if somedmes mmeud
with if ; a8» T/ r«i)^' Av tv^nf* ii^«y ivrv;^i#Ti#«», j| «r«i^ ^i/iMM ^«#vXi4v#i
Eur. Med. 553. Tmt y«tv r «^/y*> rtii ^^ttZv, i vuf ^i^u Soph. Ant. 1090*
OJ ri &f ftM>iX$9 ^w«tiim0ui rtg . ., H t»ut» i PI. Gorg. 500 0. See also
§ 464. N. — (o) The Gen. sometime^ follows Ht instead of the appropriate
case ; as, Oi it^fu itxitf rns iifU^s, I ^m 9 i^»m rrm^mf H. Gr. iv. 6. 5
(see § 4S9).

§ 403« III. The positive is sometimes added to the su-
perlative for the sake of emphasis ; as,

*Sl momSp udrnt^rtt O mkst rf the vUe, Soph. (Ed. T. S34. 'kymiSt Iwwim
M^mrt^Tdt £9 iit^'tvt Cyr. L 3. 15.

Elj() ^i«^), iMiJ it»f*fti»^», »ti) fAta^mratr%y

T/ #•/ «r«r' Irr m«^' { •v» i^U( i TP. lL»^mrH» kl* Pax, 189.

Notes. ». By dombUng the Pm. or fhe Stip., we obtain simibr forms of-
expression, the one lees and the other even more emphatic than die above ; aa^
'Ajpnr affnrvt, horribk of the horrible^ i. e. most horrible^ Soph. (Ed. T. 465.
Aukaia itikaittt Id. £1. 849 (§ 362. t). "Erx^r Ux'^^"* muxd, the mod
molent of the most vioieiU reproaches. Id. Ph. 65 (of. §§ 161. 1. 460. «> *0
)fi itxit Iv raTf fi.%yi^T»$t ftXytgrn Hitat PI. Crat. 427 e.

^ FVom the doubling of the Sup., as in the last example, appears to have
•risen the phrase U r$!t, whieb is used with the Sup. to increase its force, and«
as an adverbial expreasion, without ch&nge of gender ; thus, '£» rt!I$ [se. ir^
rtt] «'^M, Jirwt [among the first] of aUj Th. L 6.. 'Ev rtltf w^n Id. iii.
81. 'E» ro7t ^y.u0Tm ^n 9n%s lb. 17. 'Ev r97t ;^»XtvtiTtirM hny9f Id. vik
71. 'Ef r9Tt fUXt0T9t, most of aU, PI. Crito, 52 a.

y. The numeral tff is sometimes used with the Sup., to render the idea of
hsdmduoKty prominent ; as, ^kj?^« \i ^"kuwrst . ., Js y% 999 9t9n(, IXm/iCavi, he
received the most presents^ [at least being one man] for a single indioiAuti, i. K
more than itmy one man besidef L 9. 22. liktT^rm tst lifit^ . . h>9AfU9§s S9pe»
Xu9 Th. viiL 68.

). The Greeks are fond of expressing the Sup. negatively ; as, Olx ^»mv«
[=s fuiXt^^tb], not the least, espedaUyy Mem. L 2. 23. *A»^^*rv sit r«>y aitnst^
r9tvAT999 Th. L 5. Msyirr«y ti K9ti ou^ lixt^rat Id. viL 44.

§ 463* IV. Certain special forms of comparison deserve
notice ; e. g.

1.) The Gomp., with a (3en. expressing Aope, duty, power of deteriptton^ &a ;
•i, MaT^m lx«'i}«f , greater than could have been hoped, above hope^ Modi* Ag.
iG6. M«XX«v rw V9fr9f, mare than is proper, too much, Mem. iv. 3. 8. K^t>
#>•» X9y9», beyond description, Th. ii. 50.

2.) The Ck>mp. followed by ^ netri, or sometimes jf ^9$ ^ as, Mii^, I
Mttrk ^ait^9t [sc. irrif], [greater than is in accordance with tears] too great foe
tears, Th. viL 75. BiXr<«v9$ n *mr &»f (999-99 Mem. iv. 4. 24. Mft4^«# . . H
nar \fu iteti c\ \^iu({t9, too great for me and you to discover, PI. C!rat. 392 b.
*E»}utrTi(9H . . 11 ^(9t Tfi* i^flc;ri'«f Th. iv. 39. Cf. PraHum atrodus,
ptQ mmnero pugnantium Liv. 21. 29.



