Alpheus Crosby.

A grammar of the Greek language online

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t. 'Axx' itu [for avarm^i] S| U^attn^ but [rise] up from the etats, Soph.
Aj. 194. EiViX^fo «•«(« [for wm^trrt] Eur. Ale 1114. '^t [for iNm] )*
If Tf it^^ X'^if "^ Xii/Mwy XM4 «X0'4 V. 3. 11.

C. The Conjunction.

^654* Rule XXXV, Conjunctions con-
nect senteiices, and like parts of a sentence ; as,

'Hff'/iyfi Aa^tTcf xa) uvatvrtvtt DariuM was sick and apprehended, L I. 1.

wilhreti ri »«) ruXXeifACeini Ki;^«f i. 1.3. "il^n avr^ /tfSA.X*v fiXtmt iT-
rai If /SariXir lb. 5. IlXt/tfVf j| %t^xt^6t i. 3. 7. *EC^« ««) ^^'U^txif »»
*EXA.f}v<x*rf i. 8. 1.

Remarks. 1. By like parts cf a sentence are meant words and phrases of
like construction, or performing like offices in the sentence, and which united
by conjunctions form compound subjects^ predicates, adjuncts, &c. Some con*
nective adverbs also may sometimes be regarded as uniting like parts of a sen-

2. Like parts of a sentence are commonly, but not necessarily, of the same
part of speech and of sunilar form. In many cases, it seems to be indifi^rent
whether we regard a conjunction as connecting like parts of a sentaBoe, or (sop*
plying an ellipsia) as connecting whole sentences.


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3. A conjtmction often connects the sentence which it introduces, not Sft
mnch to the preceding sentence as a whole, as to some particular word (xt
phrase in it; thus, n^0rC«XX0V0'« . . xmraXtv-ovrgg &^<iio9 T$Tf m-cXtfiiuf, tifiau
XtitTo <ptuyuit iy. 2. 11.

§ 8«S9« 4. A twofold construction is sometimes admissible, accord
Ing as a word is regarded as bdon^ng to a compound part of a sentence, or to
a new sentence ; thus, Wxtvwtetri^if fjth Kt, •/ Uw^^mir, « l^«2 }kiltouf Gyr.
viiL 3. 32. '£» lu9Ti^t j} r^iUvti b-iw^fir«v Th. vii. 77. Tins 'hi metri^otf
M^ /tSiXXtt kKfAol^wfitt 4 \ym [sc. ^x^^iv], vret^anai Isocr. 188 a. *H/(«a>»
ti tiftuivff i i»iry««, ri //tiXXtf w^oa^ta/tivttv Dem. 287. 27. Oifhmfiov yet^
l#ri» 'Ayi^m *ASntm9t %Stmty Jr**!^ 0^«rvC«v>.«v Lys. 136. 27* 'E^f-
#ri ^\ Sf^i^ *ILyiX»x»fi n^9 xiyuf Ar. San. 303.

5. In many connections, two forms of construction are etjuaDy admissible^
the one with, and the other without, a connective. The two forms are some-
times blended. See §§ 461. 3, 609, 6i9. N., 628.

6. A conjunction is sometimes used in Greek, where none would be employed
ill English ; e. g., when vrcXvg is followed by another adjectiye ; as, n«xxa n
»mi im-trnhum ^nXiytvr^ ▼• 5. 25.

§ 999m 7. The GredLS, especially the earlier writers, often employ the
more generic for the more specific connectives (§ 330. 1), or instead of other
ibrms of expression ; as, 'Ei»^«y^avi • ^x*^^ ^^ *Xti»tv tS ^Xt* vi^ivri ^41,
' [and] for I have more leisure,' iEsch. Pr. 817. Tuyx»*'>' rt xXnfi^ xvav^nt-
€^w irvXnt ^rnXSra^ xat /$t (p^oyyoe »l»tUu xeixav fiaiXXu ht* urvf, 'just as I am
drawing the bars, there strikes,* Soph Ant. 1186. Ka) ilhn r ^* i* <r^ r^inf
ermifMJf^ jUe) X.$i^ifo^Of mvr^ t^mXtvtivfit iv. 6. 2. Ov;^ if4,oia/s vtvatnKdff^tj
nmi "Oftn^i (cf. ^ 400), they have not composed in the satne manner [and] a$
Homer, or wiA Homety PL Ion, 531 d (cf., in Lat, nmUis atque, &c.).

