Alpheus Crosby.

A grammar of the Greek language online

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Xt#«^r^«4 vkt ivvdfutf a*^*ns i. 5. 9. Ovii^or &^a . . Xv^trtXkm^s* ikiinim
%ix»tominm Pl> Rep. 354 'a. Avr<riA.i^ri(0y h atitxiet rnt %tmai»^9fit lb- bb
*H ^tofAttwt ^dffMtna [awoi4^ov^» rix*fl]* • • *H tms i^^ott rk i^irfiutra lb*

§ 4 8 9* 8. The Insertion or omission of the article often depends, both
in poetry and prose, upon euphony and rhythm, and upon those nice distinctumM
in the expression of our ideas, which, though they may he readily fdt, are often
transferred with difficulty from one language to another. In general, the inser-
tion of the ardde promotes the perspicuity, and its omission, the vivacity of dis-
joaana. It is, oonseqaently, more employed in philoeophiad than in rhetoriccu
compoation, and far more m. prose than tn poetry. It should be remarked,
however, that, even in prose, tiiere is none of the minutise of language in
rhich manuscripts differ more, than in respect to its insertion 'or oniisaiony
••pedaUy with proper names.

9* The article is sometimes so dosely united with the word JbDowlng, tiftal


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CM. U,] . IT&E AS A PRONOUN. 325

» Mcond article u prefix^ as if to a shi^e word ; thus, Ao'^^f ^l i xatrk
rmlrif [a* r# avri, § 97. N.] «Xf}^f yiyvifiuat, sri^i r$ B^atn^tv [= t$
I«V{«», § 39] <Sv, »«) «^f) r^ T«|iT«i> . ., xai i r»v ^mri^ov ic6»Xef PL
Tim. 37 b. Ti n ^tirt^^v jmi) ta r«&r0» lb. 44 b (see §§ 479, 480). TS*
r$ ftnytf [sc. S¥rt0v]i thote who are Hiat which i$ nothing^ Eur. Tro. 412 (see
5§ 450. 1^ 476>

IL The Article as a Pronoun.

§ 490* A. The ARTICLE, if we include both its aspirai*
ed and its t- forms ^ is used as a pronoun, by Attic writers,
only in connection with certain particles.

Note. By the use of the article as a pronouny is meant its §ub$ta»ahe mm
independent of a modifying word dr phrase (§ 476). This use is explained,
as in the case of otiier adjectives (§ 447), by the dlipsis ift a noun. As a
pronoun, the article in Attic writen is either demonstratioe or personal, the
cases in § 493 excepted.

I . "With fiWand H; aa, *0 ^ [sc. miiX^s] v'lihraty and he ^the brother]
kpemutdedy i. 1. B. 0« ft.h fx*^^** KA.i«(;^«« )t wtf/tfitUf they (Ghirisopbus
and Meno) wentf but Clearchtu stayed, IL I. 6. lilas n Ktti/At'ntv Xt«/ nxXu
%4xam$j U II rSf fteiXjer lyti Soph. (Ed. C. 741.

HmMAHK. The artide with ^iv and ^i is commonly used for contradisHnc
(ton (cf. § 483), and we may translate i /i,h . ., « ^t, this . ., that, the one , ,,
the other, one . ., another, &c., and ti f^h . ., «i Vt, these . ., those, some . ., otpers,
&c Thus, *0 ft,h fietivtreii, i il ^tt^^nT, Ae one is mad, the other is rational,
PI. PhiBdr. 244 a. O/ f^h i«-#^it/*fT», «l V tixtrr; the one party (the Greelss)
marched on, and the otfier (the Persians) followed^ iii. 4. 16. BanXsw rt ««)
el "EiXXmis • 't cl fAiv iui»o9Tt( . ., o* ^' a^^d^tvrtt, ' these . • those,' i. 10. 4.
Tivt fi,h ttirSf a^izrun, rtvs V i^iCaXir, ^some . . Others,' L 1. 7 (§ 362. «)•
*Ev fiXv &fa T»7s ^vfipwufAiv, U il r»7t *3 PI. Phsedr. 263 b. "E^urx f«vfry
9'afftiv ti»»u6VTts, i^tXi^avrt rovro ^iv \» rnti 'rovro ^\ l» rns Rep. Ath. 2. 8. Tit
fat iiretfitt, , . riXot ^l Ketrixretu, he received some wounds, but finally- slew,
L 9. 6. *0 /4v ^f;^fv, «/ Ti WttiotTa, he (Gearchus) commanded, and the rest
obeyed, ii. 2. 5. Tff fuv yk^ »f»l»¥, rp ^\ tSoiov, iu^iw6/A%f ro S^of, for we shall
find the mountain, here easy, and there difficult, of ascent, iv. 8. 10 (§ 421. /3).
Ti fiiv ri fia;^if*tfoi, ra ^ *ai av»ir»vafAtv»t, * [as to some things . • as tO
Others] partly . # partly,* *now . . now,* iv. 1. 14 (§ 441).