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S.) Hie Comp. fbDowed by < *Wi (or ii) and the InfinitiTe ; as, B^«;^m*
fm iiMivri^tv 4 m i&»>t7W««, they ihot [a shorter distance than they most in
order to reach] too $Mort a dUtanee to reaeh, iiL 3. 7. ULit^»v n »f^Tt ^i^tn
ivtrnffPtu , »«»o Mem. iii. 5. 17. — We likewise find the Infin. without m^t* or
mtt and also the Pos. for the Comp. ; as^ T« ytu vUn/** ftul^cf n ^i(tt9, for the
malady i$ too great to bear. Soph. (Ed. T. 1 293. Ttt^uvh vfJSf n IrnvMi lytut^*
T*(ii9, your mind i$ too loeak to pereevere, Th. iL 61. "^ux^if, t^ Ji^rt X««.
earfm lerlf Mem. iiL 13. 3.

§ 4 S 4* 4.) The Comp. and Sop. (tsx the moat part joined with ah^)
followed by a reflexive pronoun, to denote the comparison of an object with
itself; the Comp. representing it as above that which it has been or would be
in other drcomstances, and the Sup. representing it as at its highest point.
Thus, *A»^(Mrt^9s yiynreti »urH aurtS, he becomes more manly than he waa
before, PL Bep. 411 c "O^^ lufmrmrt^M aorti atvrSn Xyiyvnr* Th. iiL 11.
"On luflTmr9f vrnvr^ rmvrtt ^fffia, uhem you were thf moit skilled m these mat"
ter$ Aat you ever were, L e. u^en your Mil in these matters was at its highest
point, Mem. i. 2. 46. "W avris a&rw Tvy;^a9U fiiXTt^r9i A* PI. Gorg. 484 e.

Note. To the Comp. thus construed, a specification is sometimes annexed
with if (§ 461. 6) ; as, Avtm \avrSt [S«^/«Xuwt<^«i ^Viv], WuBkw f^ttfn, n
Wfh fuJuf, they have themselves more confidence when they have learned, than
tikey had btfors learning, PL Prot. 350 a. T« y vviXt^a* nvrSp rns lil^m
Mifie'Tt^w »M itburov Urtv, j} it ftnV tfnfinfa* Th. vii.' 56.

5.) Two eomparatives connected by tf, to denote diat the one property exista
in a higher degree than the other ; as, ^r^nrnyti ^XtUnt n fitkrUng, generah
more numerous than good, Ar. Ach. 1078. 'jTU k»y$y^^»t Itn'tismv M ei
ir^»ymyirt(»9 rp kn^anwttf 4 •X«^l#n^«» Th. L 21. Il^i^S/A^ fmXkes I
^efmri^a £or. Med. 485.

^469. V. The comparative and superlative are often
used without an express object of comparison. In this case,
the siTFERLATiVE increases tfie force of the positive, while the
COMPARATIVE may either increase or diminish it, according to
the object of comparison which is implied. Thus,

*A ^ofMi0mrar% M^mwty O most wonderful man, iii. 1. 27. *£i Sm^
fmnirmr§t viL 7. 10. Tiii» r«;^imiv, immediately ^ iii. 3. 16. IlXt/iv [sc r«5
Yt»9T9f^ XiXtnrett, [more than is proper] too much has been said^ Eur. Ale. 706
(cf. M«XX«y r§u ^i$vT»tt § 463. 1 ). Nuwri^*; £t is ri &(X***> heing too young
for the command, Th. vi. 12. Mec^^ort^tP . . lmyfi^»^^eu, it is rather long
[than otherwise] to relate, PL Conv. 203 a (cf. ^ 464. 5). *0 ^ avialUrt^is
ri rt Amn^ivttT*, but he answered them [somewhat more insolently than ha
might have done] with a degree of insolence, Th. viii. 84. MiXot iSmtt,
ity^tinirt^n, an energetic strain, somewhat rough, Ar. Ach. 673. Tm h Irl-
(Mv nmi Akaytirt^n, ' quite confounding,' Th. vi. 46. Tit riv ^«'ii^«ri^«v, one
of the more inexperienced, v. L 8.

Note. The Comp. and Sup., when used without direct comparison, an
said to be used absolutely. When thus employed, the Comp. is often trans-
lated into Eng. by the simple Pos., or by the Pos. with too or rather ; and the
Sup. by the Pos. with very. In addition to the examples above, see § 466.