Note. The student will not fiul to remark, — (a) The frequent use, in the
Epic, of )i for yaft and in general of codrtUnatinn in the connection of sentences,
for BubordhuOkm. — (b) The frequent use of 7«# in specification, where we*
fbonld use thatf mamefyf aav, &c. ; as, T^ lnX»f «» • r$ ^» yk^ w^ifht hft,%*
ff . . U'iUtn iL 8. 1.

D. Concluding Remarks. .

§ Off 7« I. In Greek, as in other languages, the different
classes of particles oflen blend with each other in their use.
Thus, (cr.) adverbs sometimes take a case, as prepositions ;
(/J.) prepositions are sometimes used without a case, as ad-
verbs ; (;'.) the same particle is used both as an adverb an i £is
a conjunction, or as a connective and a non-connective ad-
VQi*b. E. g.

«. For examples, see §§ 347, 349, 372. y, 894, 899. — Horn, uses tf^tt and
lr*r as protracted forms for tit * thus, 'AyyuXw . • 1Xi#v tUm CI. 145 (cf. Kit
IXiM 143). *AyJiyfift9 U«0 xXi^itiv H. 155.

$, ^ fihf MiXtu(ri0, xit^Jmtltt n v^if [sc T9vr$f\ * in addition to thi^
'besides,' ifisch. Pr. 73. n^^f V tn til. 2. 9. 'E» )S [so. r«vrMf], and vmom-
" Soph. (Ed. T. 27.



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16. S«^/yfT«i» M r«v 2Ti;^^«Xi«v, »«) (conjunction) 2«r«^cTay r«v *A;^m«%
(iMtff SfTMf »«2 (adverb) T«vT«i;f, Ixixivrir L 1. 11. TI^Sr§9 ftlv tia^x^H • .
i7r« )i IXifi i 8. 2. "AAJltf ft X«#^ m) iXX«f» i7t« ff-fXX*/ i. 5. 12
T«v«w Iff-MMW, /•i;t;e« riMr«f iyirtr* iv. 2. 4 (c£ $ 394). 11 Xj^* m.vA
MMmXim l;^«vrtf L 2. 24 (of. § 849).

Note. The adverb v^/v is oonstraed in ftmr ways; (1.) *s * co&neoCivi^
witti the appropriate mode ; thus, Mji w^irhv tucTrnkofm , ., «r^ Jv mit^^ mfn^
C«vXivr«fT»i, * before he should consult,* i. I. 10 {w^n is followed by tlM Sslg.
»r Opt., only when a ne^tive or interrogative sentence praoedes) ; (2.) as har-
Ing a prepositional force, with the Inf ; thus, 11^ tittmmi r^i^ \»%>Jkm^
be/br$ [oompleting] Mfy had oampUtedfaur stadut, iv. 5. 19 ; (3.) as a simple
adverb, with H and the appropriate mode : thus, Tl^U n • • iyitovra, before duU
they had comey Oyr. i. 4. 23 ; (4.) with 4 and the Inf. instead of another
mode ( 629. 2). This construction is less Attic

§ 688. II. Both adverbs, and prepositions with their
cases, are often used substantively. An adverb and a preposi-
tion governing it are often written together as a compound
word. Thus,

*Or«v }li r0urttf SXif txnru but when you ham had enough of fAu^ v. 7. It.
lEuf fiXf £ira^ xtii fi^mxv* XV^*** f^ ^'"^ ^^ *"' *hnrt Hme, Dem. 21. 1. Eif
W9 PI. Tim. 20 b. Uix^t UrauPm V. 5. 4. U^i^'aXmt Ar. Eq. 1155. *E>(.
w^tfr/fv iii. 4. 2. UafmvrUa Cyr. 11. 2. 24. *Hv . . M^ 9fiuev rtS «Xm
^r^aTtvfiMTcf *A^»«$ff, eUfove half of ihe whale army were /Ircadians^ vL 2. 10.
Alrtt etvriv %U ^/r;^iXitft/f l^uws i. I. 10. *Ex rit itfi^) T0US fiv^Uuf V. 8. 8.
Svfii^afM,o9 iff %U Wrano^Uvs H. 6r. iv. 1. 18. "ZuvuXtyftitmt uV <^ ^»X^
«f^} WrnjitrUut lb. ii. 4. 5.

