Alpheus Crosby.

A grammar of the Greek language online

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rA «'^7/tf4tr« iy|yfr« Th. L 74. 'E>»y7flX/i»rAry, Ir/ ^•'mmu nkr I*' «••
«w^f irXftfv^w lb. 116 (§ 451). Ilg^) rmrnflni [sc /S«vXitfi#l»/] A^MMi^tM
At. £ccL 401.

^ 839* Bemarks. I. Absolute and connected constructions of the
Part, are, in various ways, interchanged and mixed ; the former giving mors
prominence to the Part., and sometimes arising from a change of subject ; the
latter showing more clearly the relation of the Part, to the rest of the sen-
tence. Thus, AmCtuf09T»tf [sc avrUt] (aUtm, o VXtvs nlrc7t Xwi^fn [= )m»«
tethwfif etif<r»7s\ as theg were crossing^ however, Gius appeared to Aem, ii. 4.
24. Tatf «'^0r«^Mf /urit "Kv^ov afaCivt . . * xai rmSra, tvz M ftMX'f mm^*'*
[ss /tfvff'il, otXXk xaXevfTOf T9U ^rttr^is Kvfov i. 4, 12. Ai tifiif, fv rm^u r»
iifrtip xai fitttx'f^***" ^* ^* ^ ^* Ovxtri eSv oSvat »A.t«'r0vriv ifyi^ivh, aXX* Z*
mitrd XttfiCmftrt X'^i'* l^rt, St^vrt^ vfittTs rit rcvrett fur^t^t^tSvrts, hXX' ei t»4»
r«Mr rk vfiirt^ mXtwrctrtn L^'S. 178. 38.

2. The substantive is sometimes omitted^ and sometimes, though less fVe-
qvently, the Part of the substantive verb (cf. § 547) ; as, 'Evrtv^i* vr^tli^rm
[sc tutrZt], ipminrt fx**** * ^ ^^^ ^^"^ advancing,* L 6. I. 0/ )' tSw**,
l(ttrnrtttT9t fsc airav], in "UdKfMMf iv. 8. 5. TLifif fth if f*t, x«r#«M»rff
[sc 9rir%tt], &XX»t ff Soph. Ant. 909. OSrtt )* lx»ffrat9 [sc Imvrm iffmyfU,
Tt0f], and affairs [having themselves^ § 555] standing thus, iii. 2. 10. OZrm
fclv yfyfOfAtfrn*, eet^Sg «!itt Cyr. V. 3. 13. " Ax0f ros ^a^iXit^s [sc MTfi] U. 1. 19.
*£^i0Yi ^itnTf, if l/t6v fMtfii iriXnt Soph. CEd. C. 83. *H« v^ynrsi rmt
Id. (Ed. T. 1260.

3. The use «f the Ace for the Gen. absolute chiefly occurs after «# {$ 640^
sr when the subject is a neuter adjective (cf. § 432. 2).



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C9.&] FAJKTICIPLBt dM

^ tf 49* IV. A Piirt« whether absolute or depeadeut, id
often preceded by «$ (or a mmilar particle of special appU*
eatien)^ chiefly to mark it as eubjectkxe^ i. e. as expressing the
view^ opinion^ feeling, intenHon^ or statement of some one^
whether in accordance with or contrary to fact The Part
thus construed often supplies the place of a finite verb or Inf.
Thus,

Umf^iyyuJu • ., lif WtC§itki»»9T0g Tirrc^S^MVf, ^ ^ave command [as he
would give oommand, T. plotting] as if TiMMt^^henus were phttmg^ or under
preUmoe thai T. woe ptottmg^ L 1. 6. "CUttr* kw^XttXUm^ t^t \aXm»wUs «^r
wiXtm, they tkomgkt they were hei, i n a e mu ek ae the eify woe takem, viL 1. 19.

