Alpheus Crosby.

A grammar of the Greek language online

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3




UtiixfiP,


Uitfjp


Utup




Impbrfbct.


AORIST I.




AORIST II.






Ind.


Ind.


SiOj.


Ope Imp.


loC


1 XfiVttow {Uip) ^Kfl





T
III


(XfiP


. ilpm


2 %. I«iC







9


fXfjg fg




3 I,,, Ui





tXri,Stc era)


Fkrt


I If/uty


{xa/iey tlfiiv nfi$p




*


2 rm


nxtnt
fiHttP


fira




Trt




3 Uaap


tiaa¥


huoapi tptmp


2 liTor




HtOV


r

miop


hop




3 Utup




tltiip




htiP




Future, ^ow. Perfect, tiKa.


Pluperfect,


nntip.


MIDDLE AND PASSIVE


VOICES.








Present.






Ind.


Sulj.


Opu




Imp.


InC


1 UfiM


Uiuai


hififiv,


iolfitiP





Ua&ai


2 ttaa^Jfj


ifl


Iho,


Xoio


Xiao, Xov




3 i:*ia*


iiJTat


tflTO,


Xoito


Ua&ta


Ftet.


d&C.


6lc.


6lc.


&C.


6lc.


Untpog


Imperfect.


AORIST


[I. Middle.






Ind.


Subi.


Opt. Imp.


lot


1 ifVipr

2 Uao, lov


fiao




olo ov


ta&ok


3 ?eTo


tiro


oho ta&tt


FuL


&c.


6lc.


6lc.


&,C. 6lc.


fytpog


Fut. Mid. liaoftat. 1 Aor. Mid


. ^xafAfiP. Perf. cf/4


M. Plup



s.



ilXfitip. Aor. Pass. tX&ijp. Fut. Pass, k^^aofiai.



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II 55. J YE&BS IN -^i. 71

H SS. 8. ElfAij to be.

Present.

Ind. Subj. Opt. Imp. iii£

S. 1 eifAl «i etrip dvtu

3 iatl ]j itii Itftw (^7co/

P. 1 iafUP wfiip itrifjitv^ iJfiiP Part.

2 iori itB itriti^ alrt cart wy

3 fia/ ' mat i fijaay, clfy ItfTOKray) ovaa

foTikir, oiraiy oy

D« 2 iotov f^xop ttriTOP^ shop tat op ortog

3 u>J7i}y, cfrijy Itfioiy oSafig

Imperfect. Future.

Ind. Opt. Inf.

S. 1 nr, n, iffif^p taofiai • iaoifiiiP lafat^o*

2 ii;, i}a^a laijt caei iooio

3 i^y ftarEai,laTO(» saoiio Part.

P* 1 fuup iaofit^a iaolfii&a iaofitPog

2 nrc, ^ait $ota^B tooui^B iaouhti

3 ^aay tisovxak taoiPto iaofiipop

D. 2 ijioy, i^aror laeai^oy laoia&op

3 ^T^y, ^unjr daola&tip

JhAlMCtlO FOBMB.

Prbsebtt.

Ind. Subj. Imp. Part
S. I If^iD. a 1 U L S. 2 f#«» f##« P. U, Uft
S i2f I. i2t» E. i]i£ F. Uv0M L

U#<F. 3 J#<E. liMfE. Ur#«D.

S IfW D. !«#« E. ij;^^ E, iZ^» D.

P. 1 i/^if L P. 1 if*u D. f^^,y p. f^« D.
•V*tf D. 3 i»00t L Ifuf^tuu £. JE. N. Uf L

*^^»P« Opt iS/KifD. Gen.

« i»ri D. g. s f7iir/« P. iT^t D. «m-w L

^^' ^ fMf» 3 f « L i7/M»M D. i^M-^f D.

Impbbfbct.

a 1 f«» B. a s Uf P. a 3 fn* i. p. s fr«» i. p.

