Alpheus Crosby.

A grammar of the Greek language online

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trasting words as dosely as possible often produces hyperbakm in the oonstroe-
tion of the preposition with its case, as well as ta other constructions ; thoi^
n^«f &XX$r &kX99, for dkX$Tt 9'($f dXk«9, JEBct, Ft. 276. Uafit plXnt fiXf
^(^•iv ywmt»it it^i^l Id. Gho. 89. See § 511. 3. For hyperbaton in earnest
entreaty, see § 426. ^

§ 073* 2. Connective and interrogative particles, with
the exceptions mentioned below (Note a), commonly stand
first in their clauses.

Notes. «. The following particles cannot stand first in a clause ; An (not
for U», § 588), &^a (parozytone), mZ (poet mZrt), mZ4tt (Ion. nvrts), yti^,
yi, ^al, Vt, ^n (except in Horn, and Find.), %nhf, dnra, B^nv (poet.)» «< (£pO>
fiif, fitivTM, /inf, 9tn (enclitic ; Ep. also vv, § 66. «), •»», vi^, ri, r0i, r»i*v»,
and the indefinite adverbs beginning with «■ («'«ri, v^u, &c, ^ 63). Thus,
*0 }l vii^irM ri xai fvXXMfiCaivu, and he u boA persuaded and apprdundtf
L 1.3.

/3. *0t4 is sometimes placed after a subordinate clause ; as, Km^ f ttrtt, li
nbrSf hifi S^-vriaf x*^'**f* *'*'* • • »»'rana9$t [for irt, u . ., narunuvM] L 6. 2.
"E^ nvTif rmvra rvfur^tivfm^ivri, Srt au /ttrnfiuXnfti vii. 1. 5.

y. A sentence introduced by a connective often follows the Vocative, instead
of including it. By this arrangement, immediate attention is better secured.
Thus, "Hipatrrt, ft) il x(h ftiXtT* Ut^toXng [for fsi ^, "H^mirrt], and you,
Vulcan, must heed the commands, ^Esch. Pr. 3.


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> &] posiTion . 409

§ 074* 8. Hie adrerbs tnnm and x^i" ^ommaafy foUow, bat som^
mm precede, the genitives which they govern (§ 372. y). Observe the ar-
tangementy Tng ir^i^tt twutm ri^) IfU Ji^tvnf L 4. S ) and, Jri^ aitrct trntm
L 9. 21.

4. A partide is sometimes placed in one danae which belongs more strictly
to another {cL § 616) ; as, Ov»* JX i9 $i wtinufu [for J)*, i/ mirmtftt It]
Eur. Med. 941.

ft. In emphatic address, the sign S is sometimes placed as fisOows ; '^»Ch
S fmnUmr$9 8aph, Ai. 995. 0«v^Mi#/ iS E^^vw* PL Enthjd. 871 0. 'H^t
•i^Sit^^^ MiXtn U. ApoL 8ft o.


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^679. Prosed J treats of Quantity, of Ver-
8IF.ICATI0N, and of Accent.



^676. In Greek, all vowels and syllables are
divided, in respect to quantity (i. e, the time of
their utterance according to the ancient pronuncia-
tion), into the long and the short; and the long
are regarded as having double the time of the short.

Note. Hence the unit in measuring metrical quantity b the short syflsf-
ble, or the breve (brevis, short), and a long vowel or syllable is equal to tav
itreves. For the marks of quantity (— ^), see § 16. 4.

§ 077. Quantity is of two kinds, natural and local.
Natural quantity has respect to the length of the vowel in its
own nature ; but local quantity, to the effect which is produced
by the position of the vowel in connection with other letters
or syllables. With reference to the first distinction, vowels
and syllables are said to be long or short by nature ; with ref-
erence to the second, by position. Thus, in o^<jpa$, both sylla-
bles are short by nature, i. e. in the natural quantity of the
vowels ; but both become long by the position of these short
vowels before two consonants (|§ 51, 688).

