Alpheus Crosby.

A grammar of the Greek language online

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form of the Trimeter, introdaced by Hipponax, and having, for satiric or
comic efiect, a spondee in the last place.

£r y 'i#|rr M^WyifSs I ri t »»r || ira^£ I ;^^9r«-«f. Theoc Ep. 21.

D. Trochaic Verse.

^716* The place of the fundamental trochee may be

supplied in any part of the verse by a tribrach ( = w ^ w).

The last foot of a dipody is often lengthened to a spondee or
anapcest. The dactyl is admitted in proper names, except in
the 4th and 7th places.



§717. I. The Trochaic Tetrameter Catalectic oc-
curs in both tragedy and comedy. It consists of two dimeters,
the second catalectic (cf §§ 7(M9,713) ; and has commonly a
csesura afler the first dimeter.



1. S. 3.

^L ^^ ^L ^^ jL, ^^

/.W W /.WW X w w

J^



SoHxiiB xsD BTAiiri.m,
6.



4.



JL w

^ w ..



JLww



6.

-L w

^ w w



7.

J- w
^ww



8.



^ w w n prop, names.)



T#i?f r^«'m mT II riiv lr.«f«-a» f || ^^^J^' | *r^-||^rr*|r<»Pf.

• Ar.-Vesp. 1101.

8m£n relfl^on || tfnd in'sp^ion, f || n^ieda it, j fri^ds of R m&e, to | 8^
Tn the | wispa and || ils your j chdros, 1 1| w<5ndrou8 | 8fmi||liri|ty.

Mitcheltt Tranilatimt,

§ 7 1 8. n. The Trochaic vetse sometimes occurs in
systems of the common form (§ 700. 1) ; as,

*a-» wiUtOfir*, II *it9rr I r«(;r«f

TfffU I 9M

Tf» 5r'l» ir^rjlfnr* rT. Ar. Pkx, 578.



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428 V£RSIFI0ATION. [bOOK IT

§ 7 1 0« m. Examples are added, from lyric poetry, of
other kinds of Trochaic verse (for the trochee in logacedic
verse, see § 706).

Trim. Aa^rlf f«||»ft» *tf\A(fi8Har ^\kXf. Find. O. 3. 9.

Trim. Cat Tr» vA^ | 'f» wStJirf MSiCfffJh^Tta det«r. lb. 12. 4.

Tetram. *E'^r \ /mT ^tiSh 'i\Mart || /a^r\m «'A»||r« Mi\Xni4it. Find. L 4. 1

£. Otheb Metres.

^730. The metres which remain are Lyric, and for the
most part admit with great freedom isochronous feet, or the
substitution of two ^H>rt syllables for one long, or of one long
for two short Examples are given of some of the most im-
portant.

1. Gretio Syttem. ^fjtfrtgi* \ »ar 7f%«0

Tftf *(»itit I *i»Ci>Mr$

£Ji0ii»U I *i^fJfAu .£flch. Sap. 418.

8. Biusohio Tetxttm. Tr$ *ax^ | rU 'S^^ | ^Hirrm \ /*' 'ifiyyU*
CjljJ -toduPr. 115.

8. CSboriambic System, ddbing, as is nsnal, with a baocbins.

TDfum^ra I Xiy$Tf tT ^a

KmttSv '5*m | f&w^m. Ar. Vetp. 526.

4. Bifliiig Ionic System. UfH^xif | fUf *S wi(0t\^r8XXf *nU

Aifi^^fUi I ^x^tt^ 9i^P[fA0f AfAti^pis. iEsch. Pen. 65.
0. PaBonic Tetram. Cat ^VT f^x&^f \ AsHfa^U, f | *<5f W ifAMlk\^^fJ%,

Ar. y^>. 1275.

