Alpheus Crosby.

A grammar of the Greek language online

. (page 36 of 53)
Online LibraryAlpheus CrosbyA grammar of the Greek language → online text (page 36 of 53)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


1 9, JEsch. Pers. 759 : (d) t commonly sing. masc. and fern., bat sing. neuU
A. 2:^6, plur. Horn. Yen. 268. (e) So the derived possesnves; as, !«;, their
Hes. Op. 58 ; ^pinfos, his. Id. Sc 90, Find. O. 13. 86, my, Theoc 25. 16S
(§ 506), thy. Id. 22. 67 ; wipmlrt^, his, Ap. Sh. 1. 643.

6. The place of av as a reflexive is commonly supplied in Att. prose by
ImvTdv, and as a simple personal pron., by mvrit. The plund occurs f^
oftener than the singular, Tdiidi, except the Dat., is in Att prose very rare.
The disuse of the Nom. sing, of this proh. (§.143. 4) is explained by its re-
flexive character (cf. § 144).

7. A common reflexive is sometimes used for the reciprocal pronoun ; as, 01
yt, a¥Ti ^fv Tou (Tvn^ytTf lavrtTe rat fv/A^i^afra, l^rti^iaH^ouffif dkXnXoif, ««)
^§cf9U0n imvreiis fit»XX.ev n 'rotg dXXote «ii/fi^u9r«ts Mem. iii. 5. 16. 'Atri i(p9^»t
fiiimtv \atvrks, nhioti iXXnXoLt loi^tut lb. ii. 7. 1 2. 2t/yNyi»if»«rt /kit «XX«XMf •
r*>» ^ ^oXtfMttf ti fl'tfXA.oi ft,h wvvnrrnvTm,i fAti* letvrSit Cyr. vL 3. 14.

B. ATTOS.

§t5©8« The pronoun alxoq marks a return of the mind
to thp same person or thing (§ 149). This return takes place,

I.) In speaking of reflex action or relation. Hence
avioq is used with the personal pronouns in toiming the re*
FLEXivES. See §§ 144, 504.

II.) In designating a person or thing as the same which
has been previously mentioned or observed. When thus em-
ployed, amog (like the corresponding same in English), being
used for distinction^ is preceded by the article (§ 472). Thus,

T^ tX ahriji *>/^i^j ond ujton Me same day, i. 5. 1 2. %U ri mM •';^i^iMi
1. 10. 10. Ourof ii airif, and this same parson, vii. 3. 3. 'GxiTmi vk »»vA
Mem. iv. 4. 6. Tttlrit Utt^x** ^- ^- '^^ (§ 3^)* ^^ § 4^*

^ t)i09» III.) For the sake of emphasis, one of the most
familiar modes of expressing which is repetition. When cRiog
is thus employed in connection with the article, its position con-
forms to § 472. a. Thus,

Avrot Mi»«v iCtuXtrt, Mono himsdf wished it, ii. I. 5. "Ofrts . . «Mf
fMtat hfMjf, »lros ^il^atf ^tius, eturif V^a^arnwus rmiXmit rsitt rr^arv^wf
iii. 2. 4. Kv^fff ^a^tXeivvtf aurat ^Vf Tliy^urt i. 8. 12. Avra rm d^'i
r*>» oiKtSf l^vXet, the very wood from the houses, iL 2. 16. Kai SjoriCitf'rK-
<r»y »v7o IfTi ^ravTotv ^vut at^^viff, ' the very most religious,* PI* Leg. 909 b.
OvTot y ttZ <rf* alrtlv ^etwiX'tvs rtrayfAtfiia-ay, 'before the person of the
king,' i. 7. 1 1. H^cf etlrS^ ry fr^nuiJuiTt^ [by the aanjiy itself] close to the
army, L 8. 14. 'Ttri^ eeirov rav i»urZf vr^otrivfjtarot, ' directiy above,' iii»
4. 41. Ei ethroi oi vr^aTtZrai . . a*;^wvTa, *of their own accord,' vii. 7. 33.
E4 etbralf rait dfl^^t ffv'ipletra icmtri, * with mm|5ly the men,' it 3. 7. *E«»
rts &vtv rav wirov ra a-^a* etvra iff^iifi ' by itstif,' or * alone,' Mem. iii 1 4. 3
Altravs ratff vr^atrnyaus d^a»aXi^»$f having eaUsd the generals apartf viL 3. 35*
8m §§ 418. B., 472. •.