Note. The quantity of a syllable is alwaj^ the natural quanti^ of
the vowel which it uontains, unless some change is [Hmlnoed by p«fi 4tf iT y-


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Hence it is nnial, in proeody, to regard the vowel as the representative of the
■yllable ; and language is often applied to the vowel which in strict propriety
belongs only to the syllable. Thus, in Sft^m^ it is common to say that the
vowels are bng by position ; while, in strict accuracy, the quantity of the
voweb themselves is not changed, but the $^llabU» become long from the time
occupied in the otteranoe of the successive consonants.

I. Natural Quantity.

^ 6T8. Rule L The vowels iy and ci, all
diphthongs, all vowels resulting from contraction or
crasis, and all cu'cumflexed vowels, are long ; as
the vowels in ^/iSvj nksiovs^ yXtoaads (§ 34), 8vs
(§ 68), xav (§ 40), XdSi ^fJ^tv, nvg.

RmffARK. An vowds which result from the union of two vowels have^
from their very nature, a double time. See §§ 25, 29 - 31, 723.

^ C79. Rui^ IL The vowels « and o are
short ; as in fpigo(uv.

% 680. ' Rule III. The doubtfiil vowels
(^ 24. j3) are commonly short ; as in x^^iviii.

To this general rule for the doubtful vowels there are many
exceptions ; which renders it necessary to observe the accent,

LECT, and the usage of the poexs.

A. Accent.

^081. From the general rules of accent ($726), we
learn, that in natural quantity,

«.) Every drewmJUxed vowd is bng (§ 678).

fi,) In jMrojryftmet, If the vowel of the ulHma b Aori^ the vowel of the pa*
miU is also short ; and, on the other hand, if the vowel of the penuli is hng^
the vowel of the tMma is also long. Hence, in fimtmUt^ »«^»/Mf, and ;^x«-
ftpif^ the vowd of the penult is short ; and, in Aif)«, ^m^ and tutfuiu tha
Towel of the ultima is kog.

y^ In pnparoxytomtt and pniperi9pomes^ the vowel of the ultima is short ;
ti in it^M^«i IvM/Mf, wix$»¥$ * ^X»^ ^i't^Si )m7^i/^

B. Inflection.

^089* In the common affixes of declension and conju*
gation, the doubtful vowels are short, except cases of contrac*
tion, -a in the Sing, of Dec. I., and -^oX for vol in the nude


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419 NJLTxraAt quantitt. [book rr»

thtl^ Dee. I., PL Aec -tff (§ 84^ Dil Horn, s (§ 86), Aor. Pt ^«c, -HMt
($$ 68, 182), Pf. PL 8 .»Mft (§ 181. 2) ; see 11 5, 29, 80. — For spedtl
rnlee in regard to the Sing, of Dec. I., see §§ 92, 93 ; for -U, ^Uf in Dee.
JII., see § 116. For the dialectio affi^ see ^ 8, 10, 15, 32. For -Mr,
Vsooming ••mt in Deo. II., see { 98. /I. For the doobtflil Towds in tbe «q^
ment, see § 188.

§^683. Special Rulbs of teb Thibd Declension.
1. The doubtful vowels are long in the last syllable of the

m,) If the chsracteristio is t; as, vam^v, irmuuH* )iX^/f, UxfSm* ^S^
Mf, ^^»0f«f . Except in the a^jeetnres ftiXMg, /tixMntf rdkStt rmXim, and
in the pronoim rtg, rr»««.

fi.) In motit palaialM^ if a long s^Dable precede ; as^ Bwi^mli Bm^£»H • ftd^

y.) In words fai wf, -tiot, and in some oxyUmeg in .i^ .J«f ; as, Ijryif, jj^.

X) In a few other words ; as, »l^«#, mi^Mrn • i^i^, i^«^«« • re^> Tf'*^*
» None of these words are pura, except yfavg, y^iii^ and mmv, viUf • Koiie
U them are ^oMo^ except a few monosyllables, in which «• is the ohancleri»>
tio ; as, //i^, fiwit ■ yv^, yS^i$, None of them are neuters in .«, .«hik.

2. Monosyllabic themes are long; as, xtg, niof* ftvf, fiwg'
nv^, nvgof* Except the pronoun itg,

HoEB. In aooordance with this analogy, the neater ww (f 19} it kngtfi-

8. Nouns in -aw^, and in -uov, 6. -lopog^ have commonly
the a and i long ; as, onaior, xi«v (G. utovog) ; but JtvnaXtmp
(G. -t(oyo(). For comparatives m -ioiy, see § 159. a.