§ 6S9* III. One preposHtk>ii or adverb is oft«n used for
another (or a preposition is used with one ease for another), by
reason of something associated or implied. This constnietioa
is termed, from its elliptic expressiveness, conftructio prog*
nans. Thus;

«.) A PREPOSiTK^ of ma^on for one of rest, 01 U rnt iy^ . • i^vym
[U for In, by reason of X^uy^ following], ihoe/e in the marhet fled [from it], i.
2. 18. Ai % v'nymi mitrav i/riv in rSf ^nriXuvn lb.. 7. 'A^ixMiwvwi r*>v \m
T9V x^V^^ ^t^^s &»^(tg V. 7. 1 7. To7f Ix rivXtfi/ Xn^ftt^i, those taken at Fylne
and brought thence, Ar. Nub. 186. 0/ awi tSp nara^^fnArit rut nn—ri-
. M^ . . \x^ti9r» Th. vii. 70. E/f A^Ayxnv mifufm, we' hm come into nu tmity,
and He there, Ear. Ipti. T. 820. *E» 1^ ri ^«ri#C«X« rSf ^ rm iiV ri wt^
1.2.25. . -^ T -^

/3). A PBBPOsrnoN of raff for one of fnotion, *Ev Aiv»«)if n^rprmw [l« for
iif, to imply that they were still there], had gome to Leucadia, or were abeent m
Z., Th. iv. 42. O; y if rif '^C»*f nnTmwi^tyyirtf (cf. Eis ^ ri *H|«m* m-
ri^tfyi) H. Gr. iv. 5. 5. *£» r!f warn^*^ ttnrw Ag. 1. 32.

y.) An ADVSRB of motion for one of rMt T£p f ,W*» [for }»)m] rtt tUeny
mdr»0 Ar. Plut. 228. iUraUn^it rw riwtr rsS iviiwU tit 4XX#» r<*»» A

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Off, &} KlflPI^S,


).) An ADTEBB of reft ibr one of mofum. "O«'0v [for S^tm] fiiCnxtf, §Mt
•Hi, mo one AnoiM wAcre [for whither] he ha» gone. Soph. Tr. 40. n«yr»;^«#
«^^urCiv«'«^iy Ar. Lys. 1230.

^ 660. IV. In the doctrine of .particles, especially con-
nectives, the figures of syntax hold an important place ; thus,

A. Ellipsib.

Ellipsis here consists either (««.) in the omission of the par-
ticles themselves, or (/I), far more frequently, in that of words,
and even whole sentences, connected or modified by them.

a. Among the particles most frequently omitted are copu*
lative and complementary conjunctions (§ 339. N.) ; as,

Tftn^t, ix**f KV^f**^*^ ^X**f '^'^Cf rowovTout vii. 1. 21. Ovrt wXt*4u^us 2«-
fMm w^ftiXtH $'•«• •& [for tUri] X/uXdv^y^t .£aeh. Pr. 450. *OfAwm ifiTw
S«Mi# irmtrmf mmi «^«f, [ee. irt] i fun* . . UvifAw vi. 1. 31. 'A^X»^iif,
ipfktyZ V. 6. 17. *lLit§iyyuk0» wi^t^ ^sii» Wttt tAx*^ l^ai^fiun itSku*
ymmtmm wsrriiv }* b lifudi tp(M JB^ck: Ag. 604. See § 611. 3.

NoTB. Hdt. sometimes uses dStttv with the ellipsis of a conditional or other
€QiijnnatioB ; ai, OAmmw ittmnrt Ttuhm, iftus . . UX4i>|'«^iv, if tiun you mU
fWl <&» tibic, iM MoU dbiert, iv. 1 18.

§00 1* /5. Connected sentences especially ab6und in el-
lipsis, from the ease with which the omission can be supplied
from the connection. We notice, among the great variety of
oases that might be mentioned, the frequent ellipses,

1.) In replies; as, ^^ISt^rtt • r< n Wi»fifat\^ *0 %* i^ix^Uart, trt tS
^^ tlx frr<v] L 6. 7. 'Euwitrtt Tt rtiu *0^«»t««, irt «^i» altxnhlf lb. 8.

Nam. (a.) In a dialogue or address, % speaker often commences with a
connective (most frequently* an adversative or causal coogunction), from re£N>
coce to something which has been expressed or which is mutually understood ;
as, *AXX* i^MTi, hutyau»e$y iii. 2. 4. 'E/m) T th ^avX$9 hxu fT««i vi. 6. 12.
07m 7«f rM fftrnx^tat^ Z Eof^i, r«» «^tX^«v { i. 7. 9. (6.) In like manner the
Voc is often Mowed by a connective ; as, *n yvfau^ tpn, i^tfM V% r« ri Urn %
Mem. iL 1. 26. ^H Ki^»«, rU yk^ • • hytf^ni^u \ ». 501.