^m9 Uu^iUtf i. 1. 11. *fie IfMv «Jf ti9r»s, . . tSnt r«v yvtifjmif l;^4rf, ^88 if
then I shoald gOj so have your opinion] be assured, then, that I shall go, i. 3.
. 6. "SXiyi B-ecf^tTv, iff xaTeirTti^4fU»t*9 Twratt %U T§ 2f«v lb. 8. T« irXoTm
mirtvf »tXiU4fTos, Sv9'%^ irJiXn riv rr»\n Kv^0» fth wdtdVfiivop lb. 16. 'ilf
•v»iV (l9Tt09 m A»iHt%t ffWTi^i ^ Eur. Med. 1311. ^r^m^nkf woXXh iyt^h
it f^miHren fiaetku, bringing a large force to aid the king, ii. 4. 25 (§ 588. a)
YiMvmwKiuAT^tvitu it mhvv vrtu »l»nf9VTa( (cf. M/y«y irafei9Ktva,7^oft,ifovs) iii. 2.
84. K#r«ju^t/«» &rw%^ V^ «rv;^/«» «tyf<», we Ue down, as if it were permitted
tie to enjoif omr ease, iii. I. 14. A<ity»vA.«^*»«iw iiimt, it, iwfrmp ^nf/twf^
k—fTtf^M %tn099, V. 2. 12. Aiytertp ifiig it iXetXirnt iBscb. Ag. 672. Ae-
XmIt )* Jf rt rufAmtit Soph. Ant. 242. *£lt iroXiffu cvth «'«f* vf*£f it*my»
ytXm\ IL 1. 21. *H# fith fr^myn^ewTn Xful rmortif rnv wr^etmyimf, ^fi^r
V«^ Myivm, let no one cf yon speak, as thou^ I were to take this commtfndf L
8. 15. 'Avi»f«y«r, it eSiH* ^am vL 4. 22. *Air« r«lv *oim^Zf kvS^ttttt J^-
ywwn, it rk* f^ tSm ^^ftie'ren ifuXimf ke»n0i9 rit k^trns, wnv ^ vm» f «»V(*ri^
mmrkXp^tv Hem. i. 2. 20. Ev^ir* tk er^it r»ot Btevt nTXit rkynik ^ivm^
it T4vt ^teiff uiXXtrrm uii^nt lb. iii. 2. *H ^ yvifui I*, it lit ^ki rsl^
rSf '£xx«»*w Ixifrm [sc. rk mffumrn], and the plan was, that they should drive
eigainst the ranks of the Greeks, i. 8. 10. See § 662.

§ 64 1 • V. Anacolhthon. From the variety of the of-
fices and relations of the Part, and its frequent separation from
its subject, its syntax is peculiarly afl^ted by anacoluthon ;
consisting either (a.) in the transition from one case to another,
or (/}.) in the transition from the Part to another form of the
verb, or the converse. Thus,

rr^«r0«'f^o l^ofrt Iv rSf lir^/Mf Wtm^ut Th. i. 62. "l^tl^tt rnvrett [b: i^pn,
fie'atfTt] . ., l^i»ak0UVTtf Id. iiL 36. Kmiin/M^i^ n^irtfra ^imtivrm
e^k rei wXifAcv, tila txnrns T»Tt Wtrn^tuftne'tf niT»u k;^ifiriivrtt Id. vi. 15.
AlUit fA %xu [» ntiwftMt] U rifhi vir/Mf rvyx^ftv^a Eur. Hec. 970. III.
eraXrm )' auri it,9t fAX«» xiu^ [sa r^ifA^t tx** ^*^> ^'^' nXeevfat elnrep
.Asch. Cho. 410. "X^ivri /*•» ^(i^ct, ..nkveu^nf Soph. EL 479. *H^
[«" iftSt, 9 412] V aSn »nrt»Xa^tn ^/X«v Aro^j %%tfavrt»9 ^Hyyt 4. 256.
For other examples see §§ 344, 459, 627, 639.

$• 'AXAf « r(««^ <rii^«r«»rii, nni ftnx*^* ir^#riiy«y#» TTl.iv. 100.
Ayue . . • Ttfitneien ^ w^ttitvfAilre viL 2. 2. *IU ri^** *'^ 'nt Wf^Hn



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896' VERBAL IN -Tioff. — PASTICLB. [BOOK m^

m8mh IXA ri ^tvyttP, H Jxx^lirffrXicarrA Th. v9. 70. In die foflowing
•samptob t^Mra is a remarkable CraneitioD from the infinitive ooiietraeti<m t§
the participial ; Aiti^trmt, ri fui ^^rufs ti^m [for iSmm], m teforated, m m
mat to U mam Uatd (aee ^ 622), Th. vi. !•

(ill.) Verbal in -xios.

§ 643* From the verb is formed a passive adjective in
"tiogy expressing obligation or necessity (§ 314. f ). This verbal
is oflen used impersonally^ in the neut. sing, or plur., with ioxl
(§ 546. a). In this use, it is equivalent to the Inf* act. or mid,
with dtl or XQV ' thus, ^gnxiov ftoi doxn thai [= a*inttadai
duy], it seems to me that it is to be considered [= that toe ought
to consider]^ i. 3. 11. *Ed6nu dmnxiov thai, it seemed that they
must pursue, iii. 3. 8. Hence it iniitates in two ways, as fol-
lows, the construction of this Inf., and is therefore treated of in
this connection.