Digitized



by Google



cv. 4. J Avtog. 333

^ St 0» Remarks. 1. Hie emphatic mirof is joined with pronouna
in both tlieir stronger and their weaker formM. Hence it is often used in the
Nominative with a pronoun which is understood (§ 502). Thus, 0/ li vT^otTtS*
rmtf •* Ti avTtu Ixutav »«} •/ &XX«tf * both his own,' i. 3. 7. Avt9v nvrett
Xnx^tf on thii very account^ iv. 1. 22. Avr^ l/no) . . io^u PI. Phsedo, 91 a.
AvTf ft$4 Uiztf lb. 60 c 'flf muTos ^h ifitXoytTg i. 6. 7. *ils t^n ethris lb.
6. Abrit 0v WmtUv0tii (£c. 7. 4. Aurit i^rathiuroi lb. 7. Avrif gifUf
h ^n^f ii* 4. 16. Avtm »mi§u0t%t they themsdoes bum^ iii. 5. .?. ^leUfias «v.
r«# r^ r^Atf/M^ ^nr«, ' that he himself healed,* L 8. 26. Xm^u mhrif, he gom
mlone, iv. 7. 11. Avra) yA^ if/iu, for we are l^ ourselves^ PI. Leg. 836 b.
2TP. Tit r«f «Jr*f Av*-; T^s n^ifAai^a$ «i^f^\ MA0. Avr«f. 2TP. T/f
«vr«f I MAe. ^mM^mmt. < [Himself] The great man. What great man? '
Ar. Nub. 218.

2. In like manner, mvrJf is used without another pronoun expressed, in tha
oblique cases of the third person ; as, AH^m mysvru mlrSf ri mm) rp yinmuif
\ringing presmts both for himself and for his wife, vii. 3. 16. "Etn/t^^^if . •
fTfrnrmrmf sSg Mitivv iT^i, tut) mvrov i. 2. 20. IlekXevt filw rSt «f«'«^«yr«f
diriznivrnv, $1 Ti »m,) mvrSt iritaw i. 10. 3.

Notes. «. From the gradual extension of this use to cases in which there
was no special emphasis, appears to hare arisen the familiar employment of
mirii in the obUque cases^ as the common pronoun of the third person. Sea
§ 502. In this unemphatic use, mvrit must not be^ a clause.

/3. SoraetiiQes (chiefly in the Epic), mMt occurs in the oblique cases, with
the ellipsis of a pron. of the Ist or 2d Pers. ; as, AirSv yk^ mwvXofMfi* «^(««
ViffiP [sc nfcHf] M, 27. Avrnv [sc. ri] Z* ^7*

§ S 1 1 • 3. The emphatic miris often precedes a re/lexioe, agreeing
with the subject, of the latter. Hyperbaton (§ 329. N.) is sometimes employed
to bring the two pronouns into immediate connection. Thus, 'AirsxriTmi Xi*
ytrmi mttrig r^ \mvT»v ;^i/^2 *A^rmyi^0fiv, and he is said [himself} tviA his own
hand to have slain Artagerses, i. 8. *24. 0/ H ^ExXnuf . . mureii If lavrSw
lx^(»»f*t * by themselves,' ii. 4. 10. T« il r^«y uM tuti* mvri MUpra Mem.
iii. 14. 2 (cf. lb. 3, and § 509). * TmV r aMt aurw ^riftM^tv fim^uvtrai Maeik,
Ag. 836. T«%y wakeufrhv rvv 9'a^af»^vdti%Tmt I*' nurif morf Id. Ft. 920.
See §§ 464, 506.

4. The emphasis of alirif sometimes lies in mere contradistinction ; as, *Axx*
mbrk ftyS • . . rd* ^i»r»it % ^rnfAara nutvfmru ' those things I omit ; but
hear,* iEsch. Pr. 442. "Ort »m) W) rk nVia, hp* elirtf ftitm h»u n in^a^m
Ttibt M^iwvt tiyuf, mMi fih sv ivfrnras &yuvj n V lyx^eirtim Mem. iv. 5. 9.
*0f, £ ^-Mi, ri r* 9V» Ixifv mdnretfVt rl r murdf, who involuntarily have slain
icth you^ my son, and you, too, my wife, Soph. Ant. 1340.