§ 419 1« 2.) In poetry, with yi^ ; as, n«^' Av^^tff ^avarim Sfn^f
I y^ fciyifraf etlrtif ruyp^tuu %$^vl^uit, * fijT he,* Soph. EL 45. Tnt yii(
wi^nm. fitirfig Soph. (Ed. T. 1082. T« yof . • ^irawf fti^n, for this is a rare
ht, Eur. Ale 473.

8.) As the subject of a verb, after xec), and ; as. Km) rh mtXtwrn "iav^eu,
and that he bade him give it, Cyr. i. 3. 9. K«2 «•«» k^ax^iimwieu Xiytvtu lb. iv.
S. 13.

Rbmark. The j7roe/t^« m the nominative (i, 4, tt, at, § 148) require, from
the very laws of accent, that the particle, in connection with which they
are used, should follow them. If, therefore, it precedes, Uiey become orAotone,
•r, m other words, take the forms which commonly belong to the relatioe pro-
SMN ($ 148. 2). This ehange takes pkee with nmi onifiMrmly, and with U


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when it follows iT foi t^n (§ 228) ; thus, Km) is yetv/Min, ond he uxmdenif i.
8. 16. Em) a, "Ov» ituptifinfUf i** iipti PL Conv. 201 e. E«) t1 il*«f vii
6. 4. ^ }' 7f, said he, H. Rep. 327 e. ^H i' is, i Tx»v»m, coai Ae, L •.
Olaueo, lb. b. *B, V H, ecdd ihe, Id. Cony. 205 c

^ 493* B. The article in its t- forms likewise occun,


1.) Before the rekOhee it, iwt, and tUf ; as, T«tf ; 7^riy, of that whu^ ia,
PL Phffido, 92 d. Ili^) ri l^* f XomTrcu Id. Phil. 37 e. Em) rip if f^
^ifitirtif vourau t4itMt LjS. 167. 15, Tlt^ rt^wi rSf ireu wt^) recurd %ln
PI. Soph. 241 e. n^flntxfi na) fuvth rtus olit^t^ oSrss Dem. 613. 9. — The
sentence introdnced by the relative may be iQ^uded as a defining claute, to
which the article is prefixed (see § 472).

2.) In particular forms of expretdon ; viz.

«. n^0 rod (also written ^^drau), before this; thns, T« yt ^^i tw wmTf
Met PL Ale 109 e. 01 V eWtrai fiyxtvwn • «XX* •vk at w^irw Al, Nubb
5. 0/ ir^o r$v ^/Xm, ' former friends,* Eur. Med. 696. See § w5. b.

$. T^, [through this as a cause, § 416] for tfiis reason, therefore; thoa^ Tf
rgi . . ftSikXev vM^rUv PL Thest. 179 d.

y, T« yty followed by in ; as, T« 71 1^ aHa, irt * ., UUs I loeU know, thai
• ., PI. Euthyd. 291 a. T» 71 l^ xaretfanriof . ., iri Id. PoL 305 c

%. The article dotdded with »«/ or ilf ; as, E/ r» »m) t« mln^if iffi^mitH
«vT«r}, 0V» »y ««'i^«yty, tf this man had done this and that, he would not ham
died, Dem. 308. 3. T» nau rk ^iwtnim Id. 560. 17. *A<pt»ft!vfMu in ris
km) rffv,. I go to this one and that, Lys. 94. 3. With the article again re-
peated ; "Oil ya^ ri »«2 to ^un^Mt, not) ri fin votnrait for this and that tof
ought to have done^ and this not to have done, Dem. 1 28. 1 6. "Of %(pn )«ry aSrm
Wfa^ifUff^xi xtv^uvtvtn rif fr^etrnyn, i*m /mi rk ti ret yttnrtreu, kXX* i^mf
ret, *• not these or those, but these,* Id. 1457. 16. The nominative it neu Z§
(§ 491. R.) occurs, Hdt. iv. 68.

