Alpheus Crosby.

A grammar of the Greek language online

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PRESENT TIME, which applies specifically only to the passing moment, extends
in its generic application to any period including this moment ; and we speak
of the present months the present century ^ &c. In its widest extent, therefore,
it includes aU time. Hence general truths, existing states and habits, and oft-
recurring factSy belong appropriately to the present time.

§ t5C7. III. The relations of time have nothing sensible
to fix the conceptions of the mind. It ranges therefore with
freedom through all time, the past, the present, and the future ;
and, without difficulty, conceives of the past or future as
present, and even of the present or future as already past.
That the Greek language should have a peculiar freedom in
the interchange of tenses, is but the natural consequence of
the wonderful vivacity of the Greek mind. See §§ 330. 3,
576, 584, 585.

Rebcab's. «. The Pres. tense, when employed by the figure of owMm, in
speaking of past events, is termed the historic pbesemt. See § 576.

fi. Common facts, imagined scenes, and general assertions, not being oon-
fined to any particular time, may often be expressed in the present, past, or
ftiture, according to the view which the speaker chooses to take. £. g. we
may say, " The wisest often err," or " The wisest have often erred," or " The
wisest will oftm err." Thus, *H m^» ^«^ ivra^m viiZ*'* ^mu *i ^ itral^ia
iraXX«w ^ iiwXttXtxi9t for good order seems to preserve^ but disorder
has already destroyed many, iii. 1. 38. Oviiw irn xt^iecXttiTt^tv rau m«^» •
i ykf m^mrSv dfm wtivTM rw/n^^cmxt Cyr. iv. 2. 26. *H ^ '^vx^', • •
ii^aXXmrrsfiivfi t$v rttfutrtt, th$vt hmirtpva'fiTai **i a^iXttXt* PL Phsedo,
80 C K^«ri7 ^ /Mf;^fliv«7f JtyfciuXau dtf^tf; i^tffrtQAret, XA0'/«v;^iy« S-' ?«**-«»
v«'«^ir«i Soph. Ant. 348. "Air«^«; i«^ suih f^;^ir«i ri ftiXX^v * "Ajiat fii-
f«» ^tu^9 »vm Wti^trat lb. 360. *Ev waXXtiif ftlv, i Af}^«vr«i, ^oXu ^iffTdi^
r«f %ufn09fA%t Tstf r% tZv r^raviaiatp yvtifiect xcti rkt rSif ^xvXstv itavaiat * traXh
^l fAiyUrn* hti^sfmf tiXn^Affn U valg ir^U itXXfiXtvt 9^vvfihicu(. Oi fiU ya^
fiXsvt irdc^«vr«ef fiifov rt/Uig-iv, «/ Si »«} fitax^mv airifTxs aymirZvt * xai rets f*9
tSv ^mvXatf 0vmi*mt Ixiyt Xi^^^ ^uXuvi^ rets il rm riraoieiiatv (PsXixf s»i'
it i itat «Mvy lZmXi'i'4'M9 Isocr. 2 a'. See §§ 575-578.

Note. The use of the Aor. by Homer in comparisons is particularly fre*
qnent ; as, 'H^i^ri V, is •» rt$ l(vt ^^iv'tv 11. 482, cf. F. 33, &c. See alsft
§ 575. 2.

y. A past tense may be used, in speaking of that whu h is present, with ref^
srenee to some past opinion, feding, remark, action, or obligation ; thus, Kvtr^tt
six M{ fw Si0f , Venus was not then merely a goddess (as we supposed her to
be), Eur. Hipp. 359. ^A^* su rSit j(» r« SiyS(«», l^' strtf $ytt hpMs \ t*l. Phsedr.
230 m. AiM^t($ZfU9 ixttvs xm* XmCn^ifM^x, i r^ /mIv hx»tf fiiXflav iyiyurt,
Cf Kk iHix^ k^tixXursy we shnU corrupt and injurs that, which (as we said) "ts

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S60 gniTAJU — USE OF TCNSE8. [bOOK Ul

'm^proimibf JusHoe, and nAied by injudiee, PI. Crito, 47 d. Ifvw r' UUwit
«; rr^nf^«} rt^M Ar. Ach. 1073. 'nfcAi /mI» Kv^'^ Ipp, [Cyras oo^t to
be living] Would that (^ru» were hvmg I iL 1.4. Ov» ix^h ^Utm r»M^» »
JSu/ ought you not to be congktermg t ApoL 3. Cf., in English, the familiw
use of oughtt the Imp£ of owe^ as a Pres.

