Alpheus Crosby.

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iif^*(f Ifiti Tt n»Ta»%»i'^%0fiau, »mi vfjutt au wtxit IfntH Srn^M^ * shall be imme-
diately cut doWB,' L 5. 16. 'E«v yk^ &^m IfUi h'l^ Tttk • . ttvriMm, ^UXm
}mV r$ip»9U4, ri^Mf|u tSrttt * he shall be dead,' i. e. * he shall die instant^,
PL Gorg. 469 d (cf. Kmndyift tvratf Aii«-;^i^/»iv«y Irwu lb.). J/L»fttni0ifU/$m^
we $hall remember, Cyr, iii. 1. 27 ({ 233). Ev^hg 'A^tma »firrii^ • 4?m
ftXtf hf*4f «v)t}f XiXi/^/'f r«i, Ariaus will immediatdy withdraw; to tikat mt
friend will renuan to «•, iL 4. 5.

§ S 8 3* IIL A ftitore action may be represented more expressly it
on the point cf acoompUthment, or as connected with dettinpy iwcesnfy, wiU, pur-
pote, &C., by the verlM fiiXXn, i/iA^ or S-cX^v, /3«vX«^mu, ^ x€^ ^^ ^^ *^
Inf. This Inf. may be Pre*,, Amt^ or Fut^ aooording to the view taken of
the action in respect to definiteness and nearness (<j 568. R.). Thos, 'Dw*
^mthet . . fUxkofTo. it^tiv^g^uvy teeing a boy about to die, xn, 4. 7. *0 ^rmtfut
ttia. tfinXXt nuTaXuM i. 8. I. MiXAif r«vr« rt wnhlf Cyr. vi. 1. 40. £1 ^t
wXma Jfrir^M fAiXXu \um9»iy if there are to bt vett^ enough^ v. 6* 12. Om
UiXtt iXittfj lam not willing to go, or I wUl not go, i. 3. 10. 'Eyit iHXmt ^
&v2(Ui ^taCtCm8-»t vfiZg m. 5. 8. BcvXtvt«r0tu, 7 rt Xi^ ^ittv i. 3. 11.

Remarks, (a) The ideas of destiny, purpote, &a, are often expressed \j
the simple Fut. Especially is the Fut, Part, both with and without mg,
used oontianally to express purpose (§ 635). Thus, Oi $U rn* tUttXtmh
Ttx^i* ^uthvifAtUi . . rt ha^i^avn rmt l^ itviyunt JuuiavttiU^rtt, i7 y% mt-
jn^eufft mm) hyj/nfovft »ai ^yat^twi xu) ay0VW99ifoVfi, ' if they muSt hungST
and tWrst,' Mem. ii. I. 17. T«» i^iSf fimy^ftiv^^, he that would Hoe weO, PI.
Gorg. 491 e. "SvXXa/itCdvu Kv^tv m A^oxTtpSv, he appehends Q^rut [as about
topathbatodeath^ with the design of putting him to death, I U 3. IBtn^^i



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CE. 5.] USE OF MOMSS. — INTELLECTIVE^. 3^

rim t(«Svr», he miU cne to Mjf, ii. 5. 2. Htft^ttf mt^k /3«r/XS«^ mtXtwrm ii.
1. 17. tlLaxwfA**»( rw^ii i. 10. 10. See y' 531. «. — (b) Insttad of the
Fat. Part., the Pres. is eotnethnee emplojed to denote purpose, according to
§ 573, espedallj with verbs of motion ; thus, Tmvr Ixhxat^u* ^X^«v, / went
^n avenge Mt« wrong, Ear. Suppl. 154.