6. Dochmiao QjTBtem. M/lirrMf rrecrSr | rr(«To«f ^dt xr^*^
(^ J.^;. ^ J.) 'Pit srixUs 'oir kiSf | «-^)^^f Vr«-«r«f.

*Ava0}Sf, rH^S, I 'trSfAOf *»'yyfkSt» JSsdl. S^pt 79

§7^1. NOTB. An aadtpcut (Jtfri0wa0r$t, dramm in etmtreiy dhte-
turns) is a combination Of an iambic with a trochaic rhythm, and admits in
the first part any foot which is admitted into Iambic verse, with the appro-
priate ictus ; and in the second part, any foot which is admitted into Tro>
ohaic verse, with the appropriate ictns. The addition to this combination
of a long syllable (which, in connection with other rhythms, may be resolved
into two short) forms a dockmits (ioxf^*h obUque^ crooked), which baa ooii«
sequently a triple ictus, with great variety of structure. Thus (l.)wJ.-L^-Li

K^O _ ^ w ^ . L I &c



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CB. 3.] Moan. 4USt.

CHAPTER III.

ACCENT.

^733. In ^ery Greek word, one of the three last syl-
lables was distinguished by a special tone of the voice.

Bemabks. I. This tone \a oommonfy' spoken of simi^y as Ae ta/M, or IhB
accent. Its precise nature we cannot now determine. It seems to have re-
sembled, in some degree, but with important difitsrences, that which we call
accent in English orthoepy. That it never fell upon any syllable before the
antepenult, shows that the Greeks fdt the same difficulty in the utterance of a
long train of syllables after their accent which we feel after oura. See also
§ 733. 2.

3. The Tersification of the andent Greeks was founded upon quantity with-
ont regard to accent ; that of the modem Greeks is founded upon accent with-
out regard to quantity. We cannot resist the conclusion from this, that in the
ancient language the distinction of quantity was the more prominent to the
ear ; while in the modem language the reverse is strikingly trae (§ 19). At
the same time, the distinction of accent was evidently the more intellectual in
Its character ($ 734) ; and, if less marised by the ear, was far more so by
the understanding.

3. To those who pronounce the Greek in the usual method, according to
quantity, the study of the accent is still highly useful, as serving, — (a) To
distingnlBh different worde, or different tense* <^ the same word ; as u/aI (en-
clitic, § 732), to be, tffu, to go; i, the (^ 731), I which; wirt t when? wM
(encL), once; iXXm, other things, «>.X«, but; XtMiXof, throwing stones, xJi»
C«X«(, thrown at with stones (§ 739. b). ~ (6) To distinguish different forms
of the same word; as the Opt fi0uXt6^»t, the Inf. fisuktug-at, and the Imp.
fi«»Xto0'tu (f f 84, 35). — (tf) To ascertain the quantitg of the doubted vow-
els (§§ 681, 726). — (d) To show the original form of words. Thus the cir-
cumflex over Ti/uiy pxS, ^n\S, marks them as contract forms of the pure
verbs rifUtt, f iXltv, IhXm^. — («) To show how words are employed in the
•entenoe ; as in cases of anastrophe, and whoe the accent is retained by pro*
clitics and enclitics (§§ 730-732).

4. Upon some of the minute points of accentuation, authorities and critics
differ. But this only ftimishes another point of analogy between the Greek
accent and our own. Indeed, there is no subject, either in grammar or in any
other science^ upon all the minutiie <^ which there is a perfect oneness of
opinion.

^733* In accentuation, a long vowel or diphthong in the
ultimoy and oflen in the penalty is regarded as forming two
syllables (§§ 29. ix, 676). — We may say, in such cases, that
the vowel or syllable forms two accentiial places.

Remark. In accentuation, the inflection-endings m and m
are not treated as long vowels, except in the Optatioe (cf.

Ml)



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4SIK^ ACCBKT. [book IT.

Note. This treatment of final «i and m as short vowels appears not to haw
prevailed in the earliest form of the langoagcf, nor in the Doric dialect, which
• was characterized by its closer adherence to old usage (§ 735. a). In the
Opt, it seems not to have prevailed from the natural dwelling of the voioa
upon the termination (§ 177). Traces of the old usage appear hi the i
nation of so many Inf. forms upon the penult (§ 746) ; although tbe <
flex accent is not here excluded (cf. 726. R.).