5. The use of mvrig with ordinals deserves remark ; thus, Utftukiit . . rr^«-
mytf &* *AJwmit0f yt»mr»f mvrif, Pericles being general of the Athenians [him-
self the tenth] with nine colleagues^ Th. ii. 13 (cf. * A^j^^^r^Jirsv . . (itr «Ex-
X«v Ttna fr^mrnywvrtf Id. i. 57). *E^iirtft'4^eif Au^tzkiu 9'if/t9'r»f mMf
^T^myiv Id. iiL 19. 'IL^iin vr^t^Cturnt h*mr»g mvrit H. Gr. ii. 2. 17.
But, with the omission of mvritt Am^tTt' . . XmC»n mMw [i, e. r^y t^X^*!
tOsMttt * with six confederates,' PI. L^. 695 c

C. Demonstrative*

$ ff 1 9* I. Of thd PBIMIRT DEMONSTRATIYBS, the mOTO



Digitized



by Google



S4 suTTAX or THE FftoicouK. [book hx



^ and f^irfif is imw9( * the nearer and mare famHiaf
m mm; or ^dc ^§ 150). Thas,

"Eo l«i;«««f im^ Ml m^miTmmt mmmm rmmmn, if thom tkomU wish Up
ihy wJ «w> lygg tfcw^ PL rWdr. 231 c *£»f7f«« /u* rsJUif^, ««r«f

Kom. «. TW tw waarht tamUmtd to Mik the comwetMn of the morb
■Bnn with tlH xbab^; m «r the ^oT wUh the pntad, oi a «9n^ with
in JbafiMfiw, of that whkk km iam ■iiitfimrf with that wfaidi a pmea^ be-
fmz n, 4c TfaH» T«fr [ec Stf-n] Um* «v>« UiyM, Atf tv <*at vftusft / 9aidL,
Ar. Ach. 41. T«vr tttM- " K t w f I r BJ jgwt , i^k r* rvyyim lainn^ EoE.
HceSOC T3'l»;W,il0VH*«f/9«k»^ U-llfid. 98. *m* Irr' Ui/y*
r>;^^ i 'If.^YmMfkm Soph. AbL 384.

^ Omr witlein BSifci the i JuMim and Uiw the extraordmary ; to,
*E^«rrff rMrrwc rs tmc vaJLvnXaTf ;^«twmc, A«am^ o« CAe ricA Umics wpkkk
Aof are im Ok kmk ef mmrv^ L 5. 8 (see Cjrr. L 3. 2). rcy«*«ri ^ifw
W i ^ t s^ /uy«JL« «^ i^M*^ Kg>> iirry wt LuJm; , x. «>. X^ ' that wcHiderfal
CaffiatzatuB.* Deat. 301. 17. Tm *A^imi^ iMtI»0w Id. 34. 20.

§ S 1 S. n. The proDouDs ovroc aod odi have in general
the saine force, and the choice between them often depends
upon euphony or rhythm ; as, rovrm %pil(lv x^^^ jtods /^^ nartag
aiSuw Soph. Ant 981. Yet they are not without disdnction.
oirog^ as formed by composition with avro^, is properly a pro-
noun of identificalum or emphatic designation (it may be re-
garded as a weaker form of o auro^, the same^ ^ 502) ; while
odty arising from composition with dt^ is strictly a deicHc pro-
noun {dtixuxog^ from dtUrvut^ to point out)^ pointing to an
object as before us (see § 150). Hence,

1.) If reference is made to that which precedes^ or which
is contained in a subordinate clause^ ovtoc is commonly used ;
but if reference is made to that which follows and is not con-
tained in a subordinate clause, ode. Thus,

Ttitfiv(t0f % r§vT»v xmi v-t^i, and cf this (which has been stated), this (which
follows) i$ alto a proofs L 9. 29. '£fr2 tovvi$ Hif«^» raii sTri, to thU Xtm^
ophon replied as fottown, ii. 5. 41. T«vr«, X rt av ^m^ r«4# StMf, 4r«r;^ii» HL
y. 6. T«vr« y% WUrm^t^ §rt fio^img , . fi^u V. 7. 7. T»ut» ir^ifT§9 n^tfrm^
woTiftf Xiftv f7if iii. 1. 7.