§ 084* Special Rxtles of Conjitgation. 1. Bef<He
the open terminations,

a.) « is thort, except in lm«ftat, to heal, »«m, and »Xtu0 (§ 267. 3). — fn
Epic and lyric poets, the » is sometimes long for the sake of the metre.

b.) i is commonly hng; thus, uontt, to cover with dust, ^^m (§ 282) But
iiW (Jf; § 189. 4), U^U (§ 298); 2i)/« (1 58) ; . - t^/u^i, Win (§ 278).

e.) » is oortaUB; thus, k^tm (§ 272. /3), ^»^im, to we^ Srtm (§ 219X
m40Ktm, to hmder; Iffttif (§ 264).

2. Before the begitlar close terminations,

«.) In Ungual and /t^Mu^ verbs, the doubtftd vowels are thort ; thns, Im^
r«, mifUna, iwatra, IfiXUa (§ 275) ; »«/Kt0'«f, »txi/ir»» (f 40) ; »X«;*r, f
rinte, F. xX^a'm, A. f»X&r« • rireitx4e, ira^nv (^ 268) ; »i»^7s«, six^/^Mb
(§ 217. «); ff-irAO/MM (§ 270). Except fi^Utt, to weigh down, F. fi^nt, A.

^.) In pure fferbe, — (a) m is «Aor(^ except when the theme ends in -dtt pan,
or ^i^ i thus, rwift,, iwwAM (§219) ; lir«i}«#«, ytxU^fAm* (§{ 219. «, 293)}


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bat, iZAtwh ^ntiir00 ($ 218).-— (i) * is cominogtily lotig; tims, »«if«» (1. |>).
F. »Mi#vw, Pf. P. zt»i¥r/uu. Bat tpitf^u, i^t/tfif, md, in the Att. poets, ^/ .
rM, f^/r« (§ 278). — (c) v is variable; thus, F. «yi/r«, )««^^r*r (1. c).
See, also, ^i{« (§ 219) and ;t^ (§ 264>

3. Before the terminations of verbs in -/it, the doul^ul
vowels are shorty except in the Ind. sing, of the Pres. and
hnpf, act.^ and in the 2d Aor. act. See ^ 224.

4. Before a characteristic consonant,

L) In the thenu, m is commonly ghort, bnt t and v /!t>n^ ; thus, XafiC^pttp
futtiettm ($ 290) ; »>!tfm (§ 269) ; kXyvtJy Siv^tfAat (§ 270). But <»•»#
(§ 292), v'fM^, ^f»« £p.. ^tt«r Att (§ 278).

ii.) In the Vqmd Fut^ and in the 2<f Aor, (^ 255. %\ the doabtfbl vowds
•re $hort, but in the Uqidd Aor,, and in the 2d Perf,^ they are long ; thus, x^
9p, 9'XlhS, f«^»«, l«'Xt7»a (^ 56) ; fA&C«y, l^/y«f; l^Oiifjtnw (h 290); iv-iyvf,
l^^t, l^tytipO 29^) > >-«^«i««* »U^7«, ^i^l;»« (^ 236. 2). — Except 8
A. Uyn* (§ 294 ; Att. d, £p. commonly a). See, also, § 286. £.

C. Derivation.

^ 68t5. Rule IV. Derivatives follovr thfl
quantity of- their primitives.

This rale applies to oompoundsj as well as to simple deriratives. In applying
the rale, observe § 307. R. Thus, Bn^itt, F. ^n^krtt, Pf. P. TiH^g/^m • Sh^am.
^f, ^^Sfut, ^(dr^fy B^^drtt • tr^itOfff (w^, ^f*6f)y f»rr^#f.(l», vfftn).

Notes, (a) For the quantity of the different terminations of derivation,
•ee f 62, §§ 305 - 321. For r paratfogie, see §' 150. y. The final < in com-
pound adverbs (§ 321. c) is likewise sometimes long. (6) For the lengthen-
ing of an initial rowel in the second part of a compound, see § 326. R. In
some coinpoand% • is lengthened without passing into n ; as, X§xdyit O^x***

D. Dialect.

§680* The Doric a for 17 is long; and a, where the
(onic uses ij, is commonly long (§ 44. 1). See also § 47.