§ S S 4* lY. A fhtore action, in yiew of its neamee$, its certainty^ its
rapidity, or its connection with aiwther action, may be conceived of as now
doingf or even as already done (§ 567) ; and may hence be expressed by tba
Preset Aor^ or Per/, Thus, R«««» ^»u rtu, evil is coming upon some one, Ar.
Ran. 552 (cf. Atie-u rtt 2/x)iy lb. 554). 'A«'ArX0^i«'^' i^, i/ xa»«v ^r^ovtlft-
ui9 9U9 wmXatSfy w^n rSi* i^))vrXi>««y«j Eur. Med. 78. £7 /ui roJ^tv iyx^ct'rr,<
mUinnrtu, SXttXm, mu) ri ^^»vh»^i^<, if, while possessed of the bow, he shaU
disoover me, I am undone^ and I shall destroy you besides. Soph. Ph. 75. Ei Ii
ifl MBTMcrfviTrc fu, i ufitt duTrtu Eur. Or. 940. Ov» tS l^tnif^ut^ ^/»* ^
9i9i9fM,%§m MttvHf /3i0v r«^'«iir0f, j| •l^iftt^fi* SfAtt % Soph. Tr. 83. *A«'trr«Xx«
0$t ritit rU Xiytf }S(»» Isocr. 2 b. — For presents which are commonly u&ed
as futures, see § 200. b.

^ 8SS» V. The Future sometimes occurs for a present or past tense,
as a less direct and positive form of expression, or as though the action were
not yet finished; thus, Tolftav V iy« . . ^^ri^ft tiiTv fiouXn^o/Acu, *I shall wish,*
i e. * am resolved,' Soph. (Ed. T. 1076. XOP. UaThf rtitan x**t^ f^^UVf
ri^iv. *IAS. Os/Mt, vi XiliUf i "ilt ft* i^atXtratf, yvfeti Eur. Med. 1309.
TUt f Iff { ri Xiiut \ "tU ft aitmXtvai, yvvat Id. HeL 780. This exclama-
tory use of r/ A.i|«if for r/ xiynt or ri tkt^eis, as though the conmiunication
were not yet finished, belongs particularly to Euripides.

IV. Use of the Modes.

§ S 8 6« For a classification and designation of the modes
according to the character of the sentences which they form
(§ 329. N.), see H 27.

A. Intellective.

§987* Intellective sentences express the actual or the
CMiiingent (§ 929. N.). The idea of contingency is expressed
in two ways ; by the form of the verb, and by a particle, com-
monly aiv (Ep. xc or xfiV, Dor. x«). The two ways are often
united for the stronger expression ; and they may be both neg-
lected, if th6 idea is either not prominent, or is too obviotis to
require expression. The forms of the verb which in them-
selves express contingency are the Subjunctive and Optative
modes (§ 169). Intellective sentences not emplo3nng these
modes (either because they are actual, or because their con-
tingency is simply expressed by a particle or is not expressed
at all) employ the Indicative^ which is the generic mode
(§§ 177, 330. 1).

Rdcarks. 1. It may be said in general, that the Ind, expresses the actual;
He 8ubj, and Opt,, the eomtmgenL But it must be understood that this, lik*



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atf58 SYNTAX. — USB OF MODES. [bOOK IIL

all similar statements In grammar, has primary reference to the conoeptioiis of
the mind, rather than to the reality of things ; that is, to employ the techni-
cal language of philosophy, it most be taken mbjectiveUf, rather than objecticely
The contingent is often, from strong assurance or vivid fancy, spoken of at
actual ; while, on the other hand, the actual, from diffidence or courtesy a
some other cause, is not unfrequently spoken of as contingent. This state-
ment is also limited by the generic use of the Ind., as mentioned above.

2. An action which is now future has, from the very nature of things, somr
degree of contingency ; and therefore, in the Fut. tense, no distinction is made
between the Ind. and the Subj., but any rule requiring in other tenses th«
^ubj. in this requires the Ind. And even the use of tha Fut. opt. appears t«
be limited to the oratio obliquay in which it takes the place of the Fut. ind. in
the oratio recta (§§ 607, 608).

§ S 8 S« 3. The particle of oontingence, &9, may commonly be dis-
tinguished from the conjunction eiv for lav (§ 603) by its position, as it never
stands first in its clause, which is the usual place of the conjunction. It chief-
ly occurs with the past tenses of the Ind. and with the Opt., to mark tbem
as depending upon some condition expressed or implied ; with the Subj. after
various connectives ; and with the Inf. and Part, when the distinct modes
to which they are equivalent would have this particle. It is extensively used
with the Subj., in cases where it would have been omitted with the Opt., fat
the reason, as it would seem, that the separation, in form, of the Subj. from
the Ind. was later and less strongly marked than that of the Opt. (§ 177).
The insertion or omission of &* for the most part follows general rules, but in
some cases appears to depend upon nice distinctions of sense, which it is diffi-
cult* to convey in translation, or upon mere euphony or rhythm. Upon its
use in not a few cases, manuscripts differ, and critics contend. Verbs with
which &9 is connected are commonly translated into Eng. by the potential
mode.