9.) Between two connectives ; as^ *Aaji^ [sc. «'«m«imm] yk^ »mi itt^ttint*
iUid^m UL 2. 82. Cf. y. 7. 11. *Axxk yi» Vthwa in, 2. 26. U^^m ^
^Xmrrmv fiu • mmi [sc rmunf fti] yk^ ifin Mi*u vi. 2. 18. 'Km) yk^ »m\
mm^m Ifminr* iL 2. 15. — And yet, perhaps, in such examples as these, »X.
Xk ytif or luii ym^ may be regarded as forming but a single compound con-
Bective^ or one of the particles may be regarded as a mere adverb (§ 657. y).

§ 669» 3.) With if^ especially in expressing compariaon, de$ign^
pretoKe, possUnKtjf, 6c. ; as, 0iTr§* 4 [sc 0utid ra^^ £f nt &9 ^ir«, quicker
tk&m [ao quick asj one wotdd have thintght, i. 5. 8. M(i{«*« i^yn^fUfH Chu 4


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iSy M niir/)«r «^» mt^enttm^t Mtking Ihat Ae preparal&m wom greatet Atm
[so great as] it would be against the Pisidiaru, i. 2. 4. B^a;^vTi^ ifMtrj^MV
j «f l|i»MiWM, Aatr/lnf [a shorter distance than so as to reach] too Jtort a dn-
tance to reachf iu. 3. 7. *Epa9fi tfuafTOf, i9riri^ vi^iXn ktuxn i* 8. 8. *ii$
tit fMcx*f* «'«(ir»f(Mcr^iy«f, arrayed a« [he would array] /or battle^ lb. 1.
*£«'i»«^«'rfv, 1^ %U «v»X*»r/v lb. 23. 0(t^«i;rj» «»» jc^airtt iit ^(*f «^y ««*•
<0v v'^rafMS txC^nrtf iv. 8.- 21. 'A/t(ti^Uf m M t«ut§vs t 2. 1. "iifirt^ ^79*
imiXtv0t L 5. 8. 'Xlf i» taIv v'kfivTttf [flC t}i/»«vr«], ^i/yT«^»^iMf Th. vL 70.
Ki^««'»^r4M, lif 4v ami l*r^»«rif t« va^' Xaturut v^S^/mk, ^i/rcvrif, <fte CIsra
sunliaiu akuvied, as they would naturally be having seen what had happened
among themselves^ v. 7. 22. *fU Iwi r« wfXv, as 0ungs are far the most part,
commonly. Hi. 1. 42. See §§ 410, 525. «, 640.

. NoTBS. (a.) From the frequent use of «f with the aocosative after Terbt
of motion to express the porposed end of the motion (§ 429), it came at last
to be regarded as a mere preposition, suppljing the place of wfif or tU, bat
chiefly before names of persons ; as, ri«^Mr«4 J*f fimnkim, goes to the king, L
S. 4. (6.) *fLf is often used to render expressions of qoantitj less posittTd;
as, 'E;^*** [sc. «jlfr« 9vXkevt} if nfT»»»vUvs, having such a number as 500, L
«. about 500, i. 2. 8.

§003* 4.) With adversative coi^jnnctions, with which we most soni*>
times supply the opposite of that which has preceded ; as, Kmi ^ ft* mrifsm
r^tf")* mcrcrriiXnrt yns, aXX* a^^iwXtvm »eti nnrmrrsimf iifiun [sc. ^•^•A]
Soph. El. 71. E; fth ^«(/XiT««, l^inv • ii )' [se. ^ /}«^i«w<], i n fi*uXsrmsf
Ttvrd ^Mtrti PI Euthyd.^285 c.

5.) With 4, before which there is sometimes an ellipsis of /uiXXn • as, Z««
^rw0t $H(^aifU9 [sc fAaXk§f]fii ufimt ^itut Lys. 171. 8. T«y rnt hfuri^
wixtttf Tvxnf it iXtifttiv, , . 4 rkf Iju/fiv Dem. 24. 16. See § 466.