!«• E. f«W« E. ^Tf D. Irr«» P.

f#»«f It f«r !• f#«i It frs«f It

U L 8 4«» E. P. 1 V D. f«r«» L

|« I. <f(0 1. 8 I«rt L i7«r« E.

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70



TABLES.



[1154



S.






TL 44. Verbs iN-^nt. 7. "/i^^i, to send.

ACTIVE VOICE.

Present.

Opt

Ulfig
Ulfi

UllJfltP, UlfiBP

UlritB, ItUt

UlriOar, itttr

Ulritop, lettop

Uniriir, UittiP

AORIST I. AORIST [I.

nd. Sub|. Ope Imp.

• tal HtjP

• f^g Hfjg fg



lod.

ftlfig
3 tfiai

1 UfiMP

3 iaai, iua^

2 Utop
3

Imperfect.



l»(Jl%p
ifjiB

l^tOP



Inf.
Uig



trra

iitmitap, Upjkp

XSJOP

Uxup



8 I XtiP,Xovp {Uiv) vxa



2 iij^, 1:81^

3 li}, Ui

2 Ina

3 Uaap

2 IcTor

3 Utup

Future, r,aa.



^xag
fixt

ffxaftBP
vxaji



tlfiiP Wfisp

illB IITB

tlaav i»*ai



Hfi, && hut



laL
tlpa

Ftet
itg



Ind.

1 hfiM

2 Uaoi, Xri

3 i:fra»

Imperfect.



1 ItVip'

2 Xtao, Xov

8 fcTO



fia

HJOP fit OP hop

ux^lP hwp

Perfect, tlxa. Pluperfect, tXxup.
MIDDLE AND PASSIVE VOICES.
Present.

Opu
Ulfiijp, iolfiTiP
Xho,

XflTO,

AoRisT [I. Middle.
Sub). Opt Imp.
Uifia$ oX/itiP

n olo ov

fjTttt oIto fcr^ti

6lc. d&c. 6lc,



In

6lc.



Xoio
Xoito
6lo.



Imp.

Xtaot Xov
6lc.



Ind.



iifiilP

tlao

tho



Xia&ai

Put*
Ufitpog



Put*
tfiipog



Fut. Mid. ijaofiai. 1 Aor. Mid. {xa/iijy. Perf. tlfiM. Plup
fSfATiP. Aor. Pass. tX&i^p, Fut. Pass, i&^aonai.



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1I66.J



YE&BS IN -/!».



71



HSff.



Ind.

S. 1 iifil

2 ilg, d

3 iatl

P. 1 iofUP

2 ioti

3 tiol '

D. 2 ioxow
3



Subj.






Imperfect.



2 ii;, i}ai^a

3 r^p

P« 1 ijiMr

ntf , ijart
3 ^aay

D. 2 ijTor, i^arey
3 ^tfip, ^uttip



8. ^Vp,

Feesemt.

ttrixoy^ ihop
Ind.

Baot'tat
tata^op



to be.



imp.
loTia (^f 00/

lOTt

tatop

Future.
Opt.
iaolfir^p
iaoio
iaotto

iaolfit&a
sao^pto

MOtO&OP

diiolu^iiP



Iii£
tiptu



Part.

top

^

ovaa

OP

ortof
otaiig



inf.
tlaBa&a$

Part.

iaofitpog

daouBPti

iaofitpop



DiALBOIIO FOBMB.



PRBSESTT.



a 1



Ind.



a



S ilf I.

u#; p.

8 Itr/ D.
1 i/^ffL

•i^if D.

Wf P.
ft iwri D.



1 UL
tS^ E.

S ^#1 £.

f «#i B.
1 /^ff D.
3 U0t L

Opt
S tlfirim P.



Imp.
2 f #«, f r#« P.

ln£

f/MNM E*.
f^/M» P.
Iftftlteu EL JS.
JS/Mlf D.

f7/Mf D.



Uitt 3 fii I. i7/6i»«M D.



Part
M. U«L
F. U»»« L

iv#« D.
I^« D.