§ 734* I. Accentual places are counted according to the fbllowipg
method. The ultima is counted as the 1st place, if its voied is shortj but as
the 1st and 2d places, if its vowel ia long, U the ultima forms two places, the
pmuU forms, of course, the 3d place, and completes the number which is al-
lowed. If, on the other hand, the ultima forms only a single place, then the
penult forms the 2d place ; and, besides this, if its votod is long, it aboayn
forms in dissjfllablei, and aometimet forms in polysyUablet, the 3d place also. If
the ultima and the penult form but two places, then the antepenult is the 3d
place. In the following words, the numbos denote the accentual places ;

1 81 3 21 2 1 3 81 S2 I S8 I S SI

&ig, naig^ Xoyov, XoyoQ^ nXoviov, nXovrog^ nXovroi^ n^Qamnotq%

8 2 1 8 81 82 I 88 I 8 81 8 8 1 S S 1

ngoaianoyy kKOvaatg^ kxovaa^ kxovaai^ JtoXtfiovg^ noXffiog, noXiftoi.

2. An ascending line ( ' ) was adopted by the Greek grammarians as the
mark of an accented place, and a descending line ( ' ) as the mark of an nn-
•ocented place. A syllable in which an accented was followed by an miao-
cented place received, of course,. a double mark ('^). The words above, in
which the accentual places are numbered, are all accented as far from the end
as possible. I^ therefore, all their accentual places were distinctly marked,
Ihey would be written thus ;

^sg^ ntug^ Xoyov^ Xoyog^ nXovtov^ nXoinog^ nXovtol^ JtQoacinoigy

ngoatanovy iKovaalgf ixoifoa, kxovaatj noXifiovg^ noXifiog^ noXi/ioh

3. But it is evidently needless, exc^t for grammatical illustration, to mark
m iaccen t ed syllables, and when the two marks (' ' ) fall upon the same sylla-
Ue, it is more convenient in writings to unite them into one (^, or, as rounded
for greater ease in writing, " or " ). Dropping, therefore, the marks over
the unaccented syllables, and uniting the double marks, we write thus ;

S^ig^ naig^ Xoyov^ Xoyog^ nXovtov^ nXovrog^ nXovtoi^ 9r^oae#3voi^,
TtQoaoinoy^ ixovaaig^ kxovaa^ kxovaai^ noXifiovg^ noXtfiog^ noXtfiot.

4. The following words are accented upon the first place ; tit, 5ef, ^^A
Xti^t ^tt^it, yvvmilif fiarsXtvt* The following. Upon the second ; jSm, pit,
9V^t ^»P»v, TtfAnt, *<«f, vSm, A.^yi, ^/Xm, C'^vAi, rifA9t, irritfy fia^iXUgj TtHtTt,
The following, upon the third ; X«y<v», «'«?)•#, yvfaT»a, ^Sf^h ^tifucTt* rmftM-
r*>y, Xt<V«, XiiVtf/Aiy, Xi/r«i/ri, iXuw, xikMirm, IXtXtiw^uv, XfTn.

§ T2«5. A syllable is termed acnte^ if it simply forms an
accented place ; drcumjiexed^ if it forms an accented followed
by an unaccented place ; grave^ if it receives no accent ; as
the final syllables in i^j^p/, fiaaiXsvg ' aog>ov^ Tifir^g ' Xoyty o^fta,

A word is f ^^^one, ^ / Acute,

termed an i Perispome, > if its Ultima n < Circumflcxed.
I Barytone, ) ( Grave.



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JB« 9.] OEIfERAL LAWS. 48}

A won! is f K-\7-|^, J if its Pehult is { Ac«- ,^^^,,

rme ^ Proparoxytone, if its Antepenult is Acute.

Notes, (a) The terms above are formed from the words roftg (Lat. ac-
dSDtiis), tone, iH^vs (Lat. acutus), sharps Tt^t99r4ufAivot (Lat. circumflexos), beni
round, circutnflexedf fia^vg (Lat. gravb), heavi/t grave, va^ei, near, and v^it
before, (6) The paroxytoneSf properispomes, and proparoxytones are all in-
cluded in the general dasa of bcarytonet,

^ T26. To the principles of Greek accentuation which
have now been given, may be referred, almost throughout, the
following general laws of accent and accentual changes.