§ 589. Contingency is viewed as either present or past;
that is, a contingent event is regarded either as one of which
there is some chance at the present time, or merely as one of
which there was some chance at some past time. Present
CONTINGENCY is expressed either by the Suhj.^ or by the pri'
mary tenses of the Ind. ; and past contingency, either by
the Opt.^ or by the secondary tenses of the Ind.

The tenses of the Subj. and Opt. are therefore reUted to each other as
nretent and past tenses, or, in sense as well as in form (§§ 168, \96),aB priauuy
and secondary tenses ; and the rule above may be thus given in a more ooa.'
densed form : —

P&B8ENT OONTmOENCT IS EXPRESSBD BT THE FBIMABT TENSES; PASI
OONTINaENCT, BT THE 8EGONDABT.

Note. Future contingency is contamed in present ; for that which wiB A*
contingent, is of course contingent now,

§ tl90« Rebiarks. 1. It cannot be kept too carefully in mind, that
the distinction above has no reference to the time of the occurrence of an event,
but only to the time of its contingency. Thus, in the tv«> sentences, " I din
go if I wish," and " I could go, if I wished," the time of the goiny itscU is in



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en. 5. J INTELLECTIVE. 369

botb the Mine, i. e. future. Bat in the fbrmer sentence, the eontrnpency is
present, because it is left undecided what the person's wish is, and therefore
there is still some chance of iiis going ; while in the latter, the contingency \a
pnstf becaose it is implieil that the person does not wish to go, and therefore,
although there was some chance of his going before his decision, there is now
no chance. Hence, in the former sentence, present tenses are employed ; and
in the latter, past. ,

2. Tlie limits of past are far wider than those of present contingency ; for
there is nothing which it is proper for us to suppose at all, of which we may
not conceive that there was some chance at some distant period in past eternity.
The dividing line between present and past contingency may perhaps be thus
drawn; whatever is supposed wWi some degree of present expectation^ or in
present view of a decision yet to be had^ belongs to the head of present contin^
gency; but whatever is supposed without this present expectaHon or view of a
deeiaion, to the head of pagt contingency. Past contingency-, therefore, mdudes,

il.) all past supposition, whether with or without expectation at that time;
2.) all supposition, whether present or past, which does not imply expectation^
or eontempiate a decision^ that is, all mere opposition ; (3.) all suppositioii,
whether present or past, in despite of a prior decision. Thus : .

.A. PBESENT OOSmVOENCT.

JwiU go, if lean have leave (and I intend to ask for it).
/ t/UnA, that I may go, if I can have leave.
I wisht that you may go,

B. PAST ooimzroBHcnr.

(1.) Past supposition.

I thought, that I might go, if I eomUL have leave.
I wished^ that you might go,

(2.) Present suppositiim not implying expectation or oontemplatuig a de>
diion.

J would go, if I should have leave (but I have no thought of asking

for it).
I could go with perfect ease.
I should like to go,

(8.^ Present supposition in despite of a prior decision.
«. In regard to the present.
/ iM«/<f go, if I had leave (but I have none, and therefore I shall
not go).

i3. In regard to the past
I would have gone, if I had had leave (but I had none, and there-
fore did not go).

§ S9 1« 3. As the differe ice between the Subj. and Opt. is one of
time, rather than of essential offic*^ some have chosen to consider them as
imly different tenses of a general conjunctive or contingent mode. With this
diange, the number and offices of the Greek modes are the same with those
of, the Latin, and the correspondence between the Greek conjunctive and the
English potential modes becomes somewhat more obvious (see ^ 33). Ac-
ooniing to this classification, which deserves the attention of the student.