3.) Through poetic license, in imitation of the earlier Greek ; as, T«y . •
fiUef, him destroy, Soph. (Ed. T. 200. TeiTf ft,et f4,i\iff§eti, take care of these far
me, lb. 1466. M/« yat^ ^i^X^ * ^^^ uv't^akytit fiir^iew ij^iet Eur. Alc 883«
'Arri^tff, eretv ^fitvetrtv, ittreXat r% rHv .£8Ch. Ag. 7.


This substitution of the r- for the aspirated forms (§ 147) occurs in no
Attic writers except the tragedians, and scarcely in these, except to avoid hia*
tus, or lengthen a short syllable. Thus, Krtltde-a roht »u xs^* xratttv, having
slain those whom she ought not to slay, Eur. Andr. 8 ) 0. T^r ^h, rev fvt >^i-
yut, the god, whom you now blame, lb. Bac. 7 1 2. l^etTt inufav, hrn a^rtees
fiekuf \pifAiw6et, TO ^* eZrei Xiytt \ Soph. (Ed. T. 1054. 'Aydk/^et^' 4»(kf
rSt . . a«'t0-Tf(i)/ IfMtvrev lb. 1379. "Ayet . . ittxvuveu, ri f*nr$ yn . • it^eer*
"iilirm lb. 1426.

Remark. On the other hand, the aspirated forms are sometimes foand
with fnU and Vi for the r- forms (§ 490. 1 ) ; thus, HeXut •Exx^f/'W, 1$
pX9 ktettiSw, tit ett ^ ravt ^vyxiett uardytf, * some destroying, and to otben»


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CA. 4.J FRONOU?f. — AGaEEMENT. 327

DeDU 248. 18. *A# ^v ttardXupt m-ikug r«rv i^ruyiirifsfff rnkf ^ if^0u
[d. 282. 11. Tfiiftm y •$§ ft^9 SuMu^t SxC0¥, rtltg )* tig ftiwf il»u Eur. Iph.
T. 419. So, '0«4 A^y • ^ M )•, mmdimu • ^ a< oCAer time*, Th. TiL 27
tM M Yen. 5. 8.



L Agreement of the Pronoun.

^494. Rule XXVIII. A Pronoun agrees
with its mbject in gender ^ number^ and person.

By the $utjeet of a prommn is meant the tubttanthe which it repremHta,
The role, therdbre, has respect either to ttibttantive pronowuy or to adjeetiee
pronoun* tued 9ub$tantivefy. The constmcticni of adjective pronouns regarded
a$ $uch belongB to Rulb XXYL, and even their substantive use is explained
by ellipsis (§ 447. a). Thus,

"Bm^tXtvf riig /th ir^is Ittvrif p. e. /3«riXS«3 ^fiCfifX)); «^» jMnr^y Ihg
king did not perceive Ihe plot agahut himedf^ L I. 8. 'Av* rnt Jt(X**f* ^9
[so. it^x^*\ mt/r§9 ^ttrfdwnv Iv-tinn, from the government, cf which [goverm-
ment] he had made him eatrap, i. 1.2. Hmfrvt ifi . • &fi^*4^o¥Tttt lb.
ll^ig r$9 tiitX^off itt IwtCdvXtMi air if, *0 H WilStrm {% 490) lb. 3.
*Tm«« • *, ^«'«' i^^i iv. 6. 14. &tuffAmm» wttug, h . . %thttg Mem. iL 7. IS.

§ 49«i. The remarks upon the agreement of the adjec«
TivE (§§ 444-459) likewise apply, so far as gender and nam'
her are concerned, to that of the pronoun, and some of them
*o even a greater extent (^ 444. a). Thus,

a. BfAScuLons Form fob FEMmiNB.

"O^^rt^ tl rit x^t^i ^* ^ ^*f ^^^ ^^ nfXXafiCantv AXXnXtt* Woinrt^^
dkfi^ivAP T0vr«v T(a«'«fyr« w^ig ri itaxt^Xvtn iXXnXat Mem. ii. 3. 18.
See § 444. fi.