6.) With conditional conjunctions ; as, £< ^v fi r< tx"f> '^ M«)«r«^
it^if tifiuis kiyuf [sc. Xiyi In] • «i ^l ftfi [sc. 7^i<f ], h/*Uf v^if ri Ix^f**^ ^
7. 15. E7ri «XX« rt ^iX»t XV^^*^* **'*'* ^^ Mywrrn rr^aTiuttfj ^vymmm»
0TA^Pat9T if mvrSf iL 1. 14. Kjt) vvy, ^y ^v « Kv^t fi§oXnret4 [mmX^s ix**] •
•4 el ^«, ufitiit yt rj|» r«;^iVTffv wa^ttrt Cyr. iv. 5. 10. 'Ewaitfir sac) ;^4Xm luit
fH n &XX0 x^"f^*' ^* [^* }»«'«* T«ur§] i. 6. 1 (•' ri; SO used is equivalent to
jkTTJf). 0/ ^\ «XXm Mff-aSXtyr* v«r« rt r«fy waXtfttivv xtc) X****f» *^* '^ ^'^ ''''f
T. 8. 8. *E{rtiV«»r«, TX»i» if ris rt fsXi^/^fy iv. 1. 14. £?vm JTrcen, trXit «•-
^^«* 14 rj^v 2«»iX/«y ^«vr« «vr«W %§vXme%w4m Th. vl. 88. 'AXXm fA%ti—0t , . •
•4 %\ nmH MVTcH [sc. «v /«iv/«tfril, ^luyitrvt I. 45. Ei )* lyi [»■ gi )| /i«vXi%
i^ (m/ t/ yoK vfitt^ corns'] A. 302, and oft«n in Horn.

NoTB. When two similar danses are connected, a pronoun, preposition, or

tther word is sometimes (chiefly by the poets) omitted in the first clause, uid,

for the sake of emphasis or the metre, or by reason of other ellipses, inserted

.in the second; as, Ztty^*$, 'Ar^i*; mV, 9»%* Sl^u tt^m Ivmmi Z. 46. "Ea

lUXsv X^ <^r«e«f .^iiiy%»mi ^ird^mitf ^ 326. See ^ 650. fi.

B» Plbokasil

§ 00 4. Under this head we remark,

1.) The redundant use of negatives. This appears chiefly
«.) In connection with ind^nites, which in a negative sentence are A

Wgnlaj^ combined with a negative ; as, 0^«r« l^u •Mt I. S. 5. OUsA

sUm/^i slUmfuSt •HitftUn nMtmtmv %xu PL Parm. 1 66 a.


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0B.6.] PLEONASM. 405

/S.) Id divided ooDstroctieii ; as, Oim mUx^^ •Sr% ^imv tSv M^otn
ii. 5. 39. Mfi^t Ttktiri funrt IfUi finrt &XXf vii I. G. Ov ya^ l^rn Z^rtt
ikwi^tt^mv rW«rtr«if ^r% Vfttt 0St% mXkf tvitti ^Xnfu yvn^mt ifetfTioufitfOf PL
ApoL 31 e.

y.) In the emphatip lue of §bM and fni^i • as, Ou fih Ih »uit rtur &f nt
ilwti L 9. 18. Mil r«iytnr /AtiH vii 6. 19. 0S»9Uf fiovktrat . ., $i^ v^XXf"
2<7, he does not titerefore wish, no, far from it, Dem. 100. 9.

§ OOo* I.) In the use of ^n with the Infinitive, after words implying
■ome negation ; as, N«vxXii^«if c«'fr<ri fth isayM, he forbade the thipnuutere to
etoet [saying that they shoidd not cross], vii. 2. 12. 'TS^i^vyt r§ /mi »atra-
9tr^m$nnu L 3. 2. "E^u r«v ^^ tcmrtt^Ztm iii. 5. 11 (cf. 2;^if0'«f.rt vn^fv Ear.
Or. 263). EiwXMVTir ftniet/An . . Vtf^/^fr^oM vii. 6. 29 (cf. KuXvfut too xaitn
i. 6. 2). Ea^Xv/mta ^jf mi^ninim Th. i. 16. *^if%itf rw /in ^fi tttat iv.

Note. Ob is sometimes used in like manner, with a finite v^5 supplying
(with 7ti or ttf) the place of an Inf. ; as, *A^f u^0at g ., »rt «» vafiry, to denjf
that he woe present, Bep. Ath. 2. 17. *iU )' •»« ImTvh lyu*^yu rnt ynw^ •Im
iHwrnr it^fnfnttu Dem. 871. 14.