E. Authority.

§SS7« For douhtful vowels which are long, and which
are not determined by the rules already given, observe the
usage of the poets, and the mariss of quantity in the lexicons.

Among the most familiar examples are Vnr, destruetionf ivrM^tf, foQawtr^
^(dyUf mo/, r(dx^fi '^>*Hf^ ^Xvd^is, talkative^ atitltt, outrage^ *dfU ('/), grief,
JtM(i€nt, exact, dl%n, axe, iUti, whirlpool^ »«/«fy«f, oven, tUfMy to mtme, xxfvff,
bed, ktfiitj hunger, fax^ot, ematt, n »«, victory, 2/tfX«r, eroivd, #t>4, aUenee, ;^«.
Xtfit, bridle, dy»3^», anchor, yi^fffth bridge, tvSvvn, account, Wx^V** «<«>»H^
nitiOm^ danger, kt^n, grief, 'wSfit, wheat, ^oxitt, to plunder, "OXn, foreet, ^Xn,

Digitized by VjOOQIC

414 QUANTITY. ' [book IT.

KoDL Yowds, whoM qtumtityis not determined by general or spodtl ialfl%
AN nid to be long or abort by omAority, L e. the sathority of the poeta.

II. Local Quantity.

^688. Rule V. A vowel before two con-
sonants or a double consonant is long (^^ 51,
677. N.) ; as in ofi^a^j iXni^ovxss iidxp.

Kois. TUB mle ci poeition holds, when either one or both of the oooa^
Hants are in the same word with *the rowel ; and commonlj, also, when both
consonants or the doable consonant begin the next word.

$089. Exception. When the two consonants are a
nmte followed by a liquid in the same simple word^ the quan«
tity of the yowel is offen not affected, especially in Attic po

KoTSB. 1. TUB exception lesolts ftom the easy flowing together of the
mote and liqoid, so that thej produce the efiect of onlj a single consonant.

SL In the Att, the quantity of the vowel is commonly not affected, if the
mute is tmooth or rough, or, if micUUe, is foBowed by ^, A middle mute fd*
lowed by any liquid except ^ commonly renders the vowel long. Urns, the
penult is regnhuiy short in rirX*;, r(»Mi>, «:«r^f, %ii^mxi*»ty ytniXn, MtAMM

8. According to PorKm, the tragic poets sometimes leave a vowel short be>
ftte the two liquids fAu

§ 890. Reicabk. a short vowel is sometimes length'
ened before a single consonant or another votoel^ especially in
Epic poetry. This occurs chiefly m the following cases :

1.) When the consonant may be regarded as doubled m pnm u iuiaHon. lUs
applies especially to the liquids, and in the case of these (chiefly initial /,
cf. § 64. 1) sometimes extends even to Attic poetry ; as, AtoXdv [as if ^XX-]
». 36, it fi^H A. 274, ^6XX€t yje^t/iifn £. 358, 1^ ftwn Soph. CEd. T.
847, ftiyA fdmtf .ffisch. Ft. 1023.

8.) When the digeanma ($ 22. I) has been dropped ; as, yiCs S^i* [Ftliv,
§§ 142. 4, 143. $] I. 419, »/v i x6nt X. 42, v'^i't ^i^f [FmmvJ L 147.-*
Epic usage ^>pears to have been variable in respect to the dlgamma. It some-
times appears to have had the force of a consonant, and sometimes only that
of a breathing.

3.) Before a tMuetdine eamtra (§ 699. 4), and sometfanee, without a <
by the mere force of <the arm (§ 695) ; as, SfftA • OSrtt «. 866, Aw^ Un Z.
62, kw9i^^ ^, 283, *dimtarSs St (. 309, ^Hyttrif^i h E. 371, «/ iXSnn A.