Note. In speaking of persons vaguely , or generally, or simply as permma,
the masculine gender often takes the place of the feminine, both in pronouns
and in other substantive words which admit it: thus, Uh •Ig r oh xcn*
l.'^ r^ fttir^f] ft 0/wrX4?y Soph. (£d. T. 1184.. Ov^i y«^ xetftHi ira^;^0rri
fuett Jf ri»«i v'^dey/yurm Id. El. 770. "H ^rtT^^t ovva fitoe-x^t »w» ati^trmi
Ttnvtvrttg &XXd»g [ss rixr«vr«r SxXn»] ^ur. Andr. 7 1 1 . ^vuXtiXuifaet*
mg i^ »mratXiXufAf»,Utu ihxptti rt »«2 i,hX<piiaT Mat «»i<v^<«i r«rat/r«4, Ji^r
fShtu If «^ UKtif Tt^wm^avxathixm T»t/g IXtvfiftvg. . . JLaXtiriv fAv *Z»
Wrtf, Z S^^x^n;, rtvg tiniitvg wt^io^Sf difXXvfitifdug, miuvmrtf ^
re0'eir§»g r^iftt Mem. iL 7. 2 (cL lb. 8). See § 336. «.


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§ 4l94w b. UsB or itaE Nbitibr.

T/ yik( T«ur»v f/ntxet^tMrt^ttf r»v yp fiu^in^^t i Cyr. viii. 7. 25 (§ 44 5} •
'Efii(ivr»f*t9, %*i^ hfitZf xeii avet^rnvrat Wtin^t iv. 1. t^2« T/y *um m9 if»s»
Xtyn^Mv ahrU ^»vX.%fffi«t fitnr nkifitot finr aXm^ava ipaitiwimi rut vtnwrtt %
*EJ«*i4 y &9 afA^ori^tt rauraf tt . . Mem. i. I. 5 (§ 450). — The nemier
referring to words oj other geuders, and the neuter plural for the mngmUm
(§§ 450, 451), are particularly frequent in pronouns.

c GoKPeuND GoM/nsvoinHr.

*A^Ta«^0« »c) 'HUf^liairntt ol ^wav iu 5. 35. Ti§\Xt>ut ti &*i^ tuti ym
9m7naf xetXett xt^^i^, tSt $v Xfli^tr^oi )inrii, aXX* aUT0) • . ira^i^atrmt ylL 3
3 1 . *Aff^a\u«tTf »eti tSxXnaVf M §vr» ituretwn^ircu CyT. viii. ^. 22. n«XXA
V i^ w^oCara »a) tttyaf »c) 00Vf xiti §960$, & it^»ia^i9rct iiL 5. 9. 'AfrotX-
XtiyuTtt wtXifittv »m) »4fiu90it9 »ui Ttt^axnit i'f i» • • s«^rr«t^ty fsocr. 163 b.
See ^ 446. — Zeugma is fiir less frequent in the construction of the protunm
than in that of the adjective,

§497* d. STjnfiSis. .

T« 'A^m)/»m iwXirt»h, Jv 3l(x$ KXta9t0^ iv. 8. 18. T« )0|«»v« Iv 9-Xi^
Pttf •?«'i( h»tU»»^t9 PL Phadr. 260 a. B«riXtw • . • «/ I' ^«qi^«i>rff i.

10. 4 (cf. lb. 2 and 5). Oi»r^« yk^ wtwi9fiaf*»9, 4 . . »•«!» xaHrx'* IXv-t^
Eur. Iph. A. 985. *n ^iXl« >^tr;^«b. If . . iT^^ff Soph. PhiL 714. ^H i7«#ik
•«} trserti ^vxh, tlxv ^ i«'»Xi«'«»» hftmt i Qjnr. vii. 3. 8. TlxMrt, ..••>;
Eur. Suppl. 12. See § 453.

Notes. I. In the construction of the pnmonn, the number u often eham^
for the sake of indwidualizing or generalizing the eKpressaon ; as, "O^rtt I*
Jip»9t7T9 . ., ir«£yTCf . . ^miri/ufrcrd, oimI whoever came, he tent them aM
back, i. 1.5. 'ArWZ^iTAi Wirraf, ^J" iSv «ri^irpy;^iiw» PI. Rep. 566 d. *0< ^
»a/A9if rZ9 atx%TZ9f 'r»»rt9 ft X^tfAtXfiTMt 9'£9rt09f tvttt ^t^awivfirmt
(Ec. 7. 37. T«c;r«i/f . ., f I9 , , w«XXa) Xvnritt lb. 21. 8. "AXX^Wf >*
UtXiPi Xfyiiv, di« r/ ?»a^T0f WXnyfi, and he bade the rest say, on what ae-
eount each one had been struck, y. 8. 12. H^fiin Ivi Xniwr^, •Z9'ti9a$
ftr» tx^9 Tt vii. 3. 16. nir^Mtv XtfCm . . fT*; T««^r«f Irri, »m} t«» m^*
Indfrotf hti9tTfuu vi» 6» 33. *Hv et^i49ia r«>v d-iX0»r«v JMfiwivfi*, Tr**
r<f «70ir0 Kv^dv ttiffin^trfat L 9. 15 (see lb. 16). 'Hv Vt rtf rwran Tt irm»
^aCai9u, ^nfititt9 avTtif Wi6ifa9 Cyr. i. 2. 2. Ei )i ri iSaxt? irXi«v Irr*
&y»fi97s, T0VTM9 /utrt;^0v^« Eur. Ale 744. *AXnffit ^* ^iXag • . • tSw
mftfifitof w woXvf, he was a true friend ; of whom the nunAer is not great. Id*
Suppl. 867. AuT»v(y§t, «?iri^ nai fM9M ralt^ov^t yn9 Id. Or. 720* d«-
(rctv^»9r»ii$ «V4^ • sSs ^h net} Wuivit ts 9'Xn^»s PI. Bcp. 554 a.