I. General Laws of Accent.

1. One accent, and only one^ belongs to each word.

Hence rv» and Siitt compomided, become ^vvtiot • rvv and ^i^m, ru/*^i^tt, -^
For apparent exceptions, see §§ 731, 732.

2. The accent never falls upon any syllable before the ante-
penult

Hence Jm^«, fiiyttt become, in the Gen., Mfietr^tt fttyiiit,

3. The antepenult can receive only the acute accent, and can
receive this only when the ultima is short.

Hence 0«X«rri^ M^ttirttj «'f«r«Mr«y, become, in the Gen., B^aXm^ftit, M^m*
«••«, ir^«r««'«v. — For ^«X«rr«<, «»/^««'m, see ^ 723. R.

NoTEa «. If the ultima is long merely by position, still the antepenult
recdves no accent ; hence i^tCHxal («), though l^iCttX^t,

fi. In accentuation, i before m in the terminations of the Gen. and of the
Attic Dec IL is not regarded as forming a distinct syllable (§§ 35, 95. 3. «,
98, 1 1 6. «, )) ; hence, *Ar^ii)i*r, «'«Xi*rr, viXiiv • ikvatyimt. So, also, with an
intervening liquid, m adjectives compounded of yiXit and »i^a,$ (§ 136. 1) ;
aa, piXiy%X»tt, &K%^»tt • and, according to the same analogy, the compound ad-
verbs tnwmXmiy v^iwmXtu*

4. The eircun^lex never falls upon any syllable that is no'i
long by nature.

Hence fim, fiZt, wmu become, in the Nom. pi., ^i%tt /im Q}\ irmvrtf («).

5. The penult can receive the circumflex only when the uZ-
iima is short by nature.

Hence /£mV«, *n^»<i 9u»69, become, in the Gen., /itums, yitr«v, ^ux»u, — For
fUvrmt, ySrM, see § 723. R.

Remark. In the old language and in the Por. (cf. § 723. N.), a final
pliable long merely by position appears to have forbidden both the acute upon
the antepenult, and the druumflex upon the penult. From the common ac-
centuation (which forbade l^iC*rX«& but permitted l^<C£xs{, tee N. « above).



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ACCENT. [Boot. VT

the drciimfl«z upon the penult appears not to hare been deemed quite ac

great a remove from the end of the word liftthe acate upon the antepenult

.(cf. 723. N.). Even after the dropping of r m the 3d Pets. pi. of verba

§ 181. 2), Boma forms of the Doric retained the old accentuation; as, ly^

6. If the ultima is short hy nature^ and the penult is long hy
nature and accented^ it must be circumjlexed.

Hence ^(^ ttldvf y^ttfttij 'Ar^ii^nr, become, in the Nom. pL, S«^ff, mSSnt^
yvSfuit (§ 723. R), 'Ar^ii^M. — For ^74$, feci^h ««^> ^ see § 732. d.

II. Accentual Changes.

§ T2T. The accent is subject to the following changes :

— (a) The acute may be changed to the circumflex; as, Otjg^
&^Qff, — (b) The circumflex may be changed to the acute ; as,
ftovaa^ fjiovafjg. — (c) The acute may be softened upon the uttt-
ma (& 729). — {d) The accent may be throvm hacky that is,
transferred to a preceding syllable ; as, ygaqxa, tyqatpov. —
{e) The accent may be brought forward^ that is, transferred
to a succeeding syllable; as, ^17^, ^i^^oV — {/) The accent
may be thrown upon the ^preceding word ; as, ow/ua nov (^ 732).

— {g) The accent may be omitted ; as, tatvio ' naq iftol '
rovs' (piXta as (§§ 728. b, c, 731, 732).