NoTB. In Hexameter verse, one of three successive short syllables, a short
between two long syllables, and a short syllable at the beginnmg of a line^
must of necessity be made long. The second case sometimes occurs in the
Amk (§ 695). Thus, *A^»fUf4mt S, 46 ; 'ArsXif«r«« iy» B. 781 (e£ 'A#»A^


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CH. 1.] POSITION. 41ft

wtm VIM A. 194)» fiXs^fims lrrf^»»«»r« A. 36, "Ettg *l rmvi' A. 193 ; "E*^.
hi (r) X. 379, ^txt xmwlymrt A. 145, Arib /«(« F. 357 (<£ K«) ^4 358%
*A^f, 'A^if £.31. See other examples above.

^691. Rule VI. A long vowel or diphthong
at the end of a word may be shortened, if the next
word begins with a vowel.

Remarks. I. In the theds of Hexameter and Pentameter verae (§§ 704,
705), this shortening is the general rule ; as, *H/Mr{^ Iv) d»^ U 'A^yt7 TiiAi4i
m(r^. A. 30. T7i#, I ^b KrUr«P, i I* if Etf^^tH 'A»T»^UnH. B. 621.

2. This rule does not apply to the Iambic and Trochaic metres of the drama,
aa there the hiatos is not allowed.

8. A long yowd or diphthong is sometimes riiortened before another yoirel,
in the middle of a word; as, V«-«yM m. 379, •In («r) N. 275, ramtrn Soph.
Fh. 1049, %%iXm!t Ar. Pint 850. See also § 1 50. y.

4. Some explain this shortening by supposing the bng vowel («, «, «i ti, m,
{ 29. •) or diphthong to be half elided bdore the following vowd («7jc« U) ; or
the sat(iimcttve of the diphthong to be used with a consonant power (l^r^^ft).

^693. Rule VII. The last syllable of every
verse is common.

That is, the metrical panse at the end of the verse renders the quantity of
Om last qrOAble indiffinen( ; and it may be regarded aa either hmg or diort
aooording to the metre.

KoTB. In some kinds of verse, the scandon is oontinnoos ; i. e. the verses
are formed into systems (§ 700), at the end of which only a common final
pliable is allowed, the preceding syllables bdng all snbject to the roles of
pfosody, aathoogh in the middle of a verse.

§ 093* Bebiabkb. 1. In respect to qoantity, both natoral and lo-
cal, the different dialects and kinds of poetry vaiy greatly. The greatest li-
cense appears in Epic poetry, which arose before the laws and usage of the
language became fixed ; and the least in the dialogue of comedy, which con-
formed the most doeely to the language of common lift. Of elegiac, lyric,
and tragic poetry, the two former approached more nearly to the Epic, and tha
latter to the comic.

2. In giving the rules of quantity, never adduce position, unless some
diange has been made firom the natural length of the vowd. For convenient
distinction in metrical analysis, a vowel whose quantity is to be referred to
Rules I. and II. may be said to be long or short by nature; to Rule III.,
ly the jfeneral rule for the doubtful voweU ; to Rule IVtfiy derivation ; to Rule
v., by portion before two eon§oMant»f or a doiUtk eoneonant; to Rule VL, by po*
tiHon before a word begimming wi^ a vowdf to Rule VIL, by poeition at the end
of Cft« veree. When the quantity is not determined by general rules, dto spa-
dal rulea ; or if these do nM apply, adduce authoH^ (§ 687)» Mturo, mnk^
the mteeetity of the veree (§ 690), Ac.


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41* THamumm. Iboociv



^ 094* Greek verse is founded apon shtthie, L$
regular nufcemem 4if lomg tmd short quantiiies. The simplest
w^ most faoHliar rl^rthms are those in which a long syllaUo
alternates with <m«, or with two ahoii syllables (_ w — ^ w -.f

«r ,_. . — ,J).

ISfcrrm, Im ▼eiwifliaitSon, thedamgitaiycombinationaof gyflaMegare t6Hii6<
Mbt; mgolar oonbiBatioiii of Aet, vxBSps (¥cmi\ « tern) ; and rognlir
WW thittioM of ^Mne% bujsxjlb, sibopbbb (rr^«f«, a temji^ rotmd), or sxa-
i ($ 700).