2. A pronoun often refers to a subject which is implied in anoAer word («f.

§ 454); as, Oipyii • . if 'Ki(»v(a9, M9 tLVTSi9 [i. e. TMV %M^XV^il9'\
sli^yiTtiu he flies to Corcyra, being a benefactor of tlieirs, Th. i. 136. 'Avi
TltX0ird99in^ov , ., tl TATir^i »^i<Vr9i/« iiri Id. vi. 80. Tiis ift^nf ivtt^Hav,
Ir [i. e. i/ui] fitriT 0xyi7rt Soph. (Ed. C. 730. UlaT^^a ^* irrla xaiTt^xd*
^n, auT$t ^ . . fTiVyii Eur. Hec 22. *Avv/(»iy«i«f , Jv [i. e. d^(v«/(V»3 ^'
l;^^r TUX*** lb. 416.

§498. e. AiTRAonoir.

A pronoun is sometimes attracted by a word in its own dause, or a word In
•Hwtition with its real talas^ct (cf. § 455) ; as, Btedv^n* ^7Mr4» }m0if, ^irie


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[A>r lori^] l^ mA\Xi^09 x**^^^ ^^** ^ *^ 9^ y^> °* ** retidenee, Bium^
toftidi u my jmult town, vii. 2. 38. *£^r/«f , •»' oSrt ivuuri^cit x^V^^ ^^* "^
5« 56, Ottih S^m»v itetyiyiftifiat irM^v * ^rfrt^ [for flfri^, § 445] vofii^v fiiXi*
mv ft7N»4 x«XA,i«'rffv ^ir«X07i«; ApoL 3. 0«(ri7v • • . avr« yk^ tif »v ^tifiti-
Tvf k^uXXmyn JEaxAk. Pr. 754. *£ir2 vvXcf rnt KtXtxiat xai Ttig 2t;^/«f«
THrtfv ^ r«»r« [for « Jt«i] )v« «^<;t'' ^* ^* ^* ^^ ^'*^ ^' avfi^tivtif irig •u
maXif, S wdfra V*f **** ^^ Mftiittm i PL Leg. 937 d. — This oonstroctioa
may be commonly explained by dlipna ; thus, 'E^ritifi tZ [x''V*^'i '^' *'^'
rt^tv X'*€^» ^ hearth, than whkh [spot] tii€n it no hotter ipot,

§ 4199* Additional Remarks. 1. A pronoun, for the sake of
perspicuity or emphasis, is often used in anticipation or repetition of its eubfeel,
or is itself repeated; as, T/ yikf r»vr§u fMtxafMTi^tv, t»v y^ /Atx^^at i For
what i$ happier than tftif, to mingle with the earth f Cyr. viii. 7. 25. T«i/r««
rtfi£fMUf rnt b VL^uratviicf rtrn^tttt PL Apol. 37 a. , KiTytf xaXXro, Ttxv*^
Sfi'trtira rtft,^f Eur. Ph. 535. 'Ayim$ ^ i *A^xat xa\ '^atx^xriti i *Ax»i*s,
xal r»urtt &^i§xfirtif, ' these also died,' ii. 6. 30. BaB«-iXi« . .^ wx tila o rt
^u air 09 ifisvat ii. 4. 7. *AXxiZ$£hns . .» f^TM »axiry«( nfAtXnffiv avrcv
Mem. i. '2, 24. 2»i>^«4 ^t, aT^^ Avri fioi trt^t ri, aT^f mv 4-1^1 I/a), t^urd fAts
ftift^ Cyr. iv. 5. '29. 0W« U vt . . 7;^;*" ^^ Wt^tilxi r«i Q£c. 3. 16«
"Em ^«^ r4f «v v^iwct Ytva^rnt ^iXtg rts £ur. Andr. 733.

