Alpheus Crosby.

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Am ^o« vpdtf MO' 6« 6(M^ Soph. Aj. 550.

(ii.) FinoL

^ 60 1* Afler final conjunctions (%va^ onmg, «^, ^ * Sgi^
poet), a present purpose is expressed by (a.) the Subf.^ or
(p,) in the 2^., by the Ind, ; but a past purpose by (y.) the
OpU^ or sometimes (^.), when the realizaHon is now impossi-
hhy by the past tenses of the Lid. (See §^ 589, 593). In
final sentences, introduced by a relative {§ ^1. a), the modes
are used in the same manner. Thus,

(a.) 1v« ui^rt, 90 that you may know, K3. 15. *£/»«} tU rnvrk, Zwatt . •

X*^rat • is /tn»iri hp I 6. 9. — After twmt and my &9 is sometimes inserted;
as, "A^tis n/MMSy i^is •» tsUfittf Cyr. iii. 2. 21. 0vfUf fimX\ it it ri^futr U-
^^f .£8ch. Pr. 706.



(fi,) *AXk* iwn rtt /An \w ituif^ yunt^ifttimt wavvw •'MivrtM» h^
must do every thmg^ that we may never come into hit power, iii. 1. 18.

NoTB. After ?«'*»;, the Ist Aor. sabj. is rarely used in the active and mid-
dle voices, but instead of it the Fnt ind. Gf. ^ 595. ).

(y.) Kv^»f rets fetvf f*tTi9'ifify^mr0, i^atg i^Xirats &9'*CtCdmt*f C^/rma mmtjbr
the ihipt, in order that he might land hopUtee, i. 4. 5. Boj^Cc^Aiy l^n^XtTr*, it
WtfXi^frv ri half) ilnrat i. 1. 5. 'E^tfxK mvro7$ iWtftu • »» fitn rtg Iwihnt yi»
»Mr« iv. 4. 22. E/Vcyci (Hist. Pres., § 567. c) ^f^vf, V iXXn fU th eiu^
Eur. Hec. 1148.

().) Ti />*•».. f»Tiif«r %h$tH, it fUtlim, fUiwart Iffurif i fThy did pom. moi
tnatantfy day me, mt that I might never have thown myself 9 Soph. (Ed. T. 1391*
*!/ ti Tvipkof lb. 1389. Ol/itavf t;^(n* «'t Tltiyif»tf ^tv^mi n'rtfiv, twmt Ifeuwem
Ar. Pax, 135. *'!>« fifiitit alrovt hi^fitt^t*, «XX' iwuin tt^ufnTa tit rj^ mXi-
»*»h Xt^^*/*^* yi.y90t9T» PI. Meno, 89 b. "Eiu rk Wi^^v^a rir% Xm,C%7tf it fitm^*$
ti ifi»vX.ir»y HvfMva civ returtt l^irttrfv vii. 6. 23.

^ 609* BfOTARKS. 1. A past purpose, still continned or cofnahned
of as i»eseRt (§ 591. 4), may be expressed by the Subj. ; and on the other
hand, a present purpose, viewed as doabtfhl or as connected with something
past, distant, or oontingent (§ 590), may be expressed by the Opt. The
Subj. for the Opt. may be •remarked particularly after the Aor. used fbr the
Perf. ( 580), and in indirect quotation (§ 610). The two modes are some-
times both used in the same connection. Thus, 'Etrlrniif #i cv» iytt^t, 7»«
it ^i^ret hdyi^s PI* Crito, 43 b. 'E^X/tfv ^ifiatf^ (An /mS vt /li/t^l^ne^t Eur.
Med. 214. "ih^^trt flr^frCuf &y»9ftLj •Wt^ ret ^^irt^a p^vurn Th. viL 25.
Ti^trtXfiit ixfXit/«», I? Tt< iln . •) 'MB mwetyyilkttg^t ii. 5. 36. Compare !«'<#«?»-
r« and i^rtfiu^rett iii. 4. 1, 34. Trw; Vt wtu n eL^t^Ktixru rt ii i9-»TUxi^u<, 4M
&W9^§t tin h Shis ii> 4. 4. ^rn^iv fiu icd^l^^Dfofy is TuitifAtitt Soph. (Ed. Ch 1 !•
AiVirv «'X0r«, is «(ir«irXtMiv • . . «'i^'\^«i 2i ime) w^KmrmXn^tfAMut rm ^M^m^
TcATf fAn ^6a.9t9i i. 3. 14. 'Hf ZZ^n "UT^fAvi ASyUPaw ^t^t, yicut «** iptim
Eur. £1. 58.