Note. To the retrospective character of 0vrf may be referred, — (a) Iti
use, preceded by »«/, in making an addition to a eentence, the pronomi dther
serving as a repetition of a tubttantive in the sentence, or, in Uie neuter Aee,
or Nam, (commonly plur,\ of the sentence itself (cf. §§ 334, 451). The oon-
Btruction may be explained by elHpsis. Thus, BU§vf w^»mu wu w^XXaW K-
X*^f»h »«2 roirtuf [sc Vix^eieu] /ityetko^^tvrSgj it becomes you to entertam
many guests^ and these magnijicentlg, (Ec. S. .5. lufufJix*'* }tiirir«M, »«} r«^
ran vrXuitti* Mem. iL 6. 27. *F,Can^tirBt9 rp AaMtlalftout nmi reuiru {tC imm*
9'ttv] ttioTUt they assisted Laoedamon, and [they did] that knowing^ Ag. 1. 38.
Mt»w»« ^l Ptm l^ifrf/, Ku) ravrtt wetf 'A^iaitp ^v, but Meno he did not nsk fit^
md that althongh h<e u^u from Arimis, ii. 4. 15. ^tfvXmJ^ ri^ wijutt msi



Digitized



by Google



CH. 4.] DEMONSTRATIVE. 335

rm.»rm Jtrtixi^rtp •Zrm* Ag. 2. 24. — (6) The lue of rwr» and rrnvrm in of-
toU ; as, " ^A^' ti wXtwlost athwart fAaj^wvrat tiUToi Svng 9fXifA§v kiXnreii \ **
" N«) v^M y% [sc Ur^:* \^n, * Certainly it is so/ PI. Rep. 422 b. 11. 0*f.

Pax, 274. BA, *AXX* tlfm/Uf, O. Taurd ftn, i^Wi^ ^miT Id. Yesp. 1008,

^ S 1 4« 2.) "Odt surpasses in demonstrative vivacity ; but
ovTog in emphatic force and in the ex^en^ of its substantive use.
Thus,

01 A. *B. Tofh ^f»Zug I 'AFP. TtST»9, hin( ttrtffs, (Ed. I* this the mm
you speak off Mess. The rsar man, whom pou behold, Soph. (Ed. T. 1120.
0£P. n«r«» &^'i^a »«} Xiyu$% 01 A. T^y^', it irA^iimt lb. 1126. 2^
rcT^^t T»7s 9ra^9U0t fin ii. 8. 1 9. 'EjitraXi^rivru rtft^i o*** «lly}^« • . . Wii »uTog
muT»§ ifMk0yu yi. 6. 26. 'H^f «'«iir}i ketCivrtt, taking u$ who are hert^ Th.
i. 53.

Note. To the dmc^ power of 0^1 (§ 51 3), may be referred the very fre-
quent use of this pronoun by the Epic and Dramatic poets for an adverb of
place (§ 4.57.*^) ; and perhaps, in no small degree, the general fact, that it is
£» more extensively employed in poetry than in prose* '

^ S 1 S* 3.) In the emphatic designation of the firsi and
second persons by a demonstrative^ odt commonly denotes the
* frst person, as the nearer object ; and ovrog^ the second. In
denoting the frst person, the demonstrative may be regarded
as simply deictic {§ 513) ; in denoting the second^ as expres-
sive of impatience^ authority^ contempt^ familiarity ^ &;c. For
the use of ovto; in address^ which is employed both with and
without av, see § 343. 3. Thus,

^ ^^'X ^^ *'''^* kfi^ [=> S/MtQ, •uV lym iTfi rMf, do not you dig for
this man [for me], nor yet I for you, Eur. Ale 690. ^Mvt £f reSt^t rkti^it
[» ItUS] Ifn^fSt Soph. GBd. T. 534 (but, *Afiif ^* [» ri/], m l«i»i», tU
TfiCmf iXf lb. 1 1 60). Ttirii yt T^^rnt irt, at least, while I am yet aUoe, Id.
Tr. .305. T£i% [b iifuTt, § 450] . . wtfra naXurtit, nmi fuXaxtf JEacYu Pers.

1. Our$ffi Afh^ [aa ry] 0y irmv0irai ^vd^Sv- Eiiri fA»t, Z "^x^ttrif, »vm
•Ir^C^if PL Gorg. 489 b. OZrof vv, m irfieCv, [This you, or Ton there,
§ 457.' /3], Ho there I old man, Soph. (Ed. T. 1121. OSret ru, ^Zf hv0
ixfiif X Ho vtUain I how earnest thou hither f lb. 532. Atfru vv, ir$7 vr^i^it %
Ar. Thesm. 610. OZth, ri ri^Mt . . fikiirus i Fellow! why that solemn look?
Eur. Ale 773 (§ 432). See § 348. 3. — This use of 3fJi is very frequont in
the tragedians.