§ «5C8. IV. The tense may vary according as an action
IS viewed in its relation to the present time^ or to the time of
another action^ either past or Juture, The tense of an Inf.
or Part, is commonly determined by its connection with anoth-
er verb, without regard to the present time. In the Jnd., the
tense is properly determined by the relation of the action to
the present time ; but in Greek, if the Ind. is dependent upon
another verb, its tense is often determined by the time of that
verb, particularly in indirect quotation. In the Sabj. and Opt,
modes, from their very nature, there is commonly a union of
the two considerations. Thus,

*Tfri#;^ir« itvi^t i»d^r^ ^ivri/v, he promued to give each mum (the giving
future at the time of the promise ^ i. 4. 13. 'Extf* U'Xirmf »tiCn r^m**.
0-itvs, he went up, having (at the time of his going up) three hundred ht^ptiteM,
1. 1.2. 'AyiVracvr* . . X(|«yrif & iyiyvtu^Kot, they rose to say (future at the
time of the rising) what they thougfit (past at t&e time of the narration), L 3.
13. Jli^TtvfiU »Xfih»^»i9t A IXiyif, Wn^Ki vii. 7. 25. ETfri . ., rr^ttrnyvt
uu \>.iff6au &kk9Vt is r«;^/rr«, fj fth ^ovXtrnt KXfa^;^0s iv^iyuv • . . ny*f»s$u
«/ti7v KtJ^tfy, avTtt . • a^K^tiy recommended^ that they should immediately choose
other genercUsy if Qearchus [is] was unwilling to lead them ; thai they ^umld
ash G/rus for a guide, who [will umuld conduct them bach, i. 3. 14. Tmc ft
vV0ypiei ftU h, on ayu ir^oi ^KfftXiat, and they htid indeed a nurpctON, that he
was leacUng them against tlte hing, i. 3. 21. '£^«tf^ae«-f, rif ^-a^myyiXku i. 8.
16. 'EvtfuktTro, S r$ irot^g-u ^ufftXivt lb. 21.

RxMARK. An iNFiinnvE, denoting an action which must be future, from
the very nature of the governing word, often employs the FuL, but far more
frequently the appropriate dchronic tense ; thus, Ivfi^^ciliin innrx^iTr* • Uf7r«
ft rat KtafAat fih mtiiu* vii. 7. 19. 'T«'ir;^v«i*T«M v^»ivfAirt^»f ttitTotf rvfr^m
Ttviffim lb. 31. "M-tftynrfat vtnffx^**^^* ^^^' 6* ^^' 'Tfri#;^sr« fut ^ovktu
9urim4^ i^Ufeu tt fti i/fnis UiXivrtv ii. 3. 20. See § 583.

A. Definite and Indefinite.

^ «S69. The indefinite and the definite tenses are
thus distinguished. The former represent an action simply as
performed ; the latter represent it definitely as performing.
The former merely express that an action has been, is, or will
oe performed ; the latter present a picture of the action in the
course of its performance. The former take a single glance
at it, as one complete act conceived of as momentary ; the
latter observe its progress, as begun and going forward by con-
tinued or repeated effort, but not yet complete.

If action is conceived of as motion in a ttrdight lin&, the definite tensee vij



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CB. 5.] DEFINITE AND INDEFINITE. 361

be said to present a tide view of this line, so that it if seen m it§ fiiU lengthi
but the indefinite tenses to present onlj an eiui view of it, so that it appears la
a Mere pomt. Thns,

Definite Yiew. Indefinite View.