a. After words of fear, the final conjunction />*}, leat, is commonly naed, b«t
ametimes also the fhller iwtt M^t o^ aome other oonneotive ; thna^ *Efi:<C*S»r



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CH, 5.] IN FINAL ANB CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 375

fA Wi00i9T» «vrwf . . 01 wxifi$»$, they feared [lest the enemy gbonlJ attackj
Aai the enemy vmdd attack them, iii. 4. 1. Ail/«f, ^ A«C«^» fit )/»f»v iwt^^ i.
8. 10. ^tCtvfuu )!, ^if r<Mif jf^«yi^« n^opmsf tv(W»fitf if atrias PI. Phil. IS a.
*£f«Cirr« . . ^4 fv ^vvflur* iii. 1. 12. KtviUttt fin XaiZtrt vii. 7. 31. Ai^m;^'
«4r»f ^n rii^«^Mt<, / am, afraid [as to this, viz, how I shall not find] that I shall
findy Ar. £q. 112. "O^rtitt Xtiiu, )t^0i«Mt, I fear [as to this, viz. how I may es-
cape] that I cannot escape, Eur. Iph. T. 995. Mn r^irfif, o^-Mf ri r/f . . «V«-
r^ii^ti, /ear nof tAot any one k^ tear you. Id. Herad. 248. Mii ^iiViif v*^', ««
. . iylftrmi Soph. £1. 1309. 'E^^CcTr*, irt i^tn^tv^ttt l^iXXi Cyr. iii. 1. 1. 0«-
MfttfH ik, irSs X(^ AvciXfvyri v9ra»M«rtu lb. iy. 5. 19. *Ara^ ^oCtf^, i/ wiir^v
M^WMtcf Eur. Med. 184.

3. A verb of attention, care, at fear, is tomedmes to be supplied before
(hrttf or fin* as, *0«'«# tS* twi^h &th^is [sc ^Srt, r»««'i7ri, or iv'/^Aiir/i], see
then Aatyoube men, L 7. 3. Air[8C rsMVsTf] r, lirArf irmr^if h^ug iv *x^(Mh
•Sh l\ •Ittt *r^ipnt Soph. AJ. 556. *AXA.' lirw^ ^^ av;^ •!•; r t^tfiuu [sc. 2i^M-
mI PL Meno, 77 a. B£^ . . ^mf^i/^ff Eur. Ale 315. Cf. §§ 595. %, 598. 2.

(ill.) Conditional.

§ 603* In sentences connected by conditional conjunc-
tions, there is a great variety of conception, and consequently
of expression. The condition may be assumed, either (or.) as
a fact^ or (/9.) as that which may become a fact^ or (/.) as a
mere supposition toUhout regard to fact ^ or {d,) as contrary
to fact. In the first ccise (a.), it is expressed by the appro*
prtate tense of the Ind, ; in the second (/9.), by the Subj, ; in
the third (/.), by the Opt, ; and in the fourth (d.), by a past
tense of the Ind. (see §^ 590, 593). Of these modes, the
Ind. and Opt are usually connected by cl, and the Subj. by
idr (= (i and UP the contingent particle) or its shortened forms,
^r and atf' exceptions (?.), however, occur, though rare in the
Att. writers, and some of them doubtful. — The form of the
CONCLUSION is, for the most part, determined by thai of the
condition. In the first case (a.), the conclusion is regularly
made by the appropriate tense of the Ind, ; in the second (/9.),
by the Put. ind. ; in the third (/.), by the Opt. with av • and
in the fourth (^.), by a past tense of the Ind. with ay. The
form of the conclusion (f.), however, often depends upon other
causes, besides its relation to the condition, and cases of ana*
coluthon are very frequent. There is (i?.) sometimes even a
union of difierent forms in the same construction. If (^.) the
conclusion is itself a dependent clause, its form is commonly
determined by this dependence, and the condition usually con-
fcmns. Thus,

(«.) Ei fCkt ifUtf I^Xin S|«f;«f V M ravvm, Xirteicu bfiTf jiiuktfMu • $} V
iftut rarvrtrk fit hytT^im, •ftSkt w^^^mrlf^tfMu ill 1. 25. 'Elft^ IfUi IrlXu n
2Miu •^ •^m M^u yii. 6. 16.