§ T28« Changes in the accent arise, principally, from,

I.) The ADDITION or loss of syllables ; as, Svofia^ ovoftarog
(^ 726. 2) ; ^/tttco, ^mxm (^ 288) ; novspog^ novq>6xtgog (^ 156) ;
nottegog, ncngog (§ 741). See III. c.

II.) Change in the quantity of vowels. See § 726. 3-6.

m.) Contraction, crasis, or apostrophe, as follows.

a. Contraction. An acute syllable, folUnoed by a grave,
is contracted with it into a circumflexed (§§ 724. 3, 725) ; other-
wise the accent is not affected by contraction, except as the
general laws may require ; as, voog vovg^ tifiam tijum * t/^o*
t/juix, TiftaolfiTiv jifnafifiv ' kataorog karmTog (§ 726. 6).

Remabk. Some contract forms are accented as though made by inflectioii
without contraction ; or fall into the analogy of other words. Thus,

1.) In contracts of Dec U., — (a) The accent remains throughout upon the
same syllable as in the theme ; as, w't^iVXMf , «'f^<«'XMv, contr. «'t^/«'X«vf, «^i.
irktv Gen. ay^^M (^ 17). — (b) The Nom. dual, if accented upon the ulti-
ma, is always oxytone ; as, »«, Urt^ (^ 9). — (c) Except in the Nom. dual,
all simple contracts in .avf or .«&» are perispome ; as, ;^^vri«f xt^^*^ (K 1S)»
xAntv Mavtvf, basket, — (d) In oxytones of the Attic Dec., die Gen. sing, hat
the acute ; which ma^' be explained by supposing one • to have been dropped
from the original form (cf. § 243. 2) ; thus, Htit (% 9), G. nm« (§ 86), nU;
bjr contraction n^, vui (§ 98. fi).



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cm. 3.] ACdBNTVAL CHANGBS.

f .) Tbe oontraot Aoc o^ noniit in ^ it oxytaoB ; as, i^im h^ (T 14)«
So Dat (xi'*^'d XiV perispome (§ 104). These cases follow the analogj of
§744.

3.) The oontcaot Gen. pL of r^tn^ns (i 14), avra^Kns, and compounds in
^ns is paroxytone ; as, r^tv^utt r(/«^*>».

4.) The 8ubj, pat$. of verbs in -/m, and of Perfects used in the sense of the
Pres., is often accented as though uncontracted ; thus,- ri/Ar/Mu, r/Vji, rihrai •
^ii»0fuu • M»r»ttuu, ia.%fi,ttftuM (§ 234). And, on the other hand, the Opt,
pa$$. of these verbs is accented by many as though etmtnuted ; thi^S ritfiT*^

Kora. In diarem, or the resolntioa of « diphthong, a oucomflexed ^jU*-
"bU is resolved into an aeute and a grave ; as 90$$ w»tt.

b. Crasis. In crasis, the accent of the first word is omitted*
The accent of the second remains wi^ut change, except as
required by ^ 726. 6 ; as, tamo, for to avro * TaiUa, for xa SiUM
(yet some write raUa).

c. Apostrophe. When an accented syllable is elided^ the
accent is thrown back upon the penult, as acute ; thus, d$lv*
BJifji for dsiva BTtij • iro'iU* ma&ov {noXla). — Except in preposi-
tions, and ^6 particles aUd, fifidiy ovdi, and the poeUc lidi and
ids ' as, na^* ifiol, all' fym,

§ 799* IV*) Tbe connbgtion of words in discourse, as
follows.

A. Grave AccENt. Oiytones, followed by other wordtf in
closely connected discourse, soften their tone, hnd are thefl
it\arked with the grave accent (§ 14) ; as, 4nl tit nala xul ajra^d,

ExcsFTiON. The interrogative rigj and words followed hy enditics (§ 732),
never take the grave ; as, Tit (t » Who art thou f

Notes. «. In the application of this rule editors vary. The best nsag^
liowever, retains the acute accent only in the case of unconnected words or
phrases, and before the period, colon, and snch Otho* pauses as require to be
distinctly maiioed in reading.

fi. The syllable over which the grave accent is written is still rogaided as
meute, although its tone is softened, and the word to which it belongs is still
tenned an oxytone. Syllables strictfy grave are never marked, except for
grammatical illustration, as in § 724.