^ 64S* Impersonal verbals in >Tioy, or -no, (a.) govern
the same cases as the verbs from which they are derived ; and
(/}.) have sometimes their agent in the Ace, instead of the DaL,
(§407. x). Thus,

(«.) *CU truriitf tin KXiii^;^^ ^at ihey mwit obey QmrtkuMy ii. 6. 8
(§ 405. n)* Ti»^ivrUf V hfuf r»ht it^rtvt rrmifA§»( ii. 2. 12 {k 431).
Hdvrm itttfirUt iii. 1. 18 (cf. the personal form, Ilavrc wmitU lb. 35).
0S$ ti Tm^mt0Tim ru$ *Aifi9»ioit irriy Th. i. 86. Tvfmtzif siiimftMi lir
0firim Soph. Ant 678 (§ 849). — (/3.) KmrmZariw «Sy l» fti^u t»a^r§9f
meh one therefore must descend in htmy PL Rep. 520 d. 'fls •urt /it0^40f0^'
rU* titi iXKtttt 9 T»tff vr^aTtvfA%*9tt(, oSrt fAihxritf rSv Wfmyfit»rw»
wXi'fett 4 wttr»»te^t\'ftt Th. viii. 65.

§ o44* Rkmark. Constroctious are eometimee blended; thus, — «
(a.) The im pereo n cd with the pertonal construction of the verbal ; aa, T^f
i^tiient rkt w^mrmt, n^ ii ^tsera) vft4f i/r<», 7/M^f i«'4r»f«'r««i r«-
fierifv [for rag vm-t^Utif WtfMitTiot, or a$ v^rtikfus Wiext^rtat] PI. Phsedo,
107 b. — (6.) The Dot. of the agent with the Ace, ; as, *H^r» MivrJ*» .
Ix«-<;«»r«f R Rep. 453 d. — (c.) The verbal with the Inf.; as. 'Ev-i/*.
MMI ^ •& ji«X« rritfy, . . uifrm ii mvrkt , . lr«4/ft«^iiv PI. Gorg. 492 d.



CHAPTER VI.

SYNTAX OF THE PARTICLE.

§ 64^. The particle, in its full extent, in-
cludes the ADVERB, the preposition, the conjunc-



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Cfl. 6.] ADVERB. — FBEPOSITIOK. 897'

TiON, and the interjection. Of these, however,
the interjection is independent of grammatical con*
struction. The other particles are construed as
follows.

A. The Adverb.

(^646. Rule XXXIIL Adverbs modify sen-
tencesj phrases^ and words ; particularly verbsj ad-
jectiveSj and other adverbs. Thus,

IUiXt9 4)^twnf#fy i Kv^h, agam Qyrut asked, i. 6. 8. *B2ittt lw$i0$9T» L S*
S. *Ofiiei ivx5i»*t lb. 21. *lS.fA%>.nfU9Vi /MiXX«y L 7. 19. Tifv •» m^tvux**
0t9, the not blockading, Th. iiL95. *H ^« 'f^u^im Ar. EccL 115. Tnt kiti
r«» '£«'<«-«aJ;v wmXi9 xmrmUtfutu 'the descent back,' Th. vii. 44.

Rbmabkh. 1. An adverb modifying a sentence or phrase is usoally parsed
as modifying the verb or leading word of the sentence or phrase. Such parti-
eles may also give a special emphasis, or bear a special relation to other words
fai the sentence or phrase ; thus, 'H^i 7f y% tsxHfiUf, we at leaet are metoru>u$
(hers yt, in modifying the sentence ifU4§ HJtaifu*^ exerts a special emphasis
upon nfitut) ii* 1* 4. 'HsMvif tuitU tt y^ r^ ^«vf^^ i. 3. 21. 'Afsmtt
)), . . »«} tSrgf . . mtfmrmt, and Ariaus^ even he attempt*^ iii. 2. 5. Ka)
fura^tftwtftivav aiiTovy tit* i/ix« U/t7v, etfen though he tends for mCf 1
son not wUtmg to ^, L 3. 10. n^«#i»vniraii, »»iwt^ ci^crtf L 6. 10. E/«
)«ri r««/Mi ToA* myytJJmt U* UmSJ^tt .£8ch. Pr. 1040.