Supposition is sometimes made in the Greek, as m other las-



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876 SYNTAX. — USE OF MODES. [bOOK lU

gnages, by the Tnd. witboat a oonjonction ; as, Kmi Vi ictt^uMv • i7r« wSt . «
wmhwifnHti Eur. Hel. 1059.

()3.) *Hv ya^ TAVT* X«Ca>/*iv, «v ^tnnf9Tau ftifUVj for if we take this, Aey wiff .
not be able to remmn, iii. 4. 41. *Hf )i ^*vypt n/Usf l»u Wfit vrnvrm /3««Xfcw«.
ft%$a i. 3. 20. '£«» fAt wu0fnrt, . . «'^«Ti/*iirt#/i i. 4. 14. See lb. 15. -
(«. and ^.) Ov» a^ 2r4 fimx^^th << ^' rci^Mf «v ^u[i;^irT«< r»7f nfti^mg • f«f
S^* mXnttv^iffy iHrir;^vM7^i [=» )«ir«r] u 7. 18.

Note. The place of the Fut. in the conclusion may be supplied by tbt
same forms of expression as are elsewhere substitutes f(M* this tense ; thus,

«i ff'«Xi/«Mi ▼. 1. 9 (§ 595. fi). "Hr yk^ i«fi^$ Xiymt ft r»wr\ iymy tu U-
wt^vyain* w$Jh Soph. CEd. T. 839. "Ht %* h^s M«iir*r/u«, mfuit ^ • . «••».
0at i. 7. 7 (^ 583). K«v vwr^ t^n, w««/*if, «*«»#* ii/mv wi^0inrm L 8. 12
(§ 584).

{y») Ov» av tv9 ^mo/tmJ^MfUj ii «« r^Xl^M . . l«'«s«X«(^«rif, / tkomld not,
then, wonder if the enemy should pursue, iii. 2. 35. E/ «vv i^fn* v/*Sf rmrn^
Ti fituXtvtfiifvt, txittfu &t wfif ufMM$ iii. 3. 2.

(2.) Ei /*b ui(M» ««'«^«tfvr«f uftMg^ r»VT Ht lr»««'«M> • •> *E«y) )i 4f«^ »* «*•
X., i/* / sau; you in want, I should be considering this . .. But since I Me, &c^
T. 6. 30. Ov» <S* i«'«iffri» *Ay«r/a; tccvtm, ii ^« iyt» uvrit IxiXivrn, Aganas
would not have done this if I had not commanded Aim, vi. 6. 1 5. Ei H rtSrs
wntru WmZ/aiv, atvaPTU It §i9rttXift,%§n V. 8. 1 3. ISu fin vftuf lixft^t, iw^vi^
/»»^« it IL I. 4. — (y. and ).) E/ f^t ^r^irfu h^trrafAtit, •uV it rvtnn^Xtutn^m
9M • nnt tut ivu/Ai. Oiihl yn^ tit Mii^«x«# fit • (iartXthg i«'»/*«/it, u l^tXavfsfu
r$vt ttn^yirns- Sad I knoum tJiis before, I had never accompanied you ; and
now I shall depart. For King Medocus would by no means commend me, should
I drive out our benefactors. viL 7. 1 1.

(i.) E7 r«c; rTt(fi0£ Soph. (Ed. C. 1443. — The use of t! with the Subj. is
almost entirely confined to the Ion. and Dor.-

(^.) Ei fAtt ivaitii nirot, ^txaiatf it ftt »a) tttTt^rit ntu furMTi Tli. 6. 1 5*
E/ ti »«i ^utvhTrt ri rt o^fi »Xt>^«« . ., ^|crf ior) r«v; voTm.fMV( (cf. *£^* Iv 2X-
$$trt it, fi Tot''AXvt iietCuifiri) V. 6. 9. E/ lx»»f>h *H ri^tt^rm twXn im'uw
fAtit Cyr. ii. 1. 9. Ovn it w^oCa/tit rit w^a rot 2ri(«v, •/ ftii tout mM^iCtJn'
0trat At, EccI. 161. Ei yi^ yvtntxu U rSi* ti^ovftt B-(i^§vf, . • «'«^' «»&•
' rnvraitf tit it dXXuteu «'«ri4f Eur. Or. 566.