^916* ni. Other compounds of aiiog and ^« (§ 150. a)
are distinguished in like manner with oviog and oSt ' thus,

*0 KS^t k»9vrat Tov TmC^vty rtimurm, r»tdit ir^if nvrit IXf^i Cyr. V.

2. 31 (§ 513. 1). *0 /A\f •Srt0s ifwt* ii. 3. 23. Kxie^x^s fiU tow r«.
wuvra tWf Tt0^m<pi^nf tk Zii itirniAupin ii. 5. 15. OS rat t Irr) ^in»$
XiyAn, Z^Tt n m'ti^mi Ib.« *EyinT» •Zvtt, Zrirt^ fh tkiytg vii. 2. 27.
T«r«vr«» tt^tv, 7r« §h rZv nxZtrm* %1n ii* 1* 9. *H^i7f r»rour»t Strtf,
ZfVf rv ifff lb. 16. *^ft»Tt r«r«i^i Svrtf lin»Zf*t9 rot ^riXi« ii. 4. 4
(§ 514). *0P. "Tirtirrtt •Jrai yiyfZr»u iroXu. FIP. Tosavrm * fttrttrm
ykf kfUtH yvf^, 'Even so,* Eur. El. 644 (§513. b).



Digitized



by Google



336 PEONOUN. -mDIfINIT£. [bOOK UK

D. JWQEFINITE.

§fflT. Of the indefinite pronouns^ the most extenshro
in its use is ti^, which is the simplest expression of indefi-
nileness or general reference. As such, it is not only joined
directly with substantives^ or used by itself substantively or
adverbially, but it is also joined with other pronouns^ with nw-
merals and other adjectives, and with adverbs. It more fre-
quently follows the word with which it is thus joined, and is
never placed at the beginning of a sentence, unless perhaps
when it is emphatic. It is variously translated into English,
and is sometimes best omitted in translation. Thus,

"Ji^i^vrii rif iftirn^h a certain man asM, ii. 4. 1 5* Ila^k Xm^ttvi Ti»<,
with a certain QutrOn, H. Gr. v. 4. 3. T^***^ mi, m 9ome way, il. 2. 17
£? ry v^irj^uri n, if he made any promim to any one, L 9. 7. Aciimry • r
«if tx*** ^ make a mpper of what one has, or each one has, ii. 2. 4. £^ ftb
rtf ii^v ^li^itt, *• each one,* B. 38'2. BLn? rtt l»t7949, there ,are those who
hate him, or many a one hates him, Dem. 42. 1 7. "U T4vm ii ait^Um »T^a, I know
[either some one or none] scarcely an individual, Cyr. vii. 5. 45. *H fi,h yk^
y(»^n M»r »iiT»d Totmit rtt nh f"*^ ^ accusation against him mas som^hing
Hie this, or to this effect, Mem. i. 1 . 1 . *0«r«/«y Tn£f liftiif trvx^** what sort
of persons they found us, v. 5. 1 5. Tlif^n rts tifi x^i"^ ^***^ extennve a conn' •
try it was, ii. 4. 21. Has JJ rtt . .*?» yi ri, tSu ttX^pu, HmfttT; and every
one presented at lea^ some one thing of what he had taken, Cyr. v. 5. 89. Aiyu
nf i7f, CI oertain one speaks. Soph. Ant. 269. *H^i^«f fiU iCh/Awavrm rimf,
some [i. e. about'] seventy days, Th. vii. 87. Tirra^' arrm ftvfMtru PI. Phsdo^
1 12 e. Tnv tXeifef, »»Xfp rt xt^f^"' ^7^* ^* ^* ^* ^^ wXXtjf rivi vwhirrt^sv,
not inferior in any great degree, Th. vi. 1 . Tl»XXwe 2i nvg iXtyftaig mum ntd
nnrtt, * quite a nomber of turnings,* Cyr. i. 3. 4. JAjMif n fii^^s, quite a
small part, Ifo. vi. 14. Mjn^v nvtg H^im, worth but little, Mem.il 1. 19.
*Oxiyi rMs Svrtf, being [some few] but few, iv. 1. 10. *flf iumt rttn kiyug
Ivimfuv r»v ^Xn/Mirts ttvau, ' what a fearful one,* or *how fearful/ Mem. i. S,
12. 'Eyit rvyx»*^ iwtktirf*»f rtg Zv nti^tt9»t PL Prot. 234 c £i/iM r»f
yt>.M§f inr^ii lb. 340 d. "iimXkiv rt tt^tuetmt, will tuffer somewhat more, iv.
8. 26. ^Urrov rt avrUanf ; Did he die at aU the less f v. 8. 11. 2;^i^f «v
irarit d ^r^arta vi. 4. 20. Oti w^vu^rt ftfi/Z" nf(pnXlt Ctvsu ravre vi. 1. 2d«
n^^ n iiruMtvtiv CBc. 9. 1. Ata^t^ivr^s rt Th. i. 138.