§ 847* S. Of the negative particles $h and ^4 the fbnner is nsed in
timple, absolute negaikm, and the latter in dependent or qualified negatUmf hence
in tuppositiont prohibUion, &e, ; or, in the language of metaphysicians, oi is
the obfeethsy and ftti the subfecthe negative (cf. § 587. 1). It follows that «&
is most nsed with the Ind., and /*n with the other modes ; and that, with the
same mode, olt is more decided and emphatic than ftn> Thus, Ov» «!)«, / do
not know, i. 3. 5. Ouwrt l^iT •v^tif lb. 'E«y tk f*h h'if, and if he would not
give, i. 3. 14. "O^rttt f^h ^ieivttwt lb. Mfi»iri ^i Ki7^0» ytf/K/^tn i. 4. 16.
Ohx i»*^9 frri, na) f^h )^f» «S f^il Xii'^^'f > SoP^* ^^^ C. 1175. 'E^ r«»
ri?» X«7«y m^i^rit cv^v, jM«tf * m^trhln •'•ri Id. Ant. 499. T« /<j| ivrm m «v«
lfr« iv. 4. 15.

Note. Interrogation is sometimes expressed by negative assertion, and
assertion by negative interrogation. Hence negative particles sometimes ap-
pear to pass into interrogative or affirmative ones ; as, Mi( ^m )««m>/m» » [We
do not seem to yon, do we ?] Dows ssem to gout iEsch. Fers. 844. *H fi4rti
• • IXm»9U I f fi^rtt / tf^r^ mrthif t 4. 405. OuxtSf . • m^m-mu^tfuu i [Sliall I
»ot then cease ?] / shaU cease Amt, Soph. Ant. 91. 0^j»«tf» . • UawSt lx^*f
PL Phadr. 274 b.

B. The Preposition.

^ 648. Rule XXXIV. Prepositions gov-
34



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8^ SYNTAX OF THR flXTlCLK. [bOOK HI

era ttibstantives ib the oblique cases, and mark
their relations ; as,

wrmfutf kt Miomi from SartKi, mmd marrkm tknmgk LftBm to Ikenmr M^
mtderj L a. 5.

Or, more paiticiilailyi
Ut^L, ino^ 4, and n^ govern the Grenitiye.

*Arm and Ug u u AccyaatiFe.

*AfA<pl^ ditt, xetTo, ficTtt, and ind^ ^ ^* Gren. and Ace*
*£»/, naqd^ n'tql^ ngo^^ and t;;io ^^ ^* Gen., Dat, and Aoc.

Nom. «. Hm Dativ« Minetiiiras fbHovs d/ifii •Ni» and /urd in the pMte;
and dpipi even in proae, chiefly lonie. TInia, *A^2 wXMfMf .Asch. Ft. 71.
*Am n MMv/ Eur. Iph. A. 754. Mirk xi^U Soph. Ph. 1110.

fi. The words above mentioned (with their euphonic, poetic, and dialectie
ftnna^ as l» fiir i(, ^ 68, ^^ tar 0^ l§ ibr f/#, M for !», «r^«W and «*««» ftr«^
»«»M inr d*^) are afl which an eonmonlj termed prepoeitioM in Greek, the^gh
other words may have a ptepoettienal force (§ 6K.«). These preyoaitkiBa Imvs
primary reforenee to the reUilieM of jpfaoe, and are naed to express other lela*
tions by r e as e a ef some mmrnhg^ eitiier real or fimeied (cL ^ 839).

y, *£# and w^i, by the addition of t (expressing motion or aetiom, cf. § 84),
become (Us, § 58) li^ or if (cf. § 57. 4), and w^h • thos, {», in, uf, Mto.

%, Te the prepositions governing Ae Aec, most be added the Ep. siffiz ^
fo (cf. §§ 150, d22) ; as, OSkvf$itii^ A. 425 (cf. U^ig 'OXi^^'m 420). "AJUi.
)t A. 308 (cf Eif dXm 314). 'Anis^t [» liV 'An«f ^^a^v. § 385. y] H. 330.
It is sometiflMS used pleonastically ; aa» "OtU hfit9$t fi. 83. Eh iXmi* •.
851.

§ 64 9« Remarks. 1. The use of the difierent cases
with prepositions may be commonly referred with ease to fa-
miliar principles in the doctrine of the cases ; thus.