(n.) Ei tut ii^Mt TOUT* , ., litTt it Wi r§Uf icifVf . ., nml nmrt^yi^
^ostrs it nurnt Yen. 12. 22. Autot it t7ti, $1 tut ftit . . fuyyttt/MUt . •
ix**^h i' ti r^ rttitf Xi**V * * ^fi'r^ i»«Xa^iTi Lys. 179. 32. E/ /uiv
^X§Tm Xf%f$ttt fAtXXtt Inatk • ., iifAi7{ it irXutfA%f u il f*iXX»tftif V. 6.
12. Oun it . . dyi^ivtf, $uii »i . . atnitif /3. 184.

(^). 'Etroftuo/Atit, Itn, ilrt Viotrt, i<ptX§tnt murit i. 3. 4 (§ 601). 'E«-iC«vXi^<
suftt, titf, lit ^vtt^tTut, uirtXi^mftt iii. 1. 35. ETirfy, ti nurif itin iir^riuf p^tXUuff
STt • • »etT»»mt$i it L 6. 2.

^604. Remarks. 1. The condition is of\en (a.) under-
stood ; or (/?.) instead of being expressed in a distinct clause,
IS incorporated in the conclusion ; or (y.) is expressed by a
relative clause, or by an independent instead of a dependent
sentence. In all these cases, the form of the conclusion is



1



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CF. 5.]



IN CONDITIO^AL SENTENCES. 377



properly the same as if the condition had been formally ex-
pressed. Thus,

(«.) "Eri tv9 Jit yi9H9 r!f \fttf £iiX^ajf v-dXifusg, i^«2 ^ ^iX§f ^ Would you
then [if I should now forgive you] be in future an enemy to my brother^ and a
friend to met i, 6. %.

Notes, a. Among the conditions most naturally supplied, and therefore
most frequently omitted, are those of inclination with possibility and of possi-
bility with inclination ; since these are the two great conditiuns of human con.
duct. Hence the frequent use of the Opt. and past tenses of the Ind. with «»
to denote one of these ideas, the other being implied as a condition *, rhus,
Ov» &9 ^vtmtTtf he would not be able (^if he should wish), i. e. he could not^ i. 9.
23. Oitii TWT d» rtf tl^t, nor could any one say this, i. 9. 13. Avra) fiit
it ivsftv^nratf they could themselves have marched [might if they had chosen].
It. 2. 10. *H/cM^ ^' At i(pnt iyotyt ^^ntat^ and I might have said that we ought,
iii. 2. 24 Ol/V m,UT»t dvtKT^Ttat at i^ikoi/ittj nor should we wish to slay him (if
we could), ii. 3. 23. "H^t^r «» axautreiifii, I shmdd most ghuUy hear (if I
might hear), ii. 5. 15. Tfi» ikiv4i^iett U«i>*i» at i. 7. 3. ^OKtolm /tat &t i.

3. 17. '£C«vX«^ff» y &t, I shmdd have wished, PI. Phsedr. 228 a.

b. To the use of the Opt. with of* just noticed, may be referred its em-
ployment to express permissiony or command in the softened or indifferent lan^
guage of permission ; as, 2v ^iv xofti^att at ^tavrot, you may now betake ya/ur-
sdf [might if yon wished], Soph. Ant. 444. "Xyatr pit /Aaraiot ati^* i»4r«-
hit lb. 1339. Xtt^Ms it ilirm rvtrdx** W. El. l49l. — Its use for the Pre*,
and Put. ind. (§ 595) may be referred in like manner to ellipsis.

c. From the different idiom of the two languages, the Opt. is often best
translated, as in the examples just given, by our Pres. potential ; thus, *Axx*
it9'0irt At, but you may say [might if you were disposed], vii. 6. 1 6. ^ainrt
Mt lb. 23. See also § 600.