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370 SYNTAX. — USK OF MODES. [bOOI: IH

clthougfa it is questioiiable whether it k best to discard the old pbnseoto*
gy. the

Present Sabjanctive becomes the Definite Present (or the Present) Conjnncthre

Present Optative ** " Definite Past (or the Imperfect) Gonjonctive.

Aorist Subjunctive ** ** Aorist Present (or Primary) Conjunctive.

Aorist Optative " ** Aorist Past (or Secondary-) Conjunctive.

Perfect Subjunctive ** " Perfect Present (or the Perfect) Conjunctiva.

Perfect Optative " " Perfect Past (or the Piupecfect) Conjunedve.

4. Contingent sentences, lilce actual (§§ 566 - 568, 576, 584, 585), are
liable to an interchange and blending of tenses. Past contingency is often
conceived of as present ; and present, as past Hence, primaiy tenses take
the place of secondary, and secondary of primary. This interchange may be
observed particularly between the Subj. and ()pt. modes.

§ 89ft» The Subj. and Opt occur, for the most part, in
dependent clauses ; and indeed some grammarians have re-
fused to regard them as being ever strictly independenU It
results from the principles alr^y laid down, that, in their usa
as dependent modes, the Suiij,^ fir the most part^ follows the
primary tenses; and the Opt.^ the secondary. To this gen-
eral rule, however, there are many exceptions.

KoTB. In the application of this rule, the tenses of the Imptrat., as firom
its very nature referring to present or ftiture time, are to be regarded as /Tn-
mary tenses ; those of the Inf. and Part., as primary or tecondary, according
to the finite verbs, whose places they occupy, or, in general, according to those
iqx>n which they themselves depend.

§ 598. In the expression of contingency, the Ind. is
properly distinguished from the Subj. and Opt by the greater
positiveness with which it implies or excludes present anticipa-
tion. Thus supposition with present anticipation is expressed
by the primary tenses ; but there is here this general distinc-
tion, that the Fut Ind. anticipates without expressing doubt,
while the Subj. expresses doubt. On the other hand, supposi-
tion without present anticipation is expressed by the secondary
tenses ; but with this general distinction, that the Opt. supposes,
either with some past anticipation, or without regard to any de-
cision, while the secondary tenses of the Ind. suppose in despite
of a prior decision.

Remarks. «. Tn the expression of contingency, the Imf^f. ind. has com-
monly the same dif erence from the Aor. and Plup,, as, in English, the Impf.
ind. and pot^tial from the PIup. In respect to the time of the ec^n,
therefore, tiie contingent Impf. ind. commonly refers to present time, and the
Aor. and Plup. to pa$t. See §§ 599, 601. ^j 603. h

fi. We may, say in general, that suppositum as fact is expressed by the ap-
propriate tense of the Ind. ()9 587, 603. «) ; suppontum that may beeom§
fact, by the Subj. ; supposition without regard to fact, by the Opt. ; and m^
position contrary to fact, by the past tenses of the Ind. ; whUe in these tenaot



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Ind.



CB. &.] IITTBLLEGTIVE. 371

tkert is tliis distmction^ thai the Impf. ezfMiesses 8ai;^)oatioii contrary to premii
fact, but the Aor. and Plup. contrary to past fact

y. The Epic sometimes joins «( with the Fut ind., when it depends upon a
condition expressed or understood ; as, £< )' 'OWtv^ txtt . ^ tS^i »i • •
««'«r/rir«i ^. 539. A similar nse of &t in the At^ is rare and doabtM.

§ S94« %. Indefiniteness constitutes a spedes of contingency. Hence
(1.) the oonstniction with the relative indefinite (§ 606) ; and (2.) the nse
of &9 with the past tenses of the Ind. to denote on action, not as occnrring at
a definite time, but fitmi time to time^ as the occasion might occur, or, ia
other words, to dmote a habitual action $ thus, n«XAi»«f y«^ i^n f*^9 &t nft
I^Sf, for he would cften say, that he was m looe with some one, Mem. iv. 1. 2.
£i if riftt i^^n ii/»«v ivrtt •IxaitifUf . ., •it^ittt &9 wttwavt «^<iXfr«, «XA.' m)
wXi/w w^ttrtViltu i. 9. 19. £7 %it iUfrSf )«»mii . . fiXatmouv, • • t^eu^tt Hf, nai
ifiM rnvrit w^trtXdfitCttvtt iL 3. 11.