G eni t ive , — («.) Of Depabtube or MonoH from (^ 347). 'Atri riw
«(;^*>f« from the province, i. 1. 2. *£» Xtppanirov o^fMtfAtfs lb. 9. Ylm^m Tk
fittfftXutf ^oXX$i «'^0f Evftt ««'4A./o i. 9. 29. *AkXi/At9»i xmra Tiff ^tTfmt,
leaping doumfrom the rock, iv. ii. 1 7. — (/S.) Of Origin and Materux. (§ 355).
Ttycfitf avri ^mfui^drtv ii. i. 3. O7v0* rt \» rii$ fiaXmuv «'f«'Mi}/t«iy«v rms ««*•
rtS ^tiwrnH i. 5. 10. — (y. ) Of TuBafB ($ 356> Ilt^i ifiin hUtf 4r»M>«», Ihettrd
Tuptdtimg 9&me ofyoUf vL 6. 34. Tjir ilxfif . . rtw d/t^ rmi wmr^ Cyr. ia.
I. 8. — ().) PABinnvE (^ 358). Oi «vr«/MXiir«vrif U r«ff yXi^Wt L 7.
18. — («.) AonvB (§ 380). For examples, see § 589.

Dathtb, — ({.) Of Nearness (§ 399). Itn rtSt fvyd^h wiA the exik$
L 1. 11. TS9 ftm^* Uur^ Ib. 5. — («.) Of Plage (§ 420). B«r/XMi b

2.8.

AocusATivE, — (^.) Of Momow to (§ 429). 'AptMfUT$ . . vfis mMs
oame to him, i. i. 5 K4crfC«iyt» tif vj^/cv L 2. 22. rXv*'^''^ • • «^« f*^
^e«r«9<«^ a. 17. 'AmCh fV; r« ;^ii Ib. 22. K«c^ 2eX«C^ af^M* viL



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C«. 6.] PR£P<M»TlOlf. 309

S. S8 'Tir^ mirk rk nixn ^h^ C^T^^ ▼• ^- 48.— (a) Of SFWamOMTKm
(§ 437). Aaf*9'(it Mmi Mr* ^/«« jwi2 ^»r4» Soph. Tr. 379. B^tk ymfim
n^ Id. (Ed. T. 1087.

§ OSO* Nans. «. It is common to explain manjr of the osee of tlw
casei roeBtioaed in CSi. L by supplying prepoeitione ; when, in reality, the
conneotiOB tf the easee with the prepoMtiooe ie rather to be explained, as abonr^
bj reftranoe te these nsea, and to the principles on which thej are founded
In maqy connections the preposition may be either employed er omitted, a«
pleasure ; as, "IWe'i^ Vt vtt iymXXvrm I**) diM^Ci/f . ., •Zrm Miy«y liytiXXtr.
rSf i^a«'«rf» ^vfM^Smt U. 6. 26. Kmi m^mvy^ r^XXj WtAfif L 7. 4. 2trv «'«X
A.^ »^aify^ Ml) e^M? ^»f»9 iv. 4. 14.

fi. The poeti sometimes omit the preposition with the first, and insert it
with the second, of two nouns slmilaiiy refaited ; as, *Oiif . . AtX^v »dirk
AsvXi«# Soph. (Ed. T. 734. 'Ay^wt #ff tri^^ »fM w$i/ntmf f*fU$ lb.
761.

^ ^9 1 • y. In the con n ect i on of the preposition with its case, we are
to cAnsider not only^the ibree of the preporition in itself, but also that of tlie
CAMe «rfth which it is joined. Thus wu^m denotes the rdation at*dde or nemr^
ttetf ; and with tlie (jen., it signifies from the tide of, or from; with the Dat.,
at ikt §uU of or h §mdt, maty with ; with the Aoe., to tht mA of or to, E. g.
T«»«w mMUemtrti tr» •& ftttn wm^h$m^tXi» m^t^tfiutt iwfn^tuf trm^A U
Si vi«» mmi Haeim9»t wXi/mv f Xt^^aXim^ X^Mrr^g «^ hrkm «•) rh ^ uim
fi^ U ntf rn rHnM^m^rt w^h Kx»d^xf ^ 8. 7*

). An eOIptic use of the atiQeetiye after a preposition d ese r r es notice ; thns^
*lx«^a) m h*r) r««#^«Mr«y [sa yinmtmiiw, or ms hni r«v mttrhf iTvom ^xuSfst-
9'ttH] W»h »^ ^'^^ v^mfdtm* layrkf i^W kXX^Xmt Ut^m^ they were cheerful
itutead of [being] dowmetut, ^, Mem. iL 7. 12. *£( ixCimp «l^eX«y iv(«vr«i
fiUf SofJi. Tr. 284.