§918* Remarks. «. T)s may be regarded as the Greek uui^finUr
artide; but it is not commonly expressed with a substantive, unless somt
prominence is given to the idea of indefiniteness. See iv. 3. 11, and § 469. 2.

^. TU is sometimes emphatic and consequently orthotone (yet editors differ) ;
■8, 2iftvun0ieit ^s Tt Urt, to pride themselves as if they were something, PL
Phsedr. 242 e. £JsA«'if up^ Civnt r\ rilt rtrt)nvrnxo<rt, I am confident that
there is something for the dead, Id. Phsdo, 63 c. "E^t^t r) u^tTv, he seemed to
[say something] have reason or to be in the right. Id. Amat. 133 c

y. An indefinite form of expression is sometimes employed for a definite ',
thus, E/ »vf rtt rturttf v(pi^tt Itcvriv, if therefore^ one gives himself up to these
[s=if I give myself up], Cyr. vii. 5. 44. BavXtut^^t, wHf rtf rwt i^^^ne
Av-iX^, to counsel, how one [«= we] shall drive off the men, iii. 4. 40. Knnes
9»u rtfi [«= rw] At. Ran. 552. E; /liv rtt if fifins awtimt, if ome
'^■^ you permit] us to depart, iii. 3. 3.



Digitized



by Google



CH. 4.] RELATIVE. 3W "

E. Relative.

§ ff 1 0, I. Relatives refer to an antecedent either as <i^
nite or as indefinite ; and are, hence, divided into the definitb
and the indefinite relatives*

Remarks. 1. In the logical order of discourse, the antecedent, according
to its name, prteedet the relative, but this order may be wverted, whenever
the perapicmty, energy^ or beauty of the sentence is promoted by the change.

2. Indefinite BELAnvES are formed, either from the defiaite rdatioet by
adding vU or a particle (commcmly «»), or from the ftmple indefinitee by pre-
fixing h (in the shortened form'«.) ; tiins, tgrtt or U ttv, whoever ^ ««*•?«;, cf
what kind woever, i9rirHt f*ow much §oever, iirort, wheruoever. See §§ 153,
SI 7, 328.

§ S30. II. The definite relative is often used for
t le indefinite^ as a simpler and shorter form ; and the indef^
NiTE sometimes takes the place of the definite^ giving, however,
a somewhat different turn to the expression. Thus,

$aic ufiUing to incur danger ^ these he both made rulers^ i. 9. 1 4. '^x«i«y irMtrm
iffm umv^tfAa Uifttv vi. 3. 19 (cf. R«/iiy S<r»trtt ertjt Urvy^dvonv »m»0t/A(f
lb. 15 ; and, *lSJ»*T»f iratrMt i^-iv^tuf WtxAfA^mn rl xi^etf vi. 5. 5).
.*0(«ri 7li T^t TiT0afifM»us afrt^rimtf •0vtt Xiym . ., and »ee the perJUjf
of Tiuapherne$, [one] a tnan who saying . ., iiL '2. 4. Ov» «<V;^vMr^i tvrt
S-toi/f •St avfif^irufSf •Irtvif ifti^avrtf . . mx»kmXiX9ri U. 5* 39. Td^H
rux'^t >.ii^r«y ^m^ikitttt Irrtf . , /3<«rii/ri/, * one who will live»' £«r.
Ale 239 (see lb. 659). Nm?! IsiTy**, ifrtv* a^r'mt /mXiTv i^iS^tr^A i
Soph. (Ed. T. 1034. X«Xi«'ik ^y tx tra^vrm, Mrt ivi^Ht rr^ar«y«y rM«v-
Tt0w rn^ifAiSm ill. t^. 2 (> 521. ^). See § 525. /S. *