§ 999. The knag ^Uables are natoially pronounced with
a greater stress of tl^ yoioe than the short This stress is
termed arsis {uQaig^ eleoation)^ while the alternate weaker tone
is termed thesis (^iai^, depfission). Th^se terms are also
applied to the parts of the rh3rthm which are thus pronounced.
In the exhibition of metres, the arsis (also termed metrical ictus)
IB marked thus ( * ).

Noim «. Aa one long syBablt is eqad tp two Aart, ^b» putiid solwtf-
tntioii of ^ ^ for J, in the anoB, and of _ ^ ^ ^ in tbe tiiesia, may bt
made without aflMing the ifaTthm. In this way, as the short ^llables have
more vivacity, ease^ and Kghtiifiss, and the loog i^rOables, more gravity, dig-
nity, and strength, the poet baa the power of greatly varying the exprea^ioa
of the vase ; wliile, at the same t|me^ the fiuality of versificati<m is very modi

C In the oommen Unds of verae, the metrical ictus is defeenmaed by the
prevailing (hot Henoe in TrodtuAc and Dactylic vase, every Ibot l e uJ ii i
tiie ictns upon the^frgf syllable ; while^ in Iambic and Anapnetao veraa^ eveif
foot receives it opon the weeomd, except the anapwst and proceleumatlc^ whiflh
feceive it npon the Aird,

§ 696. In the series ^^w^ww^wwt the thesb is
equal m time to the arsis (^ 676), and the rhjrthm is termed

equal or quadruple ( ^ = 4 breves) ; but m the series

X w X w X w9 the thesis is half the arsis, and the rhythm is
termed triple (_ ^ = 8 breves).

Rbbiabks. L. Of 'theses the ibrmer is the more statefy in its movemeqi^
•ad the more an^iropriate to those kinds of verse which are farthest removed
from oommoa dlBcoorBe; while the latter has more nearly the movement of
flomnum oonverBati<m, and is henoa better adaptHed to the more £uniliar Idndi
of verM^ and to dialogue.

!• Not only do the equal and triple rhythms diffiar from each other bk •»•

Digitized by VjOOQIC

€■. 2.]



preMicn; iNit the same rhyUim has a dMbrent expresnon, aceording to it
c o imea eta wHh the arns or the thesia. In the ftnner case (DaetyHe ± ^ ^

I J. I J. , and Trochak ^ ^ | ± ^ | j. ^), the movement, passing

from the heavier to the lighter, has more ease, grace, and Tivaeity ; in the

latter (Anapaatie ^ ^ ±\ ^ ^ J,\ L> «nd Iambic ^ ±\ L | ^ -Ot

the movement, passhig from the lighter to flie heavier, has more decision, em-
phasis, and strength.

S. Other rhythms ar^ formed by donUing the arris, Or hy prolonging the
thesis, or by varioosly compounding simple rhythms. Thus, by doubling the
arus, we obtain the r^rthms, ^j_±^j^j.^±j_^9 and ^ _ j. j. ^ ^
j.j.,^j.j._. Of these, the first, according to its division into feet

(§ 697), is Cretio j.^j.|jl^ lI-L^-L* Bacchic ^ J. J. | ^ J. _L |

w jL J.> w Antibacchie J.J.^|_Lj._|j._L ^; *n<J ^ second, Chori-
amluo jLwwJ.|_L^wJ.|J-ww-L» Antispastic ^ _L J. . | ^ -L _L w

I ^ J. jL ^ Bising Ionic LjL|. ± ± \ ^ ^ J- it-Of Failing Ionic

,.j.^_|_i, ±w^l_LJ. ■• Verses, in which the equAl and triple rhythms

are united, are termed hgaoBdie {xoytfiiixist from Xiyt^ discoune, and JUsin,
mmg; see Rbm. 1 above). The most irregular kinds of verse are termed poly^
BchemaHit (w«Xvr;^if/Mir4#'r««, multiform) and euynartete (jk^uvm^mrog, disjointed),

% 69 7« Feet of the sartie metrical length are tenned
isoehronom {laoxQovo^^ of equal time). In the table of feet
below, the measure of Class I. is two breves ; of Class U.,
tfiree ; of Class III., four, dec.