Note. Homer often uses the personal pron. cS^ with its noun following ;
aa, *Hv &^ «i ^t^tiwtt9 ix* vtf^in Xmtn N. 600. *nS ftn iyu^n '^auftxmaw
tlhrt^k»9 \. 48. Cf. ^ 468. b.

^ oOO* 2. A change of person sometime^ takes place ; — (a) From
the%nion of direct and ineUrect modes of speaking, especially in quotation ; as,
'Ajyur m9 fimrtu99 tivif ixw^iittt Sf . . xxxratof, take o^ of the way a eente*
Jem man, me, who have elain, Soph. Ant. 1 339. Kmi tvrt t<pn ** i/iXuv ir«(iv.
t^§xt, v^a^kmCaltt UtXvTxe Ix irmtrit v«v ^rfxrivfiartf, 'Ey« ya^i** 7^*f»
•*#T^«" iv. 1. 27. S^i. 3. iiO; iii. 3. 12; iv. 1. 19; v. 6. '25, 26.—
(&) From a speaker's addressing a company, now as one with them, and noir
tm distinct from them; as, Aupfixwut v fit is ut i^n* T«(a;^^y 4 artfAj; nfiSe
naiiernxit* i$ixxrt yik^ . ., «7riMf vtivxafittt Isocr. 141 d.

II. Special Observations on the Pronouns.

^ ffOl* Of the observations which follow, many apply
equally to pronouns and adverbs of the same classes,

A. Personal, Possessive, and Reflexive.

§ ff03» In the use of the pronouns, especially those of
the classes named above, it is important to distinguish between
the stronger and the weaker forms of expression ; that is, be-
tween those forms which are more distinctwe^ emphatic^ or
promincTU^ and those which are less so.

I. In the weaker form, the first and second personal pro-
nouns are omitted in the Nom,<t and are enclitic in the oblique
cases sing. ; but in the stronger form, they are expressed in the
iVbm., and are orthotone throughout. In the weaker form, the
THIRD personal PRONOUN is omitted in the Nom.^ and is com-


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monly supplied hy avrog in the oblique cases ; in the stronger'
form, it is supplied by o and og, whicii are simply distinctive
and are limited in their use (§§ 490-492), and by oviog, ode
and ixBivog, which are both distinctive and demonstrative. Thus,

'AfTArrA rAMt £iri^««a rM, Siri« »«) rv I/U0} d^iiu^as rov av^A, I gave ytm
back every thing aafct when you. aiso had shmon to me the man, v. 8. 7. 'Ey^
^tr, 4v alv^^if, ^n vfAUf l^ecitH • ^Vm; 3t xeii vfAUf S^i l^atvig'trt, Ifiui fitiXn^t
^ finlKtri fA% KX>^0r 9t/t,/^iTt i. 4. 16. OJti yct^ fifctTf Ixtifcv trt fr^artSTtu,
Ivt/ yt oh 0un^9fA%6et ethrSf^ dSrt ixitfof in rifup fn^fioiirns !• 3. 9* OSrt rv
ixiifas <ptXt?s, tSrt ixuveu A Mem. ii. 7. 9. ^X^ ^^ '''^ A''" ^*^'^* MsvAry jMEi M
^vv Afi'T^, rtf ^\ thiivvfitov K-Xiet^p^of, xeii at Ixtivov i. 2. 1 5. Kv^»s ^< x«< l^^iit
r»ur$u i. 8. 6. Tovrf fvyytvofutivos 9 Ea/^d;, nya^^n rt ttvronj xa) ^livfiv avrSf
i. 1. 9. 'H^* aZv d-«ytrrai Soph. Ant. 751. Kcr^f r« xi/ir4t/ 0'ri^9^ir«>, xa^
r£ii Id. Aj. 10S9. See §§ 490-492.