^ TSO. B. Anastrophe. In prepositions of two short
syllables, the accent is usually thrown hack ui>on the penult,
when they follow the words which they would regularly pre-
eede, or lake the placof of compound verhs^ or a^ used adner'
bially ; as, doinov vnsQ^ for vnig dofifov ' oliamf Siro t, 5W, for
inoli^ag (§ 653) ; niigrif for na^t^ti * mvOf for ard^tri^t
(^ 653. s) ; TTcm, in the sense of exceedingly (§ 667. fl). This



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ACCBNT. — PBOCLITiCb, BMGLITICS. [bOOE !V.

ohange of the aceent is termed anasfrophe (ayudt^o^if, turning
hack).

KoTBi. (a) Grammarians except %t£ and Avm (except for mrtU^^s), to
dbtingnish them from the Ace Aim, and the Yoc. &9a (^^ II, 16). (6)
Both in anastrophe and in the common accentuation of prepositions (§ 750. 2),
the attraction of the accent towarda the word upon which the prqxwitlcm ex-
preasea ita force will be observed.

§781* C. Proclitics. A few mono^ZZo^Z^, beginniDg
with a vowel, are commonly connected in accentuation with the
following word, and lose^ in consequence, their proper accent
They are hence called atonies {aiova^ tonel^s)^ or, with more
precision, proclitics {nQo»livt>, to lean forward). They are,
(1.) the aspirated forms of the article, o, ^, ot, orl* (2.) the
adverb ov, not ; (3.) the prepositions u$, into, ir^ in, H^outof;
(4.) the conjunctions el, tf a>(, as.

Nans. The proclitics retain thdr accent when they close a sentence^ or
fbOow the word which they would regnlariy precede. Hence, »i %ivw • but^
wSf yk^ §S' m Stif, but| Bt$t tit * •» nauSvf bat, tuttcSv f^.

^733* D. Enclitics. Some words are attached^ it
accentuation, to the preceding word, and are hence called en-
clitics {fyxXmxog^ from iyxUvfo^ to lean upon). They are, —
(i.) The following oblique cases of the personal pronouns;
1st Pers. (Aov^ (aoI^ /ue * 2d P. aov, aol, ai * 3d P. ov, ol, c * r*r,
oq>lai, aifd. For odier enclitic forms of the personal pronouns,
see IT ^- (ii*) The indefinite pronoun %lg, in all its cases,
and the indefinite adverbs ntog^ nto, wij, nol, novy no&l^ no&dr,
noxi (U 63). (ill.) The Pres. ind. oSf ft/*/, to be^ and gwy/ii,
to say^ except the 2d Pers. sing. — (iv.) The particles yi^ rw,
91^^, T^, jol ' the poetic &i^yy xi{v)y vv^ (d ' and the insepara-
We-^«.~See§ 152.2.

Remabks. a. (a) An enclitic throws back its tone, in the form of the
acute accent, upon the uUima of the preceding word ; as, kv^^^rif Un • ^7|m
fits • i7 T4f mm ^tiri fMt «'«(irva/. (b) If the ultima of the preceding woid
has already an accent, the accent of the enclitic unites with it, and disappears ;
as, «m)^ r/r • ^tXi n. (c) The accent of the enclitic, if a monosyliabiley ia
also lost after a parox3rtone ; as, ^ix»t fMu.