Notes, (a) After the phural ir^lyrf (, off, 3rr<r and 2t &* ai^ used in Hxb
singular^ but Xrt and tirAtf-M in the plural. See above and §§ 497. I, 521.
(6) The use of on indejiniie relative referring to a definite antecedent belongs
particularly to those cases in which the relative danse is added, not to diMtin'
guiihf but to characterize, thus representing the antecedent 9& one of a dose*

§ S31. III. The relative should correspond with its an-
tecedent in specific meanings as well as in grammatical form.
Thus, the definite relative with ovio^ should be og ' with lo*-
ovre^, olo^ ' with joaoviog^ oaog ' &c. The exceptions to this
rule arise mostly from the use of a simpler^ more familiar^
or more emphatic pronoun^ in the place of that which is
strictly appropriate. Some apparent exceptions arise from
ellipsis. Thus,

MnV WiiVfttt* Timomt W^nc iff [=« •7»f] ir»XX6i . . rvyx^**'^**i JkkXk e9§
TfiXixavTHf ri fiiytff ^y [«» ^X/jcnv] ftit$t Mv eh rSf wt |yr«y nr^eme4mi )0-
wfi§tm$ • finV (kyMir^v Xiett vkt vtoiurttt k^ivkt Jy [»■ a7ivy] nei tms fM^ktit
f/tirteTiv, Jixx* Iztifttg St cviiU &v ir«v*)^f »$ivt0vnetit, ' sudi glory as many ob-
. tain, &&,' Isocr. 40m d. ilrnvrttt, Seot [for J, or sc r«r«vr«ry] th KmerttXei
w^e9 A/^«t«»r«i, * of all who muster,* or 'of all, as many as muster,' L 1. »



Digitized



by Google



STHTAX OF THS FBONOUK. [bOOK III.
(dl IIS#»^ tU Myx''^ iC2« L 8. 1). ns>, Um lyJ^ Om^i** tu. 6. S«.

fmtf Srsmf i^ftiinrtu ^tk xmm KMfitmj^an hr. 3. 2.

F*-*»«^ «. *Of 11 abo «Md lor mW widi an dfipos of the antecedent ,
mtt *Emfwt^ iw fih [as r«M9r«f mW] i^ « lomg as yo« art anAa< [as such as*]
fM ore, PL PIuBdr. S43 a. *n* yt Sk t^^ Id. Tliect. 197 m.

$, Tht place </ a nlatiTa praioim ia often aoppfied by a bxlaiiyb advkbb,
chkdj in deaignatkna of jdaet, time, and wmmmgr; aa» E;^ X*»t^i «^" •^•^
rm ^rnXmrrm*, to a plaes [wfaeoce], from wluA Aof would bekoU <*« sea, rr.
7. SO. '£» rf S^ twiturtf U»«m»» It. 8. 25. T* miri rxifui . . ^rfri;
«{ WfSrtfw futx»yi^9H ^99 fu, th€ aame order [aa] ii»A that in wkiek he Jint ad-
waurrd to the Aoltic, L 10. 10. *0/M<k y«^ /m» ^mmSti «>«r;^m, Srwt^ d
rm «r«XX« IWmw ^M'fTt i^^riw-A^ur* Sjmp. iv. 37. Kc} tf-M ^«2 «>«^f, «f
ly^ SiJUi Soph. (Ed. a 1124.

§ S93« IV. The relative pronouns belong to the class
of adjectives (§ 73), and, as such, agree with a substantive
expressed or understood. This substantive, or one correspond-
ing to it, is also the antecedent of the relative. It is commonly
expressed in hut one of the two clauses, more frequently the
former^ but often the latter ; and may be omitted in hoth^ if it
18 a word which will be readily supplied (^ 447). Thus,

her the toldiers, which [aoldien] Memo had, L 2. 20. *A9r§9'ifi^^)mt w^it U»-
Wf [ac ri rr^iCrtir/MK,] 8 tT;^!? rr^«rtv/MK, to $emd bach to Am the farce Mfhieh
he had [what force he had], lb. 1. KS^h % f;^«» •Ss c?^««, and Cyrue hav
img Ae wten whom I haoe memOomed, lb. 5. £<V ^ nv afUtpre msi^ns [ac
m8rn h mv^h] /AtydXm rt iw ir. 4. 2. Kartt0^Mttm?^»9rd rt ^f «^;^m X*^*
L 9. 19. A«i«yTif [ac. r^ravrevt fitSt,"] Ut iir«f ^tif vii. 8. 16. *£rs^
y^ fir«*, 9Ut9 %Sxf*^ ^'^f '^' ^*^ ^^* ^'^'t '7' l^^^^^f* *E^^cMMfv fiwm^
I^Eor. Or. 1184.