( ) ( • )

^ S70* Hence an action is represented,

a.) By the definite tenses, as continued or y olonged; but
by the Aor., as momentary or transient. Thus,

iTr** #/ am'^jrmj lr^mwnT4m Km) «/ ^iv wiXTa^rm) tvPvt tlvtvro htixavrtt. The
barbariame then received the targeteert (momentaiy) and fought with them (con-
tinned) ; but when now ffte hopHtee were near, they turned to flight (momentary).
And the targeteert immediately followed pursmng them (continued), v. 4. 24.
"Urn 4 - • hfux'tt* tx^t «l • • ^^vX««r«f X»i^^ Dem. 45. 2. AtMkiytv, *ai
fidit w^Sim Tint i/r/t, coMveree with them, and learn first who they are, iv.
8. 5. ''Enniikf JtwMVTM kntve^uTt, K^l^an, ttmi fih w^irt^ov ir(«X«^C«vin
Dem. 44. 2. Agiiitmi «i Tttvrtts rkt iriXuf /(e«XX«*« H Tirra^i^vuv &^x*** *^'
rm i. I. 8. A«CMi, AooM^ toAen (momenta^). ''£;^i»», Aawt^ (continued),
L I. 2.

Notes. I. Any dwelling c^ the mind upon the agent, mode, or ctrcMin-
tUmces of an action, and any attempt at graf)liic description, commonly lead to
the use of the definite tentes; thus, *A«'ix(/vavT« ( KXia^;^*^ }* iktyt*), they an'
$wered{and Qearchue waa the tpeaher), ii. 3. 21 (cf. ii. 5. 39 ; iii. 3. 3). "Exi^i
Stf*^, fi(f*fif*»* Ii TifAn^iiut y. 4. 4. See § 576.

2. In the Imperattvk, the momentery character of the Aon. is peculiarly
favorable to vivacity, energy, and eamettnete of expression ; tlius, 2h avv wfis
^Sv rv^C«^Xfi/r«v nftXv u. 1. 17. *A«0i;r«ri tut fMV w^if B-tHf V. 7. 5
"Bki'^Ptv,** i<pny "^^is TM S^n, ««) 7)i «; HCmrn wi^rm, Uri" iv. 1. 20.

§ tS7 1 • b.) By the definite tenses, as a habit or continued
coturse of conduct ; but by the Aor., as a single act. Thus,

*E«^} Xi i7)«v nbriv, §Sirt( 9'(ir0tf w^o^ixvfout, »m) rirt w^»^*»tnnem.f, cm/
when those saw him who were bejbre in the habit of prostrating themselves before
him, they prostrated themselves even then, i. 6. 10. Atitp^uftf yxf ^^ivtifrtt
Tthf ^T^arutratt, nml tva yt Xa^^yif %ii<piu^af iii. 3. 5. ^'Orrif V m<pt»ftTT»
. . 9'(»s aturif, vdvmt aSrv ^taniuf ivtviftVtTs i. 1.5. TloXX£»t( UfTif iv)
rkf B^vfat it^tfirav*, 'O % \>.vtittt >.*yttt ^tnyt i. 2. 11. '^r^auin ^\ avhtis
lx«Civ • M %\ im^xfTU tSv Iwriatv ra^v in'avatra i. 5. 3, — Hence the great
use of the definite tenses in the description of character. See Auab. i. ch. 9 ;
iL ch. 6.

§ S79. c.) By the definite tenses, as doing at the time
q/*, or until anotlier action ; but by the Aor., simply as done in
its own time. Thus,

T«VT^ rf Tfiir^ l«'0(i^f»r«v ^ratifUut rirrat^at. 'Hf/ita Tlk raw vifiwra*
Wa^vatra, iHav fiet^iktiat r$. In this way, they made four day* s-mareltes. And
mkUe thq^ were making the fifth, they saw a palace, %. 4. 23. 'A^'Urum* rv-



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S0i SniTAX. — T78B OF TBUVES. [bOOjC HI.