I. UoffSx^Hf







Iambus, lamh^



Te«>:wif , Xs^m^

Trochee CaMMS

^ w




^* y>0 ^0




—» w «^




^0 >0 m^







W — ^







W «. «.



^^ ^


Ummw m\

Paxm L,

«- W ^ W

^mtiM-* ••«•


Pa»n IL,

W . ^ W


TUUn y,

FtooB HL,

^0 ^0 •^ -^

W» \I»TI.


Fteon IV.,









^ — ^ —




•> ^ — ^

1mi»4t Jkwi fittZtftt


M» ^_ ,^ ^


'UffiMit ki^ UirrMff,


^ ^ mm ^




.. — .»


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41B TsmsiFicATiOH. [book !▼.

TL 'Er/fVfnf •'» Epitiito L. lyt^f-«*w.

'ErirfirH fi^t Epitrito IL, tirft^^irmu

'Efir^irH r'f Epitrito IIL, iym/^Mif.

'E^iv^$rH ^f Epitrito lY^ ^ fitttXOnm.

YJL ^xf*^9 DodunnM^ ^ lCMa.M»^i«fc

^u^witiuHp Di^wndea^

Kona. c The ^^nbic appears to have been ao named fimn its use in tiit
^ war-daiice (w-pffixn) ; tlie Iamb, from its eari/ use *in invective (Imwrmt te
onat/) ; the Trochee from its rapid movonent (si^X*^ ^ '^'"} * ^ Dactvl.
from its resemblance to the fimger i}m»rwX»i) in containing one long pari and
two short ones, or from the use of the finger in measuring^ or in keeping time;
th^ Anapawt, as the Dactyl reversed («N»«'«Mrr«s, gtnuJt bad') ; the Spondee^
from its use in solemn rites (^Yct^ Hbatitm) ; the Bacduos and Peon, from
their nse in songs to Bacchus and in psans ; the Tribradi as consisting of
three short syllables ; the Amphibradi, of a diort on each side of a long ; the
Amphimaoer, of a long on each side of a short ; the Antibs o ch T na, of a Bao-
chias reversed ; the Choriamb, of a Choree and Iamb ; the Diiamb^ IHtrochei^
and Dispondee, oi two Iambs, &c I shall be pardoned, I trust, for adding a
few lines from Cderidge's Metrical Lesson to his Son.

<* Trodifie I trips frdm I long td I short.
From long to long, in solonn sort.
Slow Sponldee stalks ; | strong foot I | yet ill able
t:v«r td I c5me dp with { Dactyl til]syll&bl&
Iam|blcs march | frdm short | td long.
With ft leap I ftnd ft bound | the swift Aniftprt'its throng
One syllable long, with one short at each side^
Amphibrft|chys hastes wIUi | ft statelj^ | stride."

fi. Iambic, Trochaic, and Anapsstic verses are common^ measmed, not faj
dngle feet, but by dipudies or pairs of feet (}t^0iim, double foot, from )«# and
irovs). When they are measured by single feet, a verse «f one foot is termed
a monopody ; of two, a dipody ; of three, a tripodfy ; of four, a tetnpod^, or
^uatemarius; of six, a hexapody, or seaorncs, &c.

§698. Verses are named, — (1.) From the prevailing
foot; as, lamhiCi Trochaic^ Dactylic^ AruxpiBStic. — (2.) Prom
some poet who invented or used them, or from the species of
composition in which they were employed ; as, il/catc, from Al
csBUs ; Sapphic^ from Sappho ; Heroic^ from its use in cele
brating'the deeds of heroes. — (3.) From the number of
measures (i. e. of feet, or dipodies^ § 697. /J) which they contain ;
as, monometer (fiovofingog^ of one measure) <^ dimeter (di/Mttgog^
of two measures), trimeter^ tetrameter, — (4.) From their degree
of completeness ; thus a verse is termed acatalectic (axaiolii-
xTOff, not leaving off^ sc. before its time, from «- priv. and xaTo-
iiJ/«), when its measure is complete ; catalectic (xorraJlijxfixo^),
when its last foot is incomplete ; brachycat^dectie (/5^«rvff,

Online LibraryAlpheus CrosbyA grammar of the Greek language → online text (page 46 of 53)