^466. VI. The degrees are more freely t»/^cA«ii^«l

Digitized by VjOOQIC


and mixed^ than in English. It may be however remarked in
general, that the use of a higher degree for a lower renders
Sie discourse more emphatic, and the converse, less so. Thus,

TavTtif fUXicrtL [for ir^Xv ^XXm] rnt »i^nf k^^att^ivekty this the chooies far
rather than the mrgin. Ear. Iph. A. 1594. Si?* . . fittxa^rmr^fj more completefy
happy than you, X. 482. 'A|i«X«y«ir«r«» rSf it^tytytvti/iitMf, [the most re*
markable of thoee which had preceded it] more remarkable them any which had
preceded it, Th. i. 1. ^fl fiiXrtm riv a-Kvrov ^iXtt Ai, Pint. 631. T« »«X-
Xtrrn • . r*** «'^«ri^«#y ^ti»t Soph. Ant.. 100. *H^» i yt(mirt(»t [for yt
^irartf], the oldest of tw (though none of them were old), Cyr. v. 1.6*
"E^) ^t»(it ritnixt* [sc faiWot^ § 460], j} »t/y«if yXvxis, his death has beem
more hitter to me than sweet to Ihan^ Soph. Aj. 965 (cf. ^ 464. 5). *Ayi«^.
yn iri^vrtf mt ixiytbt [so. *Xnyki] irc/n/iv, ^tey all cried out ihat he had given
him too fao blows, y. 8. 1 2 (cf. § 465). 'XI ^iXa yvfrnxSp^ O [beloved of]
dearest of women. Ear. Ale. 460 (§ 362. 0* Oi waXXdt, Ae greater number,
or th^most, Mem. i. 1. 19 (cf. 0/ wXtTrrts lb. 11 ; Tmi ^Xu^rt H. Gr. il. 3.
34). 'Oxly»vf . ., ri h W0k6 1. 7. 20. 0< ^ yt^atrt^H, but the [older] old
men, Cyr. i. 2. 4. 0/ ftiw tin rnt rin ir^trCvrifttf l^ttttttt ;^«/(»«(^My Mem. iL
1. S3. 'Iirff'av • • *mXmir%^»9 iy. 5. 35. T< vuvn^tfy, Z ^x^xrtt, yiyw*9y
what new thing has happened, Socrates, PI. Eutiiyphr. 2 a. Ni*>ri(»v nvkt
WitvfAtlviTH ir(ay/Amrm9, * a revolution/ H. Gr. v. *2, 9. Oifih xmfeTif**,
nothing [more recent] new, PI. Ph»do, 115 b. Ov yk^ %*i(«p w»XXtixJs
kxwM lb. 105 a. n«XXi^ J» «v ^iXrr«y nurait ffri^irixt, ' not well for them,'
Cyr. v. 1. 12. T/ ^m ^^y Inrm xtHtn \ what then does it profit me to livef
Eur. Ale. 961 (cf. T/ W i^«2 0y ni^hg Mach. Tr, 747). <t>Mif»«» kf^fih
Wftytvirrt^BS, 'oldest,' «. 156.



§ 467. The article (o, ^, to) appears, in the Epic lan-
guage, as a GENERAL DEFINITIVE, performing the office not only
of an article as usually understood^ but still more frequently
of a demonstrative^ personal^ or relative pronoun (see §§ 147,
148) ; as, ^ ^

•O yi(m, Oie old man, A. 33. T« r Utrx, ra r Irrifitm A. 7a T£ ^

M^Mvn Ji;^ir^«M, and accept this ransom, A. 20. *0 yei(, Jbr he, A. 9. *Ei^
i r»v$* ZffMiiH A. I 93. T«y, u^iom, A. 36. Tk f4.h wcXit* l| W^iiafAU, rk
^iiUtrrett, 'tiiose things which,' A. 125.

Rekahks. 1. These uses are intimately allied, inasmuch as, — (a)*Th«
art, as usually understood, is amply a less emphatic form of the detmmstr*
pron. Compare, in Eng., " That man whom you see,** and '*The man whom
you see." — (6) Tho personal pron. of the •'d Pers. is a substantive demonstr, proiu
Compare, in Eng., * Those that love me,** and " TTtem that love me ** ; " Those
that seek me," and " Th^ that hate me," Prov. viii. 17, 21, 36. (The per


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818 SYNTAX OF THE JlRticls. [book HI

•onal pron., like the art, is oommonly ten wn^fhaHe fban the demeintnitiTt
osually 80 named.) — (c) The demonstr. pron. used conmctively becomes a
relative ; as, in Eng., " Blessed are they that mourn." — Observe the resem-
blance in form between the English article the, and the pronouns thaty thisj he,
they, &c. ; the derivation of the definite art in the French, Italian, &e^ from
the Lat demonstr. Ule; and the extensire use of the German articla (kr
die, doB,