^<ibiy low, ▼. 4. 16. T^mt iiviXtMt liJt^»Xi|fci «j^ vt^t rt tvmbmm
jMti T^v ^Kn^w Cyr. v. I. 2. TA^rnv «^v SxiXii/nv • K£i^ di«^#X«<'«'«i»
r«> 'A^Mr**!!!, ^A^f iSy murit XiCCii lb. 3.

§ S73« d*) ^y ^^^ definite tenses, as ^^rK'^ aUempted^ or
designed (doing, not done) ; but by the Aor., as accomplished
(done). Thus,

virrirai fittirm^iat. Clearchus attempted to force kU aoUiers to proceed; bmt thetf
began to atone him. He then narrowfy mcaped behg atoned to death (the com-
pletion of the act of tftonuig) ; and a/terwardM, when he became com^need thai
he ehduld not be able to prevail bgf force (to aooomplish his attempt), i. 3. I.
"Oirm 9f9 iyinf* vtit •vrtrl, . . wt^s rtSni/uurt ^ 'vrctVfv \>.§t%$^»vfA*im. *H
/tiX* yk^ 19'9'tf ^^•0triiu ir^Af rMf9»f*m, . . iyv ^ rtv wtivartv 'TsHfiun €>«•-
}«y/^itv. . . Tf x^itif MMffi IwiCfi/uvj »«/i^i/a ^ii^iw'iri^if v. Wlkemthu
mm wa$ bom to uSj thereupon we began io quarrel about the name, F&r jAc
i mmtted on tacking Wwh to hie name, and I wa$ for gimng him hie grand*
fath»^$ name, Phidonidee, At last we made a compromiae, emd named A«m Phi*
d^ppidea, Ar. Nub. 60. "Or S(^C«XX«v rtlt ^uut, wheni waafar axpeUang the
goda, lb. 1477. *£»«/v«^ii» |/^m • «xx' t^Uxt-^tf . . " A^rt fut Eur. Iph. T.-86.
*VLn»f*i9Mri tittM ^ttrim^ Hdt. i. 69.



NoTBS. «. Hence the definite toises wtt often naed with a Degativv 1
the attempt as well as the aecompUthment of an aetioB ; thus, 1SJXim^j0af aim
. ^nCX»Zt9 In'i rif Xi^tf, Clearchus did mot wukrtahe to march Mpon Ike MB, t.
10. 14. Ht9»^Sf rti/s fth wtXraa'Tat «i» Sy tf m, 4. 39. 'E«^ 2t tti^h am
rtXiyfv, iTriv iii. 2. 38. 'E**!} TH tuSit «^iXi/Mv fXiytt, ifStrat rtS iTa^n mm*
vtr^ayn, *0 Hi Xatwit fXi|i». And whan he would sag nothing uaefui^ he mua
put to deaA in the eight of the o&ur. But the second aaid, hr. 1. 23.

fi. A person is often spoken of as having done what he haa attempted to do;
thuS) MEN. Aa(«i« ykf vavi* turv^Uf »Ttifatru fu i TETK. K«'i/v«vrai
Ai<f«y y tJm'atf u nm) ^^f ^awf, MEN. 0««f yk^ ix«w^M /a, ^y^ ^' alf^fam.
Men. For ia it right that he should p-osper, having slain mef Tenc Having
Jain you 9 You tell a wonder, indeed, if, being dead, you are yet aiioe. Men.
For kedoen preaervea me, but, ao far aa lay in him, I am no more. Soph. AJ.
1126 (§ 410). 2i^y •<^tf;^«v nm'iCaXw, rinam- Urnni a ixaavm Eur. loB,
1498.

§S74. e.) By the definite tenses, as introductory; but
by the Aor., as conclusive. Thus,



01 Hftirmt K«lf «y • . . i 2* A^ixfimre, who naked Cyrus ; and he i
L 3. 20 (cL *A^»u9 ' . . m9ayyt7)iMi lb. 19}. 'Antvanvrts ravrn \wtii§9T§ naJl
XiCffr«» L 4. 1 6. 0/ "ExXifvi; \UvXiv»9V • m) k*$n^im»Ts IL 3. 21.