§ 000* I.) In the use of /Ml «^ inth the Infinitive and Participle, as
A rimpte negative* This chiefly occurs (1.) after negative and interrogative sen-
tences, and (2.) after some expressions of ehame and fear. Here ftn §u takes
the place of nmple /mi, and (3.) may even be wholly redundant after words
where fin would be so (§ 665). Thus, (1.) Oihig yi ^* «y trt/ruty mvi^Mwiv
ri ftn «v» Ix^m, none of men eon persuade me not to go, Ar. Ran. 65. Ou ya^
At fimMfkf 1x^tv*9 atirit, fin »if» tx^* v fUfit»X*9 Soph. CE)d. T. 220. Tit
fMux'^^^ f^ '^X^ ir»vr« nmrmtaXa^ttu \ BL Phfedo, 74 d. (2.) "VUrt v'art*
ml^x^^^ ^*»h f'^ *** fPVv'iM^itf ii. 3. 11. (3.) Ov» iimtrute^fiai r» fin •»
y*y»ttu9 JBsch. Pr. 787. Tj inr» fiiXXus fih »v ytymUxuf % lb. 627. T/
^fiwMf fik §vxi • • J^^^a9t^9^ iiL 1. 13.

^.) In the occasional use of »u to strengthen the negative idea implied m
M, than ; as, T/ $^9 ^iT Imm** rip XV**^ avmfiivuv, . . ^XXw n »vx »ff r»x*^'*''^
• . rht ilftivn* vtu^itu, ' rather than make peace,' = ' and not rather make
peace,' H. 6r. vi. 3. 15. E/ r§iftf9 rtt vfiSf . . &kXttf *it ixu rn* i^ynv Iv)
Mtti*m9, H ^ §y ^i«y avrh T%4vAvtu Dem. 537. 3. *^»ii yk^ • Yii^ffnt ovhit
w$ fiikx.\*9 W n^Utt, ^ w »mi Wl vfii»s Hdt. iv. 118. (Compare, in French
and Ital., Vous icrieez mkux que vous ne parkz, Egli era piu ricco che voi non
" s.)

Notes. (I.) Two negatives in the same sentence have commonly their
distinct force, («.) when one applies to the whole sentence, and the other to a
part only ; and (fi,) when two sentences have been condensed into one. Thus, •
(«.) Oi; Vi^} fiXt fu X\ym . ., *tf>) Xfiav TH •S, I do not say it of you, and not
if myself, PL Ale. 124 c Oi vSw Imtivti iraiofitvot, . . •iJ^ ^«'#^«»i7» •/ rXi»-
sunt )tf*c»r«ii iii. 1. 29. (/3.) See the examples in § 528. 2; to which
miy be added, with an ellipsis of the relative, Oihig sun t^m^x* Symp. i. 9.
(S.) For si fi^ see §§ 595. 1, 2, 597. 1.

$ 667. 2.) The repetition of various particles for greater
clearness or strength of expression, particularly after interven-

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STBTAX or t^ fAmcLE. [book ai

OiTiHeQ dmmucDDii, am wbb uiiponnK or o^
pfafttic wofdi; as,

'EltfytiW Ir«» u fJk mmrmCmmrtu i'«<Mirif sa* wtUmm, Sri ■■rBM^iii

M^r ^» &;t^ ^Uj^mAm L S* €. KWs «« j— !■■■ i^nmt mmXai/ut Mw
8o|*. Am. 68a Til;^' £* >^* iS» rw>ffy ;t^ «Vmi«i» ^^^ U. CKA. T.
139. 'n c«»M» iS yi»-i» Jd. AiL 799. Ei ^ $7 «« ^nA«C« PL Gaqg^

3.) The miihiplicitfioo of particles of sbnihr fefce, aad the
emplojineat of Deedleae coDoectives ; as,

^vtmL 1. 10(cf:L2.2). Oiw^iritw ^^U li ..lf^mmr*kg,%.A. ^3m»
dl«ra Mf»7'«*« Tk Tm. 92. TW 24 x«f ^'s** ^ W> 701 d. Sit
f^ 4C1. 3, 809 «, 619. N^ 628^ 855^ S.


§ %% 8. The influence of attraction aomedmes passes
eyeo beyond a cotineetiTe ; as,

Omii^ tbe attnKtkm of «f) PL Goer. 205 ow 'B^^m^ AW^m* ^ ^ ifc«»-
Imnu (r«vf Ag»»Xci^»w>Pf), Si ^ ^tiXtnrm * AtdC mnn t [ior d i »# Crf» r f , bgr
ttttneHaa to the tnli^ of fisiXtwrm] )l . ., ««'i^Mr» Tlu r. 50. 'Eygil
CMT »«} J r«9 IXA«» «WS»r»* (see ^ 868. 8) Tk TiL 21. See 4 627. 2.