(/3.) B«oX«</*ffv ^' atf tix»tT»f a^iitt [=k $! mi^i»tfAt\ K.vfru, Xa4t7t avTct L
8. 17. Ot>ri yatf, fitif at ?;^*>* rUfitm [ss tt fiesf ti^i r£fAa^, dt^^tivou l\ ytti.
fitit, vhvtar at v^arrut tt iCouXirt Mem. i 4. 14. "Atty rou va rotavra
tx*'^ [= •/ fMt Ta TtaZra ux**\ • • •i/x at tJit r nt PI. Phaedo, 99 a. N/.
»£trt( flit etiiita £t xataxatttu, hrrnSitrttt })\ avrZt »vi%it a* Xit^hin iii. 1 . 2.
"ilrorf^ &t }(Afi«t rt( ^t(} tixnt i. 5. 8. "A^ri^ itt at^^atvn it l^nf^tef. vctnfuat^
iXXmt 2i 0hx it r»X/*^tt V. 4. 34.

(y.) "Oa-Tif ^ ^vrnt 0vtoih%t [== if ri% rvvii^t/if] airtf ita^ti/bttXtixini roZm
Xyit wwr at lu^atfAsti^atpu ii. 5. 7.

^ OOS* 2. The place of the Opt in the conclusion is sometimes
!rapp1ied by the Ind. expressing such ideas as possibility, propriety, necessity^
habit, or unfinished action, commonly without Sit • as, Ohx nt XaUTt, %l fin . ,
^ti^Sfit i. 5. 2. OvSk ya^, ti ^atv v-foiu/ioira, fifhtot h iii. 4. 1 5. E7 rts ah'
rif ^att^if yitttrt Iviitixtv^fat ^»uXoft,tt9t, ^if>i iratrog Won7r9 i. 9. 16. See
lb. 18, 19, 28; ii. 3. 11 ; iv. 1. 14 ; and 594. "Duxrti^^t, tl kXttnutro i.

4. 7. AJr^fit yaf ^t ra filt Ifut ha^t^-faxf^h *for it would have been
baiW5,' vii. 7. 40 (§ 604. ^).

3. The conclusion has sometimes a second condition, to which itp verb con-
forms; as, 'Ear y 1^1 tXnrh, eux it B^avf/Urasfti, %1 rtta tS(9iTt vL 1. 29.
"Hx«v«9 . . St4, II }nXf«nt . ., nt fitlt fiovXmtrai, iiaCn^ttrat iv. I. 3.

4 The particle it b sometimes omitted where it would regularly be insert-



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S78 iTNTAX. — USE OF MODBS. [bOOK m

6d ; tA, 'Virxnift^* ftiprti^ it . . V^nwmrfitn^ I c^rtamfy AomU hi adorned, if
I had 60M deceived, vii. 6. 21. £/ )' a/ui/v«v* m ^«2 yuifinf ix^^'^i tv^^x^i
itnv \ytt Eur. Pb. 1 200. Ei l\ /mi . , fa-fitt . ., ^oCat ra^tr;^!* Id. Hec 1111.
Atfy«riv r/f mpi^Sv ik'i^CWr/f kutAvx** > Soph. Ant. 604. O0v» Sj^iiwr iA«9
/«»<», nor eould Ae have done H unobaerved, Id. EL 914.

5. Attic oourtesy (§ 595) often gives the conditional form to complementA*
17 dauBes after words of emotion ; as, TSit Umvfjtava, d [^ Its\ . . Tiinft
tkU I wonder at, that you place, PI. Rep. 348 e.

(iv.) Relative.

^ 606* A sentence, which is introduced by a relative
(or by a similar particle of time or place) referring to thai
which is indefinite or general or not yet determined^ has a
species of contingency (§ 5M), and may hence employ the
Subj, or Opt, ; the Subj., when a future determination is now
contemplated, but otherwise, the Opt. (§ 590. 2). Which
mode should be employed will commonly depend upon the
preceding verb (^ 592). After these connectives av is regular-
ly used with the Subj. (sometimes compounded with the con-
nective) ; but not with the Opt., unless for some additional rea-
son. Thus,