§ tJOS. II. In the stronger form, the Gen. subjective
(§ 393. 5) t^i^A a substantive is commonly supplied in the pirst
and SECOND persons, and sometimes in the third, by the poS"
sessive adjective (cf. §§ 457, 458) ; in the weaker form, it is
often omitted, especially with the article (§ 482). The Gen.
objective (§ 392) sometimes follows the same analogy. Thus,

** Olu yi^ rw fiaxii'^^eth '' ^^^h ''«•' a^*^^** ; ** " Nfl Ai*,** f^i» 6 KZ^ot^
** f7fri( yt A«(»i»v xat Tla^ufeiTitog Itrri ^ats, Ifcis ^i «5iX^«f ** i. 7. 9. T«S»
^MfAtirw wrt^ninveu, . . Ilf ^2 taIv v/Atri^etv tiyafiHt ii. 1 . 1 2. Kf /y«v rt jmb)
rnv t^ ?0'0v »0iv^v ;^<^^4f Soph. Tr. 485. Ta von kix^d the marriage you talk af^
Soph. Ant. 573. T0 rh .yk^ "A^yts «v Vtltx lyti Eur. Heracl. 284. 2«»
%(t¥, Z 'E\i9n, *the dispute for you,' Eur. Hel. 1160. Evm/^ »«} fiX/^ vy
l/ttjj, good-will and affection to me; Cyr. iii. 1. 28. OiX/oe ti? r>», foue to you^
vii. 7. 29. Mn fAiruf^ikuf rat rvs Ift-ns ^et^ieisi that you may not regret your
present to me, Cyr. viii. 3. 32. Qfi^t avfMf Mach. Pr. 388. See §§ 454,

Notes, (a) The possessivb pronoun is modified like the personal pronomm
of which it supplies the place ; as, Tof yt rh {}^§et>.fAh\ rod v^tvZitits, at least
yours [your eye], the ambassador, Ar. Ach. 93 (§ 332. 4). See § 454. So^
since trirftog may be followed by the Dat., as wdl as the Gen. (§§ 403, 411),
AfttTt^ou [= hfMf\ 9'eTfAoUf xXutoif Aadeixi^etig'iv Soph. Ant. 860. (6) The
only POSSESSIVB of the 3d Pers., which has a place in Attic prose, is o-f irt^«f.
their ; and even this is used rejUxiodyj and with no great frequency. Thus,
£ls Xv^an ^otoufrae ravf w^iri^ovfy when they saw their own men in distress^
Cyr. i. 4. 21. (c) The Dat for the Gen, belongs particularly to the weaker
form of expression. See § 4 1 2.

§ tS04« III. In REFLEX REFERENCE, the Weaker form is
the same with that of the common personal pronoun ; the
stronger form is the so-called reflexive (§ 144). The weaker
form belongs chiefly to those cases in which the reflex refer*
ence is indirect and unemphatic ; the stronger, to those in
which this reference is either direct, or, if indirect, is specially
emphatic or distinctive. Thus,


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Oir. 4.] PEBSONAL, POSSESSnrE, AKD reflehve. 331

UfdrTtri iw7»9 Af r$ ^ftTw J!ntr4% ftdXifra ^»/i^i(U9, do whatever you think
win be moat advantageous to your$elve$y ii. 3. 2. KtXtvtvtt ^ta^tiffecvTit ahv»7t
wit m'^dCarUf rii ft^v uvt»9 XmCttty ra ^l r^iV/r tLweicvvat vi. 6* 5. Kui •ur»t
^ Sv ^%T6 wiwiv 04 tifUi, raxv uvrov tZ^t Kv^f* ^«Xa/ri^«y, n laurSf I. 9* 29.
*iU 1^09 i^ftSpTus xaJ* avT0Vft fu^Sf 9af*ii«9Tt( iir« f^»( firlai V. 7. 25. Al*
ytt* ri ixiAfviff «»«■««>;, 7ri 0iiih £f Srrdf r^iTf uyayutv rj|y rT^urteit, n Stf§»
pSn vii. 5. 9« £iV Thf laurtu rxjfv^y • • tS* vi^^ avrov • . . irt^) rhf avT0y
ff»n9in9 L 6. 4. 'ExtXivi r«t)# ^iXtvg tms ra ItturSv wat/AKTu ayounv t^^ut
^C«XXfiv rc!ur0» rn ;^'A.«y, in fnh vttfUvru raits \uurtiii piKovf aytffm L 9* 27t
Tiaiu9 y hXtxiut Ifutvri^ ix^up uvti/iU»\ • • *£«» rnfi$^$9 w^aiti Ifuturov iU. !•
1 4. *'Et/MtvTSf yt ^tJMM rtf*(i^JMM vii. 6« 1 1 • Ti»XX»v /am ^axaI ^irv lb. 1 8.
2v fi%9 iiyovfAivtg mvTMS WtJ^nf^Uvf cTroM ftmvr^ ixitvat il ri i^Steci ti;^^ifiivt9
Ip' Uurauf Mem. ii 7. 9. 'A^iXi?* i(^« «vr«ly L 3. 11. TiaXXet^kuytdVf
ifuiv aurSi* Uixurt ilL 2. 14 (§ 352).