TtwafATtyg. 1. Other words, bdonging alike to both danses, are subject to
A similar ellipsis ; thus, Tsrrafiffns lin^u9ti [sc. tx»t*]t ^vt n ttlrit i«-«rUf
^X#i» ix'^i THsMophemee appeoared, haxing bc^ the canalnf tahich he had Ann-
aa^ brought [had come having], ilL 4. 1 .i. OTf v9r»vT»t9 irift rwi^c, h-m*
hfu»f trfixttrtu [sa OTe Wfi»urtu rxi'^tt iri^l rtwirtn, 9t^ Sratt hfuf rxi^tg
w^fUirmi] PL Bq>. 533 e.

2. It win be observed, that when the antecedent is expressed in the samt
danse with the relative, it is commonly pat at the end, as though the rest of
the danse were regarded as modifying it like an adjective. See § 526.

^ o33« 3. The ELUPSis of a demonstrative pronoun beibre the rela-
tive is veiy freqnent ; as, indeed, of the whole antecedent^ when it can be sup-
plied from the relative. When this ellipsis of the antecedent takes place, trr
often unites with the relative to form a spedes of compound pronoun or advert
remaining itself unchanged, whatever may be the appropriate number, tenae^
or mode. Hius, Tl^tfCaXXttrt m-^UCue w^Sr** fth 'Siu^lrt^v, Srt i^X"^
fffir*' trri V el [^ss $g-u9 J* ixtTvu, #7J »«) StvefUfTM, they proposed as oai-
bassadors, first Ourisophus, because he had been chosen commander } and some
also [therA were also those who proposed] Xencpho% vi. 2. 6. Uxk* *Ii^», »«•



Digitized



by Google



CH. 4.] RELATIVE. — ATTRACTION. 389

*Ax«uS9f »•) \frn Jtf Mkkttv livSv Th, iii. 92. K«2 7r<r< fih ttt mItSv xati-
CmX»9 H. Gr. ii. 4. 6. "Errjy eS^rtvets atfi^at^tn riPavfcetxaf Sir} r«^/f i Mem.
i. 4. 2. (Cf. EiVi y avrSf $S$ «v)* ^f m-mvTmv'dfi itetCaiuTt ii. 5. 18 ; *Hr«9
)i «7 MB) wv^ «'f«0-i^f(«f V. 2. 14 ; and, with the nngular for the plural in the
Imperfect also, *Hy m rtVTMt r«» ^^MifiSt eSs wmvu fiMx^aut HXatntv L 5. 7«
See § 364.) 'Hf m2 «vr^ /«ir«^iXm W 3fn, «o <Aa< [there were times
when] mmutimf he even. rtgreUed i^ IL 6. 9. *£rr4 % l»^«, om^ ihere are piaceg
where, or m «om« placet, Cyr, viii. 2. 5. 'E#r<9 ^r^c rif &» vftMf V^A^rttrweu i
/« there any way m toAicA one could deceive you 9 <nr, U it possible that one should
deceive youf v. 7. 6. Ob yk^ U4* Xwu /a iXu$ Soph. (Ed. T. 448.

Notes, (a) FVom a similar union of in [p-» in^rt] with the relative^ have
arisen the compounds f mm, some, and ImWi, «(Miie<»m«. (6) The ellipsis some-
times extends even to the substantive verb itself ; thus, *'Ow^v [for *Erriv
Trttf], M tome p2acei^ Lao. 10. 4.

§ ff34. V. The intimate relation of clauses connected
by a relative pronoun^ or a kindred particle^ often produces
an ATTRACTION, sometimes simply affecting the position or
form of particular words^ and sometimes even uniting the
two clauses in one. Not unfrequently a combination results,
which may be regarded as a species of compound or complea
pronoun. Thus,



Online LibraryAlpheus CrosbyA grammar of the Greek language → online text (page 36 of 53)