Note. Verbs of asking, inquiring, commantRngf forbidding, ddSberaiimg^ «*-
tamptingy endeavouring, besieging, wounding, and some others, are introdnctoiy
hi their very nature, aad hence incline to the use of the definite tenses ; tho^
Ti JiT Murit alnTv, na) »u XmCuf ix^ivrm i Why muat he ask for them (whioh
of itself accomplishes nothing), and not come and take thorn (which ia tnal} t
ii. 1. 10. 2oXXil»f ar^dlhvfiui, U^Xti^Mi M/Ahtm »«) nmri yn» mvi ms^



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tm. 5. j 4»FIMTB AHi) INDBFINME^ 4983

«cT«WT^r»«y, 4MU iK^r«ra|« r*rf *£XAiiiiMr UL 4. 26.

§ S7S« Remabks. I. As the Aor. is aa achronic tense, except in
the Ind. (§ 565), it is in this mode only that the Pres. indefinite is wanting
(§ 168. «). It is oommooly soppUed by the Pre$, definite^ bat sometimes by
the Aor. or Paf. See Rebi. 2, and §§ 233, 577, 578.

2. The AoB. in the Ind, is properly a pcmt tense ; bat, fh)m the want of the
Pret. indefinite^ it often sappUes the place of this t^ise, or is used achronically.
In these uses, it differs from the Pres. definite, in representhig the action either
more timpfy or «tn^y, or with a certain expression of nutantaneousnees, energy,
deeinoenus, or cmnfUeteness. *Atr^^ V Srmp r»tt l»)«v «E;^^nr«i |(/Mk>*, l^« fA»\mf
tirmve't nm^ymv io-tUj and when a num becomes weary of the society of those at home,
going cAroad he relieves his heart at once of its disgust, Ear. Med. 244. K«}
veivs y«f itrm^iltrm w^h fiiav waVi iCa^^iw, tvrn V auPtSt n» X"'^^ w»ha, Id. Or,
706. *0«wv y In wXttfi^utf ntti *6tti^i»t rsff Sv^t^ oSros, Itry^v^t n 9^mrn
w^^Mftt »mi fUMfiv ^reit^/ui i^nvrn «N;^aiVirt nn) )if JL0riv, ' instantly toSSes
off and dissipates,* Dera. 20. 25. T«;^tf Jiriv PL Bep. 406 d. 'Etritvir t^n,
I fulhf approve the act. Soph. Aj. 536. 2m raurm . . irm^jft^a Id. Phil. 1433
"Si . . iT<r«v rMt ynt tit •'i^fv, ' I bid yoa peremptorily,' Eur. Med. 271.
*CUf»^fyk %* «r«» l(7«* t^*^ \fyaffti$9 lb. 791. 'A«'i«'rtf0'« tmav^c ffoyyUtmf
kXXiXtn win^t Id. Ipfa. A. 509. *H#Arv ikWuXtut, lyiXx^a ^tXtnoiAwicnu
kwtwvin^trm, ftiimni^ wtfstninnvruy I enjoy your threats, I laugh at your boasts
ings of smoke, &C., Ar. Eq. 696. *E2t$«^Birv ri fn^if, I wdcome the omen, &ojgh»
EL 668.