"EiSn^it i7ff, fiytfiivet Mtrtif «'«^a TtuTov, ^ [definite, viz. Cyrwi] Xvftm n ift $i m
rnv «'^«|iy. Ei i\ km] ref iiytfAovt ^tirrivfcfitit, ^ [indefinite] at Kvff ^'^
' the guide whom Cyrus may give us/ i. 3. 1 6. *Eyat ya^ invinv fut «r %lt
rk «'X«ra ifitCetmsPf £ hftTit icitii . . (pcCalfinv J* «» ry tiytfAaiHj y Jdi'u, Xvrt^itu^
*the vessels which he might give us,* lb. 17. *'0 rt it ?(>i, vtUofteit lb. 5.
*0r^ ^f (p»ifi ^iX0( iJtxt, rwTf tt'^nXos iyiyttTt WtCayk^vmt ii. 6. 23. Svv
^tt flit it UfAtu {iteu rifMos, c^tp at i i. 3. 6. "Ovu ^ir a-r^rtiyis r**»S t*th
Wv ffT^arvtyot ^a^tKeikou* * i^oht }\ ttx^tr*^ rit uvrt^T^ttmyot iii. 1. 32.
II«^ii;ri0V ^' hfut r«vf v^tt^avi fret,$fMUt i>i at ivttu/At^et fiax^^raTovi ii. 2. 12»
'^tTovtrai . ., Xrat [= trt eit'\ •/ «^;^«»r«f ^fintm^t C/r. i. 2. 8. "Ort V i§a»
v#» iiittv yit0itr§, . . afTtXfifl'M' iL 6. 12. *EyM ^^.iiTM'cv [sra ivari £9} mw-
ftff ^1 ^l** vii. 3. 36. *FJn^iVit a*o l^irevy i^ort yvptta^mt fiwXtsTt i. 2. 7«
Ti »St, Ipn, ^otovfftt^ iirnv [=» ifri) ay] aUfiutrat \ Cyr. iii. 2^. 'E«'«i> [=» S arg)
&t\ 2i waXtt aXt<r^^ ii. 4. 3. 'Evii rtt iitixat, v^oi^afitotr^f irra^at L 5. 2
"Ems flit at «'«(f Tift xt'^f^'^* * ^*'*'^^' [^^ l^tihii it] 2i a^iitat ^ovXtiTat, •
JMixttIf «'«iAr L 4. 8. "Ea^; Rt/^w fv/ttfiti^tiat ii. 1. 2. 'EfTf/^^ ^^ n Xf^paytn^
mtirTatT$ iv. 5. 8. J^tirat ai/Tov, f*ii v^ocfist xariXvrat • ., Vfut it ah'^^ rv/w-
CovXivrrirat 1. 1. 10. W^tt avrovs Karayayct i. 2. 2. Mi;^^i «» x«rarrrry
i. 4. 13.

Notes, (a) The omission of at with the Subj., in sentences like the pre-
oeding, is most frequent in the Ep. poets, and rarest in Att. prose. (A) In
Epic similes, as presenting imagined scenes, the 8ubj, sometimes occuro in rd-
ative clauses ; as, *'£lrr% X.7f rivyitticf, ot pa »vt%t . . Vutrrai P. 109. *£U ^
Zrt 9r»(^t(i/ ^iXay9t H. 16.

( V. ) Complementary.
^■.o07* As the complementary sentencee which it is most important



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CH. 5.J IN OOMFLEHTBNTART SHNT^NCES. 8W

here to notice occur in what is termed the arcOh obUqua, it wiB be Booeswrjr
to remark upon the character of this form of discoorae, and upon its distinc-
tion from the oraiio recta.

There are two ways of quoting the words of a person. In
tlie first, we simply repeat his words, without change or in-
corporation into our own discourse ; as, He said^ ** / will go^
This is termed direct quotation, or in Lat., oratio recta.
In the second, we make such changes and insert such connec-
tives as will render the quotation an integral part of our own
discourse ; thu8» He said^ thai he wovld go. This is termed
indirect quotation, or in Lat, oratio obliqua. This dis-
tinction likewise applies to the thoughts and feelings of persons,
and even to general truths and appearances.

NotB. Of these two methoda of quotation, the former is dramatic in its
character, presenting before ns the speaker in the utterance of his own words ;
but the latter is narrative^ simply relating wtiat the speaker has said. This
relation is made in Greek, by the use either of the distinct modes with their
connectives or of the incorporated modes. We have occasion at present to
treat only of the use of the distinct modes. For the use of tbe incorporated
e § 619.



§ 608* In the oratio ohliqua^ a thing is presented not as
actual, but as dependent upon the statement, thoughts, or feel*
ings of some person, and consequently as having some degree
of contingency. Hence it is properly expressed by a contin-
gent mode. This use, however, is confined to the Opt., which
limitation may be explained as follows. The oraiio obliqua^
from the very nature of quotation,.commonly respects the past,
and the cases in which it respects the actual present are too
few and unimportant to require special provision ; while in
those cases, so constantly recurring, in which the past is spoken
of as present, the very vivacity and dramatic character of this
form of narrative forbids the use of a contingent mode. Hence
the Subj. b used in the oratio ohliqua only in such cases as
would admit it in the oratio recta, while, on the other hand, of
the distinct modes.