§ tSOtS* Rebcabks. 1. As prononns are used mainly for distinction^
the ehoioe or rejection of a pronotm in a particular instance depends greatlj
upon the use of other pronouns in the connection. The use of the pronouns
is likewise mnch influenced in poetry by the metre, and even in prose^ to some
extent, by euphony and rhythm.

2. "With respect to posmoir, the weaker form of the Genitive^ fh>m its want
of distinctive emphasis, commonly follows § 472. «, but the stronger form, and
the possessive adjective, § 472. I. Thus, 'EfriX«/uC(ivt7ai tthrtlv rnt Jruas rv*
7. 1 2. "Hr ii Tig uvrSt r{t^^7 Tat y^vfiat iii* 1.41. T^ € ttvrav • •y
ri filv Xttvrau vSfca 1. 9. 23. *H Ixttvatv SS^tf «a2 n tifAtrifa viraypia iii. 1. 21.
Tk inral^vym rk tninaui, 3. 1. *Avi^tfii^t fAav rn iiro'orf}* Ar. Plut. 12.
T«r ^9 rh Xfuiurw PL Gorg. 488 a.

S. The place of the Oen. possessive of the reflexive pron. is commonly sop*
pBed in the phir. by the possessive pron. with «vr«w. In the sing, this fbna
of ezpressioii is poetic ^ See § 454.

§ oOo« 4. The Aird person being expressed demonstraiivdy in other
ways, the pronoun sS became simply a retrospective pronoun, L e. a pronoun
xefening to a perstm or thing previously mentioned. As such, it p^ormed
the office both of an unemphtUic reflexive (§ 504), and of a simpie personal
pronoun, and was sometimes used as a general reflexive, without respect to per-
■on. ^Q this last use, it was sometimes imitated by its derivatives (even in
the Attic, by lavraS and e^pirt^ag). Thus, BaoXtuatn fAirk v^ivn [rss tz/ttTv],
' among yourselves,' K. 398. Aai/uifn ata-tp [=> ^atg'\ aivMratg at, 402. 0{i.
fh ^riv [<Bs IfAetig'^ ^X"* 'itiaTyfaivav ^ri,( nXm/*ti9 v. 320. Ai?' n/tSig dn^ir^eu
\mvravg [=b i^futg avravg'], ace ou^ to €uk ourselves, PL Phtedo, 78 b. EvXa-
Cti/^iVM, iwaag fiii lyi iiri w^oivfAtug iftm \atvrat \jsst ifAaturat] rt »ai) uftug
Viatvatr^watg lb. 91 c. EJl«/« . . uM w^ig tturtif Soph. El. 283. AUx^ntg
waki9 rhf atirig atvraS, you yourself disgrace your own city, Id. (Ed. C. 929.
OS^ yat( ril9 iatvraS [as rutvraSf] 9U y% "^^x)^* ^Vf* Mem. i. 4. 9. Mi^«» rh
mhrng Mu SmS^ Ag« 1397. £7n^ M^ wtmfUtg avrah [s> ^^v ahrZ'9\
f^M^i^in Dem. 9. 13. l^%r\^ C** ^^•^'^f?] ^^^ f^nri^t rinr dfisiCns
Ap, tOi. 4. 1327.

^ tSO 7* 5. Some of the forms of «^ are used with great latitude of
Dumber and gender ; thus, (a) f$if and »/v commonly sing., but also plur.
(flspedaHy v/v) ; as, tit, him, .£soh. Pr. 333, her, Eur. Hec. 515, it, Soph. Tr.
145, Am, masc So(^ (Ed. T. 868, fem. Id. G^d. C. 43, nent. .fisch. Pr


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55 ; fcU, them, Ap. Bh. 2. 8 : (&) rf c properly plor*, but also (egpec^ILy hi
the tragic poeto) sing. ; as, 0*^1, themj masc. A. Ill, fern. Soph. (£d. T. 1 505,
him. Much. Pr. 9, Aer, Eur. Ale 834 : (c) *^f /» rarely smg. ; as, Horn. H. 1 9

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