§ tS 7 O* 3. The Greek has the pewer of giving to narration a wonder*
lul variety, liib, and eneiigy, from iha freedom with which it can employ and
Intavdiange the Aor., Impf., and Histerioal Pres. Withooi drcumlocation, it
€an represent an action as oontinaed or momentary ; as attempted or accom-
plished ; as introductory or conclusive. It can at pleasure retard or quicken
the progress of the narrative, k can give to it -dramatic life and reality by
exhibiting an action as doing, or epic vivacity and eueigy by dismissing it aa
done. It can bring a scene ibrward into the strong light of the present, and
instantly send it back again into the ahade of the past. The variety, vivaci-
ty, and dramatic life of Greek narrative can be preserved but very imperfediy
in translation, from the fiict that the English has no definite tenses, except by
cjroomlecutwii, and has far len frteedom than the Greek in oniting.the past
and present tenses. Thus, *£«^ K nai ivmu^* \x»^»fn tl^^xxiint, Xiiw»¥9t
^ x«) rn Xi^§9 ti twirug • sv fa^9 in iti^ioi, ^XX* iXXt &XX»itt • l^piXwr* V
i Xi^s rSf lirwui9 • riXt ^ ms) ^nvrit i^i;^«^ffr«v. *0 aZf KXut^x*^ ^^
JinCXmi»9 Iff) r49 Xifev, «XX* v«r« ahriv 0rnr»t rl ev^artv/*a, w'tfAWU AvM*e9
riv 2vfMxotrut umi iXXcv M rif Xi^tf, »m} niXttnt, nmriiwrns rk 0«ri^ r»v Xi-
f0v, ri l#ri», k^nyytTXm, Km) i Avxm« ^Xjtrc ri, xai liin n^nyyiXXu, Irt
^luytvrif Jttk n^krtf. 2;^f^ V in ravra ^v, »n) liXttf i^utra* *Eyr«v^ V
t^Tn^up •* ^XXnnt, nni §i/*t9ei Ttk SwXa ku^avavr* • ntii tifMi ftiv UmufAnl^af,
%rt tii^MfUS KjS(0( fnitatrt, 0vV &XX»t k^ mvrtv tvitif va^dn i. 10. 13— 16«
See iiL 4. 25 -27, 38, 39; L8.23-27; iv. 7.10-14; v. 4. 16,17; vi. !•
i-13.

4. Therelsno precise Hne of division between tiie offices of the defieite and
Indeffnlte tmsat. In somecaees it seems to be indiffiftrent which are empk^yed.
And the defaite tenses, as the generie ^fin-ms (§ 666. «), often occur, where the
i i i d ol l Hi l e wottW seem to be more strictly appropriate. The nse of the ImpC
Ibr the Aor. ooews especially in Hom. and Hdt.



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864 SYNTAX. — USE OF TENSES. [bOOK m

5. In verbs in which the Aor. was not fbrmed, or was formed with a differ
ent signification, the Impf. remained as both the definite and indefinite past
tense ; as iTv and i^n* (^^ 53, 55, § 301. 7), wliich are more frequently used
as. Aor.

B. Indefinite and Complete.

§S77« I. The indefinite and the complete tenses are
thus distinguished. The former represent an action as per
formed in the time contemplated ; the latter represent it as, m
the time contemplated^ having already been performed. In the
former, the view is directed to the action simply ; in the latter,
it is specially directed to the completion of the action, and to
tlie state consequent upon its performance. Hence arise two
special uses of the complete tenses ; the one to mark emphat-
ically the entire completion or the termination of an action;
and the other, to express the continuance of the effects of ao
action. Thus,