§ 4:S 8« 2. Ib Epic poetry, — (a) The article, in its proper nae aa
Boch, b commonly not expressed. The same omission prevails to a great ex-
tent in other kinds of elevated poetry. — (b) When used aa a personal pro-
noun, it is most frequently connected with the same particles as in Attic Greek
(§§ 490, 491) ; and is not unfrequently followed in the same sentence by the
substantive to which it refers ; as, 'H 2* 2r«'ir# n.»XX»s 'Ainvn, and $he,
PaUas Minerva, followed, «. 1 25. AJ V iitifiolimv *Ainvmm r% nmi "Yi^n ^
SO. Cf. § 499. — (c) As a demonstrative, it sometimes follows its substan-
tive before a relative ; as, 'Aittmi/AWM itifm r«v, «« »• ^iMnv i^ix^fi^mt n,
73. Sw/iricw* TMiv, Ai WinXXi E. 319. — {d) The article when used as a
perseoal or demonstrative pronoun has sometimes, from its position (see
$ 491. B.), or for the sake (xP the metre, the same form in the Kom. with tha
oommon rehitive ; as, *0t yk^ huraurn Miv^ for he returned last, «. 286.
Mff^ Is ^»yu Z. 59. *0 y«^ yi^s Uri ^pifrm*, ' for this,' Y. 9.

3. In the later Ion. and in the Dor. writers, this extended use of the articU
was, in great measure, retained. £. g. in Hdt, the relative has in iha Norn,
aing. and pi. the forms it, iu ^'t »^f »h v*^ * f>^^ ^^ elsewhere the r* forma
of the article, except after prepositions which suffer elision, and in the phrases,

4. Traces of the earlier and freer use of the article likewise remained la
the Attic and common Greek ; so that we shall treat of the Att use of the
article under two heads, (i.) its use as an article, and, (n.) its use as a pro'
noun, combining with the latter the use of the relative forms (§ 1 48. 2) aa
demonstrative or personal. We ou0it, perhaps, te premise, what might ba
inferred from ^ 467. 1, that no predse line of division can be drawn betwee*.
the use of the article as sud^ and its use as a proaoun.

I. The Article as an Article.

^469. Rule XXVII. The Article is pre-
fixed to substantives, to mark them as definite.

NoT^i^ 1^ The Greek article is commonly translated into English by the
dejinite article the ; but often when used substantively, and sometimes when
used adjectively, by a demonstrative pronoun ((§ 476, 479, 486. l). With a
participle following, it is most frequently tran&'ated by a relative and verh^
preceded, if no antecedent is expressed, by a personal or demonstrative pro-
noi^ (§ 476). It is often omitted in translation, especially with proper nameSf
abstract nouns, nouns used genericalbf, vmdi pronouns (§§ 470, 471, 473); and
must be often supplied in translation when not expressed (§§ 485, 486).

2. A substantive used ind^itdy wants the article ; as, E«X^ yk^ Sv-

0avf^, ^mfl itv'h^t ffWMtiai^ ^^f i(pu\»fAini, a favor due from a ^ood mum k
•A excellent treasure^ laoct.Sh, See§518.«.


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§ 470. A substantive used definitely is
either employed in' its full extent^ to denote that
which is knoum, or, if not employed in its full ex-
tent, denotes a definite part.

A.) A substantive employed in its full extent^ to
denote that which is known^ may be,

1.) A substantiye used genericaBy, i. e. denoting a whoU ckua; as, i &*t^m
irofj fiuM (referring to the whole race), n ywtit woman, «/ &vi^m^»i, men, «/
*A^ifP«7M, t^ ^MenioiM (the whole nation). Thus, '0 ivi^ttires ^Mftfirtf'*
mttfMivfin, man wa» named &f6^at^9tt PI* Crat. 399 C. *0 yc^ fVfitCavXog mm) I
^int»(p»9Tiu • • tv ravTf wkiicrov »XXn>.tff iui(pi^9V^iv Dem. 291. 1.5. Kau rSp
'£xx4y*>» h.tx''^ i^Xirai . . r^teutsfUvg, *of Greeks,' L I. 2. Of. § 485. /S.

Note. To this head may be referred substantives used dtstrilmiivefy, whidi
eonsequentlj take the article ; as, KS^»s vvirj^vcTr^i . . r^ «^«^/x« r«S
ftmm rif ^r^armTif, Cyrus promises three half-^kirics [the month to the sol-
dier] a month to each soUiery i. 3. 21. — Even with %xmfr»s • as, "ISjumrm vi
th^u eoch nation, i. 8. 9. Ejira r^ i^Xlmt titatwrt ^u» /Atm Th. r. 49 (cH

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