§ SO 9. Anacdutbon is frequent in the connection of sen
tences. The clause completing the construction is oflen either
omitted or changed in its form. Hence, also, the regular cor-
respondence of particles is sometimes neglected. Thus,

*Xlf yi^ iym • . ^Mt/^m. Tnn, Sn KXmi^^s i im Bv^«y«^ A^/furr^ fdXXm
if^9 [for it HxMHrm, Kximti^ fiiXXtt, Or |»«tw«« «<n KAi«^^«i ^tsAXu] vi. 4.
18. 'Afiif Ti' if !«#««« *i nfkM [fbr it fM«f»» «y H^i^ or Umm •» vMm**!
Soph. Tr. 1238. 'Axxk f^hf, — i^ yk^ xmi «wrf^ If J» f;t;«' >A«^'^, uti
n /StfvX^rir/ci ^<Am 4^> i7»M • — - ««)« /»if yd^ [for ^Ai^ ^, i^ y^ «Qtt,
or «A.X<t ;mv9 i(£ ' JUm. yai(\ iL 5. 12. See iii. 2. 1 1. TUv )i *A/if»«Mr» lr»<t«
yk^ «^irC«4« ^r^irt^t Iv rn Amtit^ifMVi wt^i &XXm9 mftSrmy tut) . . 0«|»
«0rMV TIl L 72. 06» W0* S rt /Mt>.X«v, Z ati^tf 'A^ffMMM, Wfiiru aSr^s^ m
riv rMMfrn ifint U Il^mrmni^ etruritu [for 2 rt ftSiXXn ^r^t^n^ i, or 7 n
«r^iru oSrtittj ig] H. Apol. 36 d. Eliirtg turn, at ifMimt %V9tt4itT%t^ nmi i! U
rm fuif 9'(it v-afirtuvaffiifBvt i»C<C«^«iv, i [for »mi ti] »mrm ynv Hftu
ytmtfun^etv Hi. yL 64.

§ O yO. Note. After a connectiTe, « distinct aenteoce often takes tlM
place €ft a part of a sentence, and sometimes the reverse ; as. '^;^mt«i . .

«if^p»« • •; ^i» ixx*i /5iie^«e*'» ^^ ^* ««''-'5f <i>«xrM; t]^ ^ExAny [for tU V «•-

'I^' *L*^^' ^**^* '''^ A«-flW.,. tte rett barbarians, but [theta wasT om </
Cftem /%dr/mw», a Gre^A H. 1.7. See i. 10. 12. Um^nMi^Hn /rrtr 'i#»«i«-


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CH. 6.] AKAcoLtmtow.-^GftiiBmjLtioifs. Kit

might be tnacte tegoUtf by repeating «'«^«/*Sx«0f] Th. i. 25. See M41. /I.

^6T1. V. The Greek especially abounds in combina-
tions of particleSf and in elliptical phrases having the power of
particles. The use of these sometimes extends farther than
their origin and structure would strictly warrant. A few ex-
amples of these combinations and phrases are given below,
hut the subject in its detaib beknigs to the lexicographer rather
than the grammarian.

1. AXXm ym^, mmi yA^, See § 661. d.

2. dxx* H [from 4Uuu i or iXXm 4]« oOm thtm, metpt; as, *A^^i§» fth

hr. 6. 11.

8. IXX«f rt Mm!, both otherwim and m parHcuhr^ tiptdaUy ; as, 0^9 y«*
Itu^tt diifif iiXXM§ n »mi &^x***'» »»>-^»* cTv urnfim vii. 7* 41.

4. tnX*9 Ui^kU aridemt tftot, mridemtfy, U J)*^ Ui, J)' irs, 9^4 M' 2r%
and sinular phrases, which are often inserted in sentences (qnite like adYerbs),
or annexed to them ; as, Tib ^y ^ Em^§p t$ix$9 In tSrmt tx** i* 3. 9. OSw^
If ^AM^, if ^' 2n, UaWm^s Dem. 72. S4. U^p^i^mrH t^ ^ ^h . ^ ti UT
Ui Ar. Ffait. 182%

5. i; yd^, tU' 4f$Uf, see $$ 599, 600. 2.