Tiatvrat ^|y «'i«'«i«i«i. Much titmgi hat he done (and is now upon trial for),
I. 6. 9. '^friir atayxti^ti wmXtv l^i^iTv £tt xv »t»X»<ptfi ftttv, * whatever
they may have stolen from me (and may have in their possession)/ Ar. Eq«
1147. ^X^0v •/ 'Iv^M i» r«v wtXtfiit^v, tSg iwtcrift^u Kv(§g itri ma^m^**^^
■»mi IXiytfv, ATI K^«rr«f ftlv nytfulnt . . ^^tifitivas i<n TaJ* .ir^Xtftif* • ^f )«7/»s»«v
y t7ti itSivi rt7( ^vfAfjMX*** • • ^et^Matt • • . irctrtf/u^ivAi T% K^«r<rv* «c) tU A»
»iieiifAaf» wtf) l^vfifAec^saf Cyr. vi. 2. 9. Tltfi ftlv «vv rSf thtatf vttvrm fct v^-
%t^vfit • «'i^) %\ TU¥ MMvUf . . , Met these things have been premised/ Isocr.
43 d. 'Cl^i^ia^ vfjuiv n fi^aivrnt • vifv ^ . . jStu/ifrari, let your thiggitknesM ham
reached itsfuU limits ; and do you now aseistf Th. i. 71. Tavra ^i» «?», Z E»-
iuinfAt ri tteii Asavoaraifft, w%9rati«^4t* t% VftTp, »eu Iwf ixavSg tx** * r« )) ^ /u-
rit ravTo, l«'/^i/|«r«i« PI. Euthyd. 278 d. Awu^yiffiea %n nfuv »m,) mum . . n
wXtrilm, Id. Rep. 552 e. litvu^^iat^ pet it have been tried] let a trial be
made^ Ar. Yesp. 1 1 29. 'E^^^vrif oi %Wm TWf ^v^»f xixXi rr^«M, emd going oarf
they commanded the door [to be closed and to remain so] to 6e k^ daeedf H.
Gr. v. 4. 7.

^ O # 8« Remabks. «. The consequences of an action are nsnaSy
more obvious and niore permanent in that which is acted upon, than in that
which acts. The receiver feels the blow more deeply and longer than the giv-
er. We find here a reason why the complete tenses are used so much more in
the passive than in the active, and why, in the active, so many verba waot
them altogether (§§ 256, 580).

fi. As the object of the complete tenses is to ascribe the consequences of an
action, rather than to narrate the action, they naturally occur more fineqnenUy
in the Part, than in the other modes. Some modem languages, aa the £n^
lish, the French, the German, have no pass, form by inflection, except tha
Perf. Part

y. For the same reason, the transition in § 233 is natural and easy. Wa
iubjoin an example, which marks strikingly the distinction between the Pert
nsed as a Pres. and the Aor. ; Ti^tanp ai ^aififnt, those who ham died (leftr*
, ring to the past event) are dead (referring to the present state oonseqiMi
the event), Eur. Ale 541 (but. 0»v^»«. / am dying, lb. 284).

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on. 5.] INDEFINITE AND [COMPLETE. — FimTRB. 365

}. In the Epic, the use of the Flap, as Impf. or Aor. is more extended than
in the Attic, and has perhaps some connection with the usage in § 194. 3«
Thus, BiCifxM, went, A. 221. BiCXi{«fi £. 66.

^ S T 9* I. The Perf. is sometimes called a past, and sometimes a
present tense ; and neither without reason, since it marks the relation of a past
action to the present time. The action which it denotes is past ; bat the state
consequent^ to wliich it also refers, is present. The tense is therefore in its
time, as in many languages in its form, compound, having both a past and a
present element. The comparative prominence of these elements varies in dif-
ferent languages, in different words in the same language, and in different uses
of the same word. We remark, in general, that the present eiement has a far
greater prominence in the Greek tlian in the English Perf.

Z. An action is sometimes so regarded as continued in its effect, that the
Free, supplies the place of the Perf. This is the common use of the Pres. in
Hicv, to come, and »7x»fimt, to go (cf., in Eng., / am come, and / am gone) ; and
is not unfrequent in «»«i/« and »Xva0, to hear, ftttfiatt, to learn, nnmat, to con^
quer, and some other verbs. In these verbs, the Imp/, may supply the place
of the Fltq>. Thus, Eit »«X«v i|f««ri, you [come] have come opportunely, iv. 7.
8. K^Mf ^ »5*t iTjttv, and Cyrus had not yet come, i. 5. 12. OSrt kv»i%i^ti»
M&^tf, atim yk^ Z^n »7;^$frMt, * whither they have gone,* i. 4. 8. *SU n/*t7s
A»«v«yi*iv, as we [hearj have heard, v. 5. 8. "A^n /laf^dft Eur. Bac 1297*
Nix^^iv n fimwtXim ii. 1. 4.