f . The omission of the preposition with the second of two euhetmUwes hearing
a shmUar eotutructkm will be observed, not only after a eoHjtmctkm, but also in
the case of the rafotnw, in the queetioHs' emd atuwerg of a diatoguet &c ; as,
'Air# r% Ttn nai* umi r^ yiit B.. Gr. i. 1. 2. 'E* r^ Xt**^ f ^f^' A»#^
Symp. 4. 1 (cf. 'A*' Utifoy 9^ r«v xi***'^ ^' **^ «'«vr«v n^deSnv PL Coav,
213 C> ^Twrteyli a-i^i." ** T;»«» Wj" •'T#5 UrcXmf^dpuf " PL Bep.
456 d. *n« «w^ f<X«H »mi eU^y^mtt £sc. «'«f^] *ASnmit>t it^iZt k^dnu
Th. vLfM).

^. The complement of a preposition is often omitted idten a relative follows.
See § 526. «. So Eif [sc ro xt»**A ^^ ^* ^9. *E« iJ, wUii, Hdt. L 67.

§ Off 9* 2. A preposition in composition («.} often retains
its distinct force and government as such. But (/9.) it com-
monly seems to be regarded as a mere adverb (cf. § 657. /?)»
and the compound to be construed just as a simple word
would be of the same signification. Hence (/.) the preposi-
tion is oAen repeated, or a similar preposition introduced.
The adverbial force of the preposition in composition is par-
ticulariy obvious (d.) in tmen$ (§ 328. N.), and (s.) when tHnm
proposition fs used with an ellipns of its verb (cluefly Itil)*
Thus»



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9fB SYNTAX OF THR flXTlCLB. [bOOX HI

era substantives ib the oblique c^ses, and mark
their relations ; as,

wrmfMt, ktmitmi fiom Sardiif mmd mnrrkm Anmj^ Ljfdim. to 0m timr Jfi»-



Or, more partioularfyi

*AvtI^ ino^ 4, and «^o govern the Genitive.

!^ and ow (i a Dative.

*A]m and «^ a m Accusative.

*Aii(pl^ dia, xoTo, ficra, and intQ ^ ^ Gren. and Ace.

*Enl^ na(fd, n'tql^ n^og^ and vno ^^ ^* Gen., Dat, and Aoc.

Nom. m. The Dativ« sometinies foOovs dfitfii mmk, aad ^ri in the poeto;
and il/»fi even in prose, chiefly lonie. TInia, 'A^2 wKtm^mt Matii. Pr. 71.
'Afd n uutfi Enr. Iph. A. 754. MtrA ;t;ie'^ Soph. Ph. 1 1 10.

^. The words above mentioned (with their euphonic, poetic, and dialectie
IbnuB^ as l» fiir l|, ^ 68, l^ tar 0^ i# ibr i/#, M for !», «r^«W and ir«ri ftr«^
vr«< for ^i) are afl wfaldi an eonaimonlj' termed prepoeitioM in Grwk, thwigh
other words maj have a prepositional lbNe(§ 6i7.«> These prepositioas Imm
primary reArenee to the relatiens of phee, and an naed to express other vria*
tkms by nas s a ef some anc&fy^ eitiier nal or fimded (cL ^ 839).

y, *£# and w^i, by the addition of f (expressing vtoium or aetioHf cf. § 84),
become (l«f, § 58) li^ or i# (cf. § 57. 4), and tr^it • thus, i», in, i/f, tnto.

). To the prepositions governing Aa Aoc, most be added the £p. suffix -h,
to (cf. §§ 150, d22) ; as, OSinf^^f'i* A. 425 (cf. U^h "Okt^^tp 420). "Ax«.
)i A. 308 (cf. Elf ixa 314). 'Ai'^f^i [» uV 'AT^^f 20/<«v, § 385. 7] H. 33a
It is sometimes used pleonasticaUy ; aa» "O*^ hfuvht fi. 83. Ek M>mU m.
851.