The optative is the mode appropriate to the oratio obliqtta in
past' time.

With this Opt. Sp is not joined, unless for some additional
reason. Thus^

*H«i» ^yytXt Xiyettf Irt XtXt^ut ttn Si/Svyir/f ra &n^m, a matenger came
tojfing, that SyennesU had left the heights, i. 2. 21. ASrai n^Mratt tthrout^
Ttm tSi9, '0 7ii X^nnvf iTri Ili^r/rr}, trt ^et^et /3«0-/Xt*^ vrc^titur* xr^os rh
wttr^^rw. A/ T% a^rtx^/favro, irt outt XvrttZfia f7if, «XX* a^i^M »w xrafttrmy^
ym* iy. .5. 10. Tli •Tsriv « ^tirv^of on »]fi,v%»tTo^ %t /ih ritt^n^tit*, t<rii^fr« •
•"• A» Xi ^i^'tZ, 9VK &{,**» l^f», " •Ifjto^lafjuu » ** H. Gr. ii. 3. 56. "0 n }>\ v»twt.
ek %nrnf»n9% ii. 1. 23. *Hir^»r# m ftU "EXXuvk, trt fiurtXitu , . l» rtiti fM$y*



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8M 8TNTAX. — USE OF MODES. [bOOK m

fifif iffli $MrtXiuf V mZ il»ovn Tirrc^i^rdt^, SVi «« *ExXff»if tix^tf i. 1 0. 5
'"EtytytttextTtf irs b^im/A^T^t iTW iit 3. 4. "^etipXs vafn ^^ Hcxtt iJvmt, srt §
rriXsf i7fi iii. 1. 10. ^H-yvoiSf i n ri ireifftt •?*} iv. 5. 7. *^^vrtifA%*0s ^i, w
^»^it lift iv. 4. 1 7. '£«'i/v#aMT« «'i^} T9V - "Stv^oVf ^rirt^et 9r»xifAt»s ■?» n ^'A-«»
vii. 1. 14. '£x«A.f/ . ., fcfjifcfff itetXatSv fVi^fiUtTett ix^^'^'i *>'P* ^* B-eivu ftlf
tiurit Soph. (Ed. T. 1245. ^%9viv, tl hciCaivMP ii. 4. 24. 'O ^' ix^ki^roi.
ftv, tvt . . ^^tA Xiy9t i. 5. 14. *E/av^a^«y, •» «v^a^at7 Kv^^c (pttif6tT$ i. 10.
16. Tif^eiipi(»fis itetCeiXXu (Hist. Pfes., § 567. a) Tov Kv^ot *^os rav tQiX<pit,
m IriCtfi/XivM »hrif i. 1. 8. See L 6. 3.

§ 609* Remarks. 1.- The Greek, from its peculiar spirit
of freedom, vivacity, variety, and dramatic life (^§ 330,576),
often mterchanges and blends the forms of indirect and direct
quotation, commonly passing from the former to the latter, but
sometimes the reverse. Thus,