^tS80« II. Unless the attention is specially directed to
the effect of an action, the generic Aor. more frequently sup-
plies the place of the specific Perf. and Plup. (§ 566. a), as a
more familiar, giore vivacious, and often a shorter or more
euphonic form. This use prevails especially in the active
voice (§ 578. a). The Aor. of)en occurs in immediate con*
nection with the Perf. or Plup. Thus,

*E^* f [»^vi|l Xiytvtu Mliag rif Isirv^ts Strfivr«4, sfvf ntfd^Mf mM», at
whidi [fountain] Midas is said to hone caught the Satyr, having mixed it with
wine i. 2. 13. Tavthv rn» iriXtv iJ^iXtrn'tv §1 l»M»«»vrif, this city its inhabitants
had left, lb. 24. Kanr} ^ QtrruXtis . . t/SMf^nri , and now it has aided the Thes-
9atiams, Dem. 22. 7. Ttmvra wtttin nui ^t^x"^* Aovtnj^ suffered and suffering
mtch things. Id. 576. 18. 'Am'M^mnirts vatri^mt nmi finri^mf, •! h net} rixfm
umreiXt^ifTU vi. 4. 8. Titneri^tvf Wt^ainnt, »ai wXXavt nttiutavf vv'tfitivuf
Mynm^i, xttl 9'fH rtvt "ExXnvttt h»€iCXn»s Isocr. 1 63 a. Ovx i is'ntfA/nift
siV i fAi^iftnirms rk ^tntiim Xiytsf Dem. 576. 22. 2TP. "hu /At hluliyi, Ztir%^
etnn' iXnXuim. 20. VOjJsf ^ nark ri i Ar. Nub. 238.

KoTB. Hie use of the Aor. for the Pert b especially common in the ParU

C FuTimE.

§ ff 8 1 • . I. The dim, shadowy future has little occasion
for precise forms to mark the state of the action. It is com-
monly enough to mark the action simply as future. Hence
the inflection of most verbs has but a single Put., the indefi*
mile ; leaving the definite and complete Futures^ if they require
81» r- T

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366 tnf TAX. — usK op tenses. [boos m

to be distinguished fipom this, to be expressed by a ParticipL
and substantive verb ; as,

S»i7^ar i\u,^»»vvm f^t lrr«i rl X«<«'i», Scyroi thall hereafUr content me (ooiitin»
ned. § 570) Soph. Ph 459 T»;,r Urm f^ixn Id. (Ed. C. 653. 'A^^ mm
rmuKvifrtf frtWs, yoM wiU have uatH «* Man, viL 6. 36. Tk Imftc WifuSm
ly9§t»i<nsj MM XJyttp ffrmutv tUrnXXmyfAiut Dem. 54. 22.

^S89« II. The Future Perfect expresses the sense of
the Perf. with a change of the time ; that is, it repreeents the
state consequent upon the completion of an action as fiituro
As it carries the mind at once over the act itself to its com-
pletion €md results, it is sometimes used to express a future
action as immediate^ rapid^ or decisive^ and hence received its
old name of paulo-post-Juiure (pauk) post futurus, abotU to be
a little after). In verbs in which the Perf. becomes a new
Pres., the Fut Perf. becomes a new Fut. (§^233,239).
Thus,



*Hii li fiii yivtirtUf fUtrnt 1^ »t»XMvrtTMtf but if there thould not be^ 1 1
hiwe wept m vaan, Ar. Nub. 1435 (4 564. 3). OMs • • f^tvtyy^m^nnrmi^
«XX*, Jr«'i( h ri 9r(£r»9y lyyty^dyptTms^ no one shall be enrolled (the siraple
act) dsewhere, but ehall remain enrolled (the state consequent upon the act of
enrohnent) at he was at firtt. Id. Eq. 1370. ^(«^i nai «'i«'(«S«t«w, tptak
and it [shall be done at once] i$ done. Id. Plut. 1027. *Orav ^ ^ ##fMw.
wiwmwafMUy * I shall desist at once,' Soph. Ant. 91. '^•fitt^trt U «^ ^



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