§ 64 9« Remarks. 1. The use of the different cases
with prepositions may be commonly referred with ease to fa-
miliar principles in the doctrine of the cases ; thus,

Genttivb, — («.) Of Departubb or MonoH from (^ 347). 'A*-* rm
»iX^i^ fi*>^ ^ province, i. 1. 2. *£» Xippo9n9«p i^ftm/Atvct lb. 9. U.m^k ^
f^ufftXims «'0XA.«} «■(«; Kv^«» ««'nX/«y i. 9. 29. *A>.X«^fMi xmrk ^ ^r(»f,
leaping down from the rock, iv. ii. 1 7. — (/S.) Of Origin and Material (§ 355).
Tiyotitf Jkvri AMfimfmrw ii. i. 3. OTmv rt i» riif fiaXmvtv «'i«'Mi}/<t»«» rms tl^
Tw ^•'utttH i. 5. 10. — (7. ) Of TuBafB ($ 356> Ilt^« iftZ* 1m«v 4r»N>«v, / Aacrd
rs y grtn y some of you, vL 6. 34. TS« lUns . . riif «^^ rw wmr^if Cjrr. iiL
I. 8. — (3.) Partitive (^ 358). O; av«-«^Xiir«ynf U r«?» w^xpim L 7.
18. — (i.) AonvB (§ 880). For examfdes, see § 589.

Dative, — ({.) Of Nearness (§ 399). Sv* rori ft/^cri, anfft <ft« eriXw
I. 1. 11. T^v flr«^* Uc/r^ Ib. 5. — («.) Of Plage (§ 420). Bcr/XcM b

2.8.

AocusATiVE. — (S.) Of Monow to (§ 429). •Af«»Mrr# . . ar^i* m«^
eoMe to Aim, i. i. 5 Emr'Amtn^ tit «*«)/«» L 2. 22. IZvaV^'^ • • «^ ''•^
rre«r«9<«^ a. 17. 'A»tC« fV2 ri^ l^n lb. 22. K«c^ 2eXi<e««» ^f^ viL



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C«. 6.] PR£P<M»TlOlf.

S. 28 *Tir^ M^* r« ri^« AyrM Qyi. r, 4. 4a. — («.) Of SntGlFlOATiov

(§ 437). A»fi9r(a »a} mar' ififtm umi fvr«y Soph. Tr. 379. Kmrm ymfun
n^t Id. (Ed. T. 1087.

§ 8SO* NoTSS. «. It is common to ezplaki man^ of the uses of tlw
casei meBtkuMd in CSi. L by mxpfiymg prapoutioni ; h^m, in reality, tlie
con n ectiOB tf the eaeee with the prepoeitioDs is rather to be expUined, as aboir^
by reftrenoe to these nses, and to the principles on which thej are founded
In many connections the preposition a^y be either employed er omitted, a«
pleasure ; as, "Hrw't^ )• ng dytik^.treu i**) Sm^'iCi/^ • ., •Stm Mif «» nymXXir.
Ttf i|a«'arfy %wme§eu tl. 6. 26. Km) »^»»y^ «'«XX$ WUbfif L 7. 4. 2in trtX
y.y »^tt$fyy Ml) fii*^ fir«v iy. 4. 14.

fi. The poets somedmes omit the preposition with the first, and insert H
with the second, of two nouns slmUarly refaited ; as, '01^; . . AtX^«f» »dig%
jlatvXmt Soph. (Ed» T. 734. 'Ayfwt r^ iri/^^m utM 'Wotftvim* m^i lb.
761.

^ ^9 1 « 7. In the connection of the preposition with its case, we are
to consider not onlythe ibree of the preperition in itself, but also that of the
CAMe wkh which it is joined. Thus v-*^* denotee the relation at* tide or nemt*
ne»f ; and with the Gen., it signifies from the tide of, or from; with the Dat^
at the $uU ef^ or kemde^ mar^ with ; with the Aoe., to the eide of, or to. E. g.
Tm¥rm umU^mwrtft ^ ^ ^*^ wm^k fimftXim we^tm04u$t itefnvmt* wm^^ 21
Bivi«¥ mmi Hmeimteg wXtie^t 4 )iM%<XiM^ X«CtfvTtf «^ hrkm «•) r4 rsMw-

). An eOIptic nae of the atiQeetiYe after a preposition d ese r r es notice ; thus^
*lx«^«} ^ Jt»ri r»tti(«^Sf [sa yvfmmSt, or hb ^v^:} r«v «^ikf iTy«4 v»vi^»t*
wut] ilr»», Ml) «vr) vp»^t*/»iwf htitrkt n^un hXX^iXmt Uif^h ^^ ^oere cheerftd
instead of [being] dowmeoMt, ^., Mem. iL 7. 12. *£( tkCm* il^nXw U^turtu
fi/»^ Soph. Tr. 264.