N. Uf L
Gen.



a 1



f«>B.
I««E.

fr»«f It

UL

i«I.



2 Iw P.

8 4iiȣ.
«i(0 I.



Impbbfbct.
a 3



fii» I.

Ir«i It
«/i»if D.
i«riL



P. S 7r«» I. P.
U^mt P.
frs«» It
!«#«» L



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12



TABLES. — TfiRBS IN -^i.



[^55 56



DiALKono F0B1I8 or tlfu, to it
FuTURB Ini>.



A. 1 I##«/mmS.


& 3 «rir«i E.


I 1 U«^ir/«P.


9UuuL


Urt^m E.


i^ri/»i^« &


IrrMuE.


lrarT«j D.


8 f rrt#^i E.


IrrjP.


UriiVci D.


S Uftfrm E.


Ur^O.




IrtVVTM P



H 36. 9. EifAif to go.



Present.



Ind.

1 ft/U

1 f/Bfy

2 Tjb

3 iSa»



Subj.



D. 2 i«o» fi^oy



Opt.

rot
Toifitr

toiT8

toitp

lOlTOP

lo/rijy



Imp.



Inf.



Part



froy
tritfy



S. 1 ^jiv^ ga (^)

2 ^ti^y jiua&a

3 .^ciCf)



Pluperfect II., or Imperfect.
P. fjttfitP^ nfttp D.



ijeiToi^, lytor



Middle {to hasten). Present, Uiiai. Imperfect, U/Atjp,



DiALBono Forms.



Present.



Ind.
a S iTf I.

P. S fJr4 P.



& 1 47«L

8 f/f L

J(tE.



& 1 iSWP.
8 7iiW« E.
S 7^1 B.
7«/Mf E.



Opt.
& S i7ii F^
hin B.



P. 1



Imperfbot.

p. 1 fofiUvE.
3 7r«v E.
^ir«» I.
^7«. K.



Inf.
7^f E. D.

7jMII«4 E.

7»mP.



D. S Truf S.



Mn>. Fat Jo/am, Aor. iW/tKv, Ep. (4 252).



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1157.]



NUDE SE1.OND AORISTS.



n



Hat. Pure Verbs, iii. Second Aorists.

I. A0RI8T U. of fialvb), to go.



8. I
2
3

P. I
8
3

D 2



S. I
2
3

P. I
2
3

D. 2
3



S. 1
2
J

P. t
2
3

D. 4
3



8 1
2
3

P 1
2
3

D. 2



lod.
ififjg



Subj.



Bflrjaav fioiat



Opt.

puhig



Imp.



pijiuip



Inf.
Pot.



2. AORIST II. 6f uTtodid^fiayrtt, to run awmf.



Ind.

anid(fag

anid(fS

antdgatfjitp

anidgntov
aiiidQUTriv



Sul§.
anoouai
anoo^ng
anodgqt
cinod(joifi(v
anod()uis

anod^tttop



Opt.
6lc.



Inf.

Ftet.

anod^ug



tyfwv
i/Vbig

iypuu



3. AoRiST II. of yiyvfaania, to kfioio.

Imp.



Iil£

yvbivat

Ptet
yrovg



Subj. Opt.

yiw yvolrji' (yrolrir)

yvwg ypoirig yratdt

yvia yvoiri y rut fa

yr^fitv yvolr/fifv, yvolftetf

yrmxt yroirjTt, yvoliB yvwrt

lyvtoaav yroaai yvolr/aavt yvoltv yvwtwaav, yvovx^p

tyvtito^ yfmtov yroltjtoVf yroi rov yvdioi'

iyvtaxriv yronjttjVf yvoirtjv yvtatbtv

AoRisT II. of 6vvta, to dith^, tif put on.



4.
ttO.
Xdvv
idvg
idv

tdfftiap
d6inf,p



Sulj.
dvftf

dvf)g

dvotfiiP
difTjTi

dvrjiop



Opt.

dvbig

dvot

dvotfifp

d volute

dvoKP

dvoiro^

dvoitfiP



dvxfa



dvtt

dvxop
9vxtA^



bifvai
Pert.