6. t! tk fi9f but if not, aUmrmm, used etven after n^gattre sentences ; asy
m ir§tn0ift rmSrm • ij ft ^ 1^ ^rimrV^ «h net do Mtf | oik erwim, mud
k§, fom wiB havo hlamo, viL 1. 8. Oth^ i» rf SUn rk hrXm h ix^ • m' )I
/4> le««^i» i wrmftif It. 8. a

7. Ivm ri, in rj, and In r/, see § 589. a.

. S. ft4 ri yt, not to oay aufkt mardjf, I. e. wmtk Ut$y or ffmaft «ors; «% 0I»
Im I* AM*^ Jk^tSwrm «vft TMir ^iX«if iwtrArrnn M^ a^m ri VMto, /m^ ri ^t
^ ru$ ^utt Dem. 24. 21..

' 9. "Ort f^n after negatives, exetpt [as ? «, ^,( 1^4, wked ia not] ; as^ 0^ ^^i^
h «^i$»% In ^ ^ik Th. iv. 26.

10. t^ >';k^ ilxxi, for Hit mi otk&rwioe, btit,l9,f>t indeed; as, 01 yk^
iXX* 4 0^ fiif fx»i4 Ar. Nob. 282.

11.0^ ftivTM mXXdf «v ^9 dXXdf pti no, bmtf L e. noperthek$$f or im^ roM-
dXX* Uei^ufif i Ks^ Qyr. L 4. 8.

12. tix Iri, ^ lr<, t^x ^•^ •^a; ^'>'f> ^ t^m, 0^x *'«*> I do not eatf Aat^
M* te My <fta<, Ac, L e. notf on^, or not miy not (die three first phrases nsu-
■Dy mean not onfy^ and the three last not only not) ; as, Oitx In /tivg • K^<.
r«»» 1« ^ryx'*f 9** kkXk »mi m ^/Xm Mbrav, not only woe Crito himrnlf unmoleet'
od, but aim hie friende^ Hem. ii. 9. 8. Wi yk^ In ifx^vra, Axxk tnH «^
eft ^»C«XnTM4f . . aiI»u9Tmt Cyr. ViiL 1. 28. "Ax^nrrdi yh^ xtii yv*eulf)f . ^
ftk In itth^n, * not to say men,' PL Bep. 898 e. Olx •«'«» «v« V^*^«»
kX3C m)* iriv^r«v Th. iv. 62. 'flf «7 \a*titttfti9t0i •hx I*f( nfiitff^^mtvr*^
kXXh nmi Wmniftui*^ that the Larethrmmiinnt hnd mtt tmfy mtt pnninhed, hmt


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H. Gr. V. 4. 84. Oi^x ^^ U^ )«n vu. 7. 8. W,

lil^lr} 9^x ^^"f '^ VMvrt/Kiy Soph. £1. 796.

NoTS. Oix St' iB sometimes although [not becaum, denying an inferenos
which mi^t be drawn] ; as, 'ILyyuifMu /mi itriXiirir/tfj, §bx ^^* iral^u mmI
^0tt Utkiwtun tifot PL Prot. 336 d.

13. 4Sn»m and i^aSftxa [.s=r«t/r«i/ Tn»«, trt, §§ 530, 40.), 372. yj,
poet^ on account of this^ that — y becati$e, and, with certain verbs, that; as,
ZnX£ r* iS^ovttt l»rif airmt »»(us^ I envy you [because] that you are fret
from blame, i£sch. Pr. 330. 'Ir^i twt* v^Jr**, »Svt»m. "ExXnfit U^i* Soph.
Ph. 232. OStvut is sometimes used by the Att. poets, like a simple adverb,
with the Gen. ; as, rvf«4»«f tSnmmt [because of] for At $dke of a woman^
Jilsch. Ag. 823.

14. When two prepositions are combined, which oecnrs most frequently in
the Epic, dther one or both the prepositions are used adverbially (§ 657. 0),
or one of the prepositions with its substantive forms the complement €ft tha
other ; as, *Af*^i vi^) »f ifvur, round about the fountain, B. 305. At* U fttym^
^0 «. 388. rit^ wfi ym^ iyx** ^^*' ^' ^^^- Asavr^i P. 393. Tltiftl
rtS . . Jk^v^iw Hdt. iii. 91. 'Tv' U fitkutv, from beneath the weapons^
A. 465.

§ 6T9» VI. Position of Particles. 1. Prepositioes
regularly precede the words which they govern. For the ac-
centuation when they follow (which is chiefly poet, and in Att
prose occurs only with ntf^l governing the Gen.), see ^^ 730,
731. N.

KoTB. The great fondness of the Greeks for connecting kindred or ctm

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