I. The omission of the preposition with the second of two eubstasUives having
a timilar eomttruction will be observed, not only after a eonftmctioH, but also in
the case of the relative^ in the queeiioHs' emd atuwert of a dialogue, &c. ; as,
•Air« ri rSt nit »tu tJJj y^f H. 6r. i. I. 2. *£» r^ Xt**V» f ^f^* A»#^
Symp. 4. 1 (cf. 'A«' itctivcv yk^ rov xi^**^ ^* *" t0vt6p n^arlev PL Cony.
218 c). ^TtSrfyit wift,** ** TW Wi* •'T.5 i«-.X«^«»M» " PL Rep.
456 d. *SU itm^ f*X»¥i Ml) ^^yivmsy £ac. ir«^4] 'A/eMMHf ^mv Ic^vm
Th. vL 50.

^. The complement of a preposition is often omitted when a relative follows.
See § 526. «. So Eif [sc rh xi****\ ^ /3. 99. *£« iJ, wtU, Hdt« L 67.

§ Off 9* 2. A preposition in composition (a.) often retains
its distinct force and government as such. But (/?.) it com-
monly seems to be regarded as a mere adverb (cf. § 657. /?),
and the compound to be construed just as a simple word
would be of the same signification. Hence (/.) the preposi-
tion is oAen repeated, or a similar preposition introduced.
The adverbial force of the preposition in composition is par-
ticularly obvious (d.) in tmetU (§ 328. N.), and («.) when Hbm
pireposttiOQ *e used with an ellipns of its verb (cluefly Itil).
Thu8»



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400 8TlfTAX OP THB PARTICLE. [bOOK IU

a. 2tfv(«^^i^iy mM rr^atrtmrai^ h» went wiA her 9oldier$, L 2. 20.

^. I1^0A9rtfi^i m alrif rh^ ^vymri^a Cyr. viii. 5. 18 (cf. Tlifi^ru 'AC^
CiX^nv . . «*(«( Utv^pZvrm vii. 6. 43). '£«'i«'A.ivr«f «vr^ U Gr. L 6. 29
;cf. IlA^Tv iir* «&rm lb. 1. 11>

Nonss. (1.) H«iioe v«rbt oompoanded with iir/, «'«f^ and «^ are oont-
moBly fbUowed by Um ZAirt. of approach (6 398). (2.) The prepositioB. af
•nob, and the general sense of the oompouad, oftsa reqnfare the sune oaae, as^
partieaUriy, hi oompoimdi of kwi^ V^ and rvv. See §§ S47, 399.

7. *En4(«fr« ti'rCaXXMv tit «^y KiXi»i«» i. 2. 21. Ilc^i^ li fitwtXuft mwiX
$n i. 9. 29.

§ OS 3* ). Tmesis oocors chiefly io the earlier (especially the Ep.)
Greek, when as yet the union of the preposition and verb had not become firm-
ly cemented. In Att. prose it is very rare, and even in Att poetry (where it
occurs most frequently in the lyric portions), it seldom inserts any thing mors
than a mere particle between the preposition and the verb. Thus, *A^o Xm^t^
itfunm [:>B ko$yh ifrafMiimi]^ to wcard off desMiction^ A, 67. II«^A )' ^yx**
fm»^ iriwnyt* F. 135. *Axl ^ nmwrw JiXtrmt Hdt. iiL 36. *£» Hk wM-
r««, and Ucqtntg forth, Eur. Hec. 1 172. Atm fi t^4$4^, umrk )* Imruwmt Id.
Hipp. 1357. *Ayr' 1^ ^rtiftrm PI. Goi^. 520 e.

Notes. (1.) The preposition sometimes follows the verb; and is some*
times repeated without the verb ; as, II<^«vr«f , S ywett, /urJi Ear. Hec
504. 'A«'0Xir «'«Xi», ««-• ti «'«r«^« Id. Here 1055. iLttrk /4v 7x«Mr«» A^.
/A6f rtfXiv, »»rk ti Hm^m^^nv Hdt. viii. 33. So, 'Ci^vpr^ . . * Aymf»tft9tnj «*
[sc. iJ^yur*] Y 'OWiw r. 267. "^X/irw . ., xk'i Vi E. 480. (2.) In the
earlier Greek, what is called tmeau is rather to be regarded as the adverbial use
of the preposition (§ 657. ^), than as the division of a word already com-
pounded.



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