I S9S» The contingent modes are oflen used where the
might have been employed. The Opt. with av for the
(o.) Pres. or (/5.) Fut. ind. is particularly frequent ; and often
serves, by suggesting instead of asserting, to give to the dis-
course that tone of moderation and refined courtesy, which
was so much studied by the Greeks, especially the Athenians.
(See ^§ 604. b, 605. 5.) The use of the Subj. for the Ind. is
more limited, and occurs chiefly (for the Put.) in (/.) earnest
inquiry respecting one's self, and in (5.) strong denial. Thus, .

«• Avri £v . . r« hn tin • ^'irr§f yk^ «vaXivM»r«, tlds [would be] if tft«
very thing we want; for th^ will sooner expend, iv, 7. 7. Ka) ^^Utrts /*h
9v» £9 «^irrifr«4iv, Hv ^i rt itn^y . ., ^^Hvt fti^V ^<<^*'f Cyr. i. 2. 11 (cf.
§ 594). 2HK. Anfitiy^ti £(» rig fVnv ii ^otnrtxn* KAA. ^nfii. ZHK.
Olnem ^nrt^t'ch ^fifitfiytfU £f tU PI. Gorg. 502 d. This use of the Opt. is
particularly frequent in argumentative conclusions.

/3. <Pff^, naU 4u» £9 &(fnitim, I confess, ctnd [would not} will not deny it,
Dem. 576. 1 7. 'Axx' «^«Sr' «» n^u^^uifu Ar. Plut. 284. MEN. Oin if fuStU
^if». nP. OvV \ytty u^sfMu £ur. Iph. A. STlO. — This use of the Opt. m
particularly frequent in the firat person.

y, IIm fiS I «*« 0tS i ri \%ym \ Whither [can] shall I go? where stop f
what sayf Eur. Ale 864. E^r^^iv, j? nyol^iv, «f rt^^»ff»fi.%9\ Id. Ion, 758.
"Euftlf rt 2«ri4f| n fr^et^tif tSrvf 7«r 1 Soph. Ant. 315. "KAfAvrXAnm r»v r«»
f^fsv I lb. 554. See § 61 1. 3:

NoTB. In the Epic language, the use of the Subj. for the Fut ind. is more
extended. V

2. Ott y^( ftft,h.. Y'uv* »vV v«'«frnJr«tf»v, for they [cannot] wiU not know
nor suspect you. Soph. El. 42. AJ^n^uf, »») iirax*'^*'* *^ f^^ hi^ift vii* 3. 26.
*0 wXn^Uf fitfi^nru * ^9 rt , ,, »uiit( funnirt finifif iv. 8. 13.

NoTBB. (1.) This use is most frequent in those forms of the Subj. whidi
have no forms of the Ind. closely resembling them, viz., the Aor. pass, and the
2d Aor. It is, on the other hand, less frequent in the Pres., resembling the
PMb. ind;^ and in the Ist Aor. act and mid., resembling the Fut ind. (cf. 601.
N.). In this emphatic negation, the Subj. is regularly preceded by a double



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872 . SYNTAX; — USB OF MODES. [bOOK IC

negadve, tu ftti. Tbe construction may be explained by supplying a word ot
phrase expressing fear [cf. ^ 602. 3) ; ttms, Ov ttiotxtt fin yvivn, / have ne
/§ar that they would know. Compare such passages as, Ov ^iCaSf fin rt ityi^
ym Meni.iL 1. 25 ; Obxl V^ty f*n rt ^iXuVii Ar. Ecd. 650. (2.) The similaf
UM ot •» fi^ with the Fut^ ind. is to be explained in the same manner ; as,
O^ ^04 fitii fitft^tfuii ifrt, never mU I follow youj Soph. EL 1052.

§ S96« We proceed to the application of the general
principles which govern the use of the distinct modes, to par-
ticular kinds of sentences, which may be termed, from their
offices or connectives, desiderative (expressing wish, from de-
sidero, to desire) y finals conditional^ relative^ and complement
tary (% 329. N.).