b. An enditio retotns its accent, — (I.) At the htgvming of a dause ; as,
2*5 y^i ft^mrtg Ur) fiiytg-rtv. — (2.) After the apostrophe i as, irtkXai %' wV*»
— (3.) If it is emphatic; as, $h Ev^^y, cXX* ri, not Cyrtu, hut ywu — (4.) If
it is A pertonal pronoun, preceded by an orthotone preposition whi(^ goyems it;
as, wm^k nl, irt^} 90U, m-^of gi. But v-^if fit, and sometimes «^^/ /m» and
^is n, occur. — (5.) If it is a tHesyllable, preceded by a paroxytones as, h

c. Whsn irW is prominent in a sentence, it beoomea a parozytoiie: •%



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CR 3.J LSTSBMINATION OF i^CGENTED SYLLABLE. 435

d. («.) An enclitic is often joined in writing to the preceding word, as if
forming with it but one compound word ; thus, finrtu eviivtTi^ £rT%, (/3.)
This is always the case with the preposition -^i, to ; as, "Oxvfivefh, to Olym-
pus, 'EXivrrMB^i. (y.) In pronouns and adverbs compounded with -M (§ 1 50,
^ 63. IX.), the syllable precedmg -ti always takes the accent, which is acute
or circumflex according to the rule in § 744. (i.) In iy^iy ifi»i, and i^i,
the accent is thrown back when yi w affixed (§ 328. b) ; thus, iyt^yt, tfioty*^
ifny%, (i.) Yah and vrn'tx^ are accented as if formed by the attachment of
enclitics. •

§ 733« Notes. 1. A word, which neither leans upon the foUowL^f
por upon the preceding word, but stands, as it were, erect, is called, in distil «-
tion fVom the proclitics and enclitics, an orthatone {i^timt^ erect in tone),

2. Both proclitics and enclitics are more abundant in English than in Greek,
and these classes of words furnish another strong antilogy between the Greek
and the English accent (§ 722. 1). The words in English which are used
iu translating the Gredc procHtics and enclitics are themselyes, for the most
part, either proclitic or enclitic. Thus, in the sentence, Give me the book (pro-
nounced Girnne thdkkik), the pronoun me is encUtic, and the article the^ pro-
clitic In the sentence, If John *s in the house, donU tell him a word of this,
the words If in, the, a, and of are proclitics, and the words w, not, and him,
enclitics.

III. Determination of Accented Syllable.

^ y84« General Principle. In eXch word, the accent
belongs to that syllable upon tokieh the attention is most strong*
ly Jwtd.

NoTB. I^ Arom the general laws of aooentuation> this tyU. cannot receiTfe
the accent, it draws it as near to itself as possible.

RmfARKii. 1. In the origin of hmguage, the attention is absorbed by the
greater distinctlona of thought ; but, as these become familiar to the mind, it
passes to the lees, and then to those that are still subordinate. Hence, in the
progress of a language, its accent is subject to change, as well as the forms oi
its words, its vocabulary, and its constructions. In the Greek, as in other
langnagea, the accent was originally confined to the syllables containing the
essential ideas of words, i. e. to their radical syUables (see §§ 83, 171). But,
in proportion as these became familiar, there was a tendency to throw the
accent upon those syllables by which these ideas were modified, either through
inflection, derivation, or composition. Thb tendency would of course vary
greatly in diflerent classes and forms of words. It would naturally be the
strongest where the root was the most familiar ; or where the formative part
was the most significant or characteristic. On the other hand, any strength-
ening of the radical, or weakening of the formative part, would have a ten-
dency to produce a contrary effect. In illustration of these tendencies (which
of course are subject to the general laws of accent), it will be observed, that,
— (a) In neuter nouns, the affix, from its inferior importance, almost never
attracU the accent (§§ 737. t, 738. d). — [b) In demonstrative pronouns, the
deictic -^i always draws the accent to the preceding syllable (§ 732. y), and
the still stronger -< always Ukes it upon itself (§ 150. y), — (c) In verba,
the aooeat is always attracted by the augment, while it can never pass beyond
K (S 748. 4).— (<i) The okl weak root of the 2d Aor. (§ 257. 1) yields the ao-



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496 ACCENT. [book it.

eent to the affix in sereral cases irbere the strengtheAed root of Uie Vna re-
tains it (§ 746 - 748). — («) In derivative adjectives, those endhigs whi<^ ex
press most strongly character or relation attract the accent (§§ 737 — 739).-^
(/) In composition, the accent is usually attracted by that word which definef
the other, and thus gives its special character to the compound (§§ 323, 739\
In the active compound verbals, the idea of th^ action is more prominent th^oi



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