A.) A sudden change is often made from indirect to direct quotation.
This change mav be made either («.) after the introductoiy particle ; or
(j3.) in the body of the quotation, commonly after a relative, a parenthetic
clause, or one of the larger pauses, and in the last case with the frequent
insertion of f^»j. Thus, -^ («.) Il^ol^ivs iTsrir, or* " Kvrii •//*<, U ^nrtTs^^
Proxenus said, " / am the very person you inquire for,** ii. 4. 1 6. Oi Ji iTsrav,
tn **ix»99$ i^fAtp*' V. 4. 10. "IrATf &9 litrMiv, Srt ** £ ^ti»^mng, fth Buv/tAa^§
r« Xtyifttvet ** H. CritO, 50 C — (j3.) *'E^$^iix9U( ^, ^ it tSfi^tt •?»»» nytftifm
mlnTv vrafot rtvrtv, Z XvfietivifAi^a r^y ^r^Zl^n** 1. 3. 16. " \.iy$9** c^arsf
^ Xi'f*"-* ^*^om*
•» il^, O Vietoryf befriend, grant that we majf erect a trophy, Ar. Lys. 817.
Kmi <r«^rritNu iTAM*/ [sc. Urn, wn^mni, or ^sT], a)ui kt it be impreseed upon
eterjf one, Th. yL 84 (cf. llm^nrr^rm )• nu »n} rah lb. 68). KHP. *Ax«^.
•n, Xif • r«W iwXirnf . . iriiNu [sc. ntXiitrm, ht, or ;t^. Herald. Seary ye
ptofU ; U ie ordered that the hoplitee depart, or <A« hopHtee mutt depart, Ar. Ar.
448. Tiphtx^rrm . . mmrmUut T. 8. IS. Ta»1«r»« ;^«4(i<» [Se. »iXl&t»], 1
bid Ion hail, PL Ion, 680 a. *EfA ^'mhTt rdik [sc tuth lert], ftut That I
ehotdd euffer ttuA Ainge [is hofriUe], aiaet ifisch. Earn. 887. *il fianXiv,
nirtftp Xiyup . . 4 nyf9 [sc x(^ <* miXtSus'} i Hdt. L 88. TA ^A.«i, ••J/
l^MO t s. 481.

NoTBS. «. In exdamatioa, tin artick is nsoally prefixed ; as, ^tS, ri s«)
AtfCirr v-^r^yftm rtMii* Af^^ I Ah, the hearing <A« voice of weA a man /
tfopfa. Ph. 284. Tnt rvxntt T« ipi vh nXnfifrm hv($ rvx^t Mg iU4ucht
That I thoutd happen now to have been tmnmoned hither t Gyr. 11. 2. 3 (^ 872.
C). nEI20. Ta V I^U JMf^tif mtiifitfn, rh iiXiat I «l«v •^/•X/tTv rriUi«
«'Xf7> 1} ;^<%«/ ET. Ti V i/^ MtXcif wtJSfitPtf, rhtUfu^ewt kvfrwihnnu
rtk bex^i rm }n»rfiXM I Ar. At. 6.

/k In a fttw poatie pas ss go i, the In£ foOowa mi yd^ot iSiu to eocprMi wish
(ft $$ 697, 600. 2) ; as^ a; 7<^ • . Ix^f % 811. See m. 876.

^ 6d6. IL The mibjeU of the Jkf is very often, either
pioperly or by attraction (§§ 425. 4, 614), the ditrMl obf9€t of



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388 STlfTAX. USE OF MODES. f BOOK nx

a preceding verb, and cooseqnendy in the Ace, Henoe hem
arisen an association between this case and the Inf., which has
led to the following rule.

NoTB. The Inf., on the other band, extenshrdy. constitutes an indirect ob
jeet at the verb or other word on whidi it depends. From the preTalenoe of
this ose appears to have arisen the reeemblanoe in form of the Greek anc
Lat. Inf. to the Dat., and the nse of the prepodtuMis to and 21c before the Int
fai Eng. and German. Thus, IIiv^Mti ro fuitrn Xiyuv, had persuaded the
prophet [to the saying] to mjf, vL 4. 14. TtHn ^vyaiat UiXfvrs rv» «vr^
€TfMTtitritu, he hmoited the exilee [to the serving] to eerve wi^ him, L 2. 2.

Rule XXXI. The Subject of the Infini
TiTE is put in the Accusative ; as,

he requested that Aeee atiee ehouid be gioen to himj rather than that Tissaphemm
ehould rule tham, L I. 8. Ej*iitttuu9 o»m tCM/X^w*, u^i A^«v ti weifuv tUrrtmg^
did not mA to imeur the rish [that they should soffer any thing] of their suffer*
img from hunger, Th.hr. 15. Nuvv ^em^n hrifuvn nXt^in^eu Id. iiL 2. 4^
9$\' tl r*^*}, . . 3««tff uui ati^mwt rnt u»9ttia,9 0wi;^U9 FL Giorig. 507 e.

§ ff37« RKMABini, 1. nils rule applies to the subject of the In£
touiidered tia^Jjf «• such. If, on the other hand, («.) the sabject of an Inf.
has a prior gramwuMtical relatiom, it may be in any case which this pricn- rela*
tion reqoires. If it is the same with the subject of tbe prindpal ymh, it is
addom repeated, except for special emphasis or distinction (§ 614. ^) ; and is



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