( I.) Desiderative.

^ S9V. A wish is expressed either with or without a
definite looking forward to its realization. In the former case,
it is expressed by the primary tenses ; in the latter case, by
the secondary. In the former case, (o.) if the wish is expressed
with an assurance that it will be realized, the Ind. Fut. is used -
but, {p.) otherwise, the Siibj. mode. In this use, both the Ind.
Fut. and the Subj. may be regarded as less direct modes of
expression instead of the Imperat. In the latter case, (/.) if
the time for realizing the wish Is already past^ the secondary
tenses of the Ind. are used with n yng and tti^s ' but, (5.) other-
wise, the Opt, mode. XSee §§ 590, 593.) Hence ^he Opt
becomes the simplest and most general form of expressing a
wish ; and from the frequency of this use, it has derived its
name (§ 169. 3). Thus,

(«.) 'Hf «Sf wunfirtj Ktti nritttffii fit, thus then [yon will do] do, and litten
to «e, PL Prot. 338 a. Un^h ri^V i^ttt i£sch. Sept 250.

Notes. (!•) A wish is often expressed in the form of a question. Hence
in Greek, as in other langoages, the interrogative Fut. often supplies the place
of the Imperat ; as, Ouk Sil^tfi* m rd^t^Tm i »») ■ . a<ptT% f*09n*t [Will you
not carry] Carry her away instantly ^ and leave her nhne^ Soph. Ant. 885. "A^ii
T$t iXfiitf ^tZ^o TO* fiorn^ei fA0t ; T«t/rn* 2* iirt Id. CEd. T. 1069. Ov fik XcA.fi-
riif, «A.X* aKoXovfiwus tfioi t [Won't you not talk] Don^t talk, but follow me,
Ar. Nub. 505. (2.) For the Fut. with o<r«f in the place of the Innierat, see
§ 602. 3. (3.) The Aor. and Pres. are also used with ri 9V9 el, or ri w, in
the earnest expression of a wish ; as, T< avv, ipn i Kv^*;, »v . . iA.i|«; fi»t i
IVhy then, eaid Cyrus, have you not told mef i. e tell me, Cyr. ii. 1. 4. Ti oSw, 4
y Is, •V* i^traf ( PI. Lys. 2 1 1 d.

§ tS98« (^.) M;^ &9mfiifufM9, let us not wait, iu. I. 24. M^i ^iXX«».
fitf, Z Afi^Uy <lXX' a^nXfitru Kin otl^iTcit lb. 46. At;* ruv w^tfCvrarti* rr^-
my^i l«r/yu«Xt/0-/«y • i^t^ftipuXetxHfiitf l* nfiiTg iii. 2.37. 'AXXa^' l» yt r?r)t
yiif ^o^ifA%uirov MS Teix'9'rei, f^nV attr»u ^ttfu Soph. Tr. 801. Oif*, \K9rv0tfimt
Eur. Here. 529. Mii Toinfr.f ruZra, do w>t do this, vii. 1 . 8. Mn^i* iJujuiwa^rt
tuxm rif ytyitn/iivatv • im yd( v. 4. 19.



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«H. 5.] Ill DESIDBRATIVE SENTENCES. 373

Notes. (I.) The use dT the Sabj. as Imperat. occurs chiefly in the Isi
Per§, (where the Imperat. is wanting, § 170. N.)t and in the Aor witfi fin.
In the 2d Pers., the dbtinction is rarely neglected, that in prohibithna with fi4
and iti compounds^ the FreM. is put in the ImpercU.y but the Aor. in t/ie Suhj, ;
as, "bin l»2«iri fif,. ftnrt fr«Xf^i7ri vi. 6. 1 8. Mitr i^nTrt, f/tnr i^nr Wot
Soph. (Ed. C. 731. Mn)* i^-ixtv/i w. 168. UnV Wtxtv^^t ». 263. In the
3d Pers., the distinction is less observed. The foundation of the distinction
seems to have been this ; that the Pres. forbids an action more definitely than
the Aor. {< 569), and hence naturally adopts a more direct form of expresaion.
Thus, prohibition in the Pres. is often designed to arrest an action now doing,
while prohibition in the Aor. merely forbids, in general, that it should be done ;
as, Bin S-aufteil^tTtt be not wondering^ i. 3. 3 ;see Oi ^l i^Uvrtf UetifAat^ot lb. 2) ;
but M»$) . . %ilfiri^ nor ehouid yon think, iii 2. 17. (2.) The use of the Subj.
as Imperat. may be explained by ellipsis thus, *0(Sri fih ^va^ivw^iv, see thni
we do not wait, 2»i<rti /th wtnt^t rmvrm. See §§ 592, 601, 602. 3 ; and
compare §§ 595. y, 2, 611. 3.

^ S99. (7.) ETA ft . . rirt 0Uf%ytfifm*j fFould that I had then been
with you ! Mem. i. 2. 46. ETi^* tJxu • • /StXr/tvf ^^ifeif. Would that you had a
better spirit^ Eur. El. 1061. E< y«f rtravmv ivtafnv ttx^ Id* Ale 1072. —
In these expressions of wish there is properly an ellipslB ; thus, E7/* i7;^if /Si A-
rl§ut ^(ifaSi nuXSf if ttxh or nloftnv Av, if you had a better epirit, it would be
well, or I should be glad. See §§ 600. 2, 603.).

NoTB. A wish in opposition to fact may be also expressed by the Aor.
^fX0v C^ 268), ought With this verb, the particles of wishing are some-
times combined for the sake of greater strength of expression. Thus, "Il^i.
Xf /ilf KZ(»t JJn [C. ought to be living) IFould that Cyrus were living I
U. 1 . 4. 'OxU^m V £<ptX0f, Would that I had perished I Soph. (Ed. T. 1 1 57.
E?/* aI^iX* *A^y9vt fih im^rufUt r»ti^tf Eur. Med. f . Ei ya^ *l^iX«y PI. Cri-
to, 44 d. So the Impf. «^iiX«v, Eur. Iph. A. 1291. In later writers, J^iptkn
and «^«Xi are sometimes used as particles.

§ 600* ().) 0; ^#2 &9'«rUui9TSy May the gods requite I iii. 2. 6.
ITaXXiC fMi nkyaik yittrs V. 6. 4. Miin ^aXifA^iri Amxthu/MfluSi trmf^tt^ti n
▼L 6. 18. ll^£l^t V t t**t ^^X**f^ vtrrnruifAt ya^ Eur. Ale 1023.

Notes. I. Hie Opt. of wish is sometimes used, especially in the 3d Pers.,
as a less direct form for the Imperat. Sometimes the two forms are united,
and these again with the Subj. (§ 598) ; as, 'Aytfi', lifnTg irif fuv itwr^tTi-

T. 119. See Soph. Ant. 151.

2. The Opt. of wish may be introduced by the particles i<, t'ttu i^ 7«( (Ep.
and Dor. mJh^ ttl yif), m^ and in interrogation by vuf iv. E7 ^m yi *Mr« ^^ey-
yst, 0, that I had a voice I Enr. Hec. 836. ETA /in^'ort yto'mt Soph. CEd. T.
106?. .Ei yk^ yip0ir§ Cyr.vi. 1.38. *ilg SXotrt *tty»a»t( Eur. Hipp. 407.
Hit Hf'ikoifinv I [How might I die ?] Would that I might die I Id. Ale. 8u5
— These expressions, except the last, are elliptical ; thus, E7 fi«i yitoir* ^oy
yu H^ifirif iff If Mere toere a voice tome, I should be glad ; BtuXoifimf «v tn
iXMT$ w»y»d»titt. See §§ 599, 603. y. — Very rarely, i7(^i is jomed with the
8ubj. in the expression of wish ; as, E7(^' . . tXst<r$ Soph. Ph. 1092.

3. Except in interrogation, it is not used with the Opt. of wish, which if
tfuis often distingoished from the Opt in its other uses. Thus, *X1 wmT, yU
wets irmr^ ivrv;^f#rf^«f, r« 5* «XX* ifusH • »»* yiv^t* mt «v xmnit^My som^

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