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74



TABLES.



[II 58, 59.



HffS.



S



ola&a



lad.

1 ol9a

2 oldtxg,

3 oldB

1 otdafitp, tafiw

2 o29ara, tan

3 ol^^aaiy {bJ(f»
2 otdatov, tatop



XV. (E.) Preteritive Verbs.
1. OJJa, to Amou?.

Perfect II.

tidmfiw

BidfJTB

iidmai
Pluperfect II.



Opt


Lnp.


InL


Biddr^¥




tidhai


Btdtlfiq


to^i.




BidBlfi


Xaiw


Tut


&c.


tOTB

tawaar


Bld€k




t&top 3 tatmp



fi^n



P. ^dilflBT, fJOfiSP D.



1 ^^dciy*

fjduad^a, ^dfia&a
3 i7dai(y), lyi^ fjdtaap, ^aar ^dBltfjP, paittP

Future, itaofim, eid^iaw, Aorist, Btdtiaa.



2. Jiioixa or iiiM^ to be aJraUL





Perfect II.


Pluperf. II


Ind.


Sulj;


Imp.


InC


S. 1 mia


a<d^




dtdispm idtbUip


2 Miag


d<%ff


dtdi&t


iMUiq


3 diiiB


^f%


dedixm


VbxL idtdUi


P. 1 ^€^t/iey


dedlotfitp




dtdifog ididifiBP


2 de^m


dedlfiTB


diditB


^didixB


3 dfd/ffa»


didlwat


dtdUmaap


ididiam


D. 2 m^op


dldlfJTOP


didixop


^didnop


3




dtdljiop


idsdltnr


1 Perf. dfidoiita. 1 Pluperf. idtdolxBip. FuU dklaofiat. Aor.


«(5«iaa.










^S9.


3. ''Hfiaij to sit.




Perfect.


Pluperfect.


Jbd.


Imp.


hd.


Rit.


S, 1 1JfMl$

2^aa»


r


^U&M


nfi^pitg ^np


ijao






3 i}(7Ta»


^a^«




P. 1 ^B&a

2f&B

3 4rr«»
D. 2 ^a^oir


jja^^t




iifiB&a

Sa&B

nrto

^a&OP 3^^]yf


na^maap, fiad-wp
tia&op 3 ^a^wr



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II 59, 60.]



PR£T£E1TIVE VERBS.



75



Preteritive Verbs.
4. KddTjfiui, to sit dovm.

Perfect.



Ind.
S. 1 xdd-Tifiai

2 xd&riaai

3 xd&ijiai.
P. 1 xadi^fif&a

2 xd&fnj&8

3 xd&firtai
D. 2 xd&fia&ov

3



Subj. Opt. Impi. IbL

xd^wfiat xa^olfiiiv xa&Tfad^at

xd&ij xd&oio xd^fjao

xd&ritat xd^ono xax^ria-&u Pwt

xaS(ofif&a xa&olfifda xa&i^fitvog

xd^fio&e xd^oiad^t xdd^iio&e
xd&wrtai xd&oivto xa&rja&maar, xa&i^ad-tP
xd^TiOdop xd&oia&ov xddrjo^ov
xa&oia&fiv xa^ria&iov



Pluperfect.



1 ixu'O^i^fiijVf

2 ixd&fiao^

3 ixd&r^to,

2 ixd^fia&oVf



xad^'^/ifjv
xa&rjao
xa&'ijaTO
xadr^a^op



P. 1 ixa^TJfifda,

2 ixd&TjO&f,

3 ixd&fivTO,
D. 3 fxa&r^adfip.



xadi^fAfd^a
xadrjad^B
xa&Tjrto
xa&i^a^rfif



1[ 60. K€ifjiaif to lie dovm.
Present or Perfect.



s.


Ind.

1 xBlfiai

2 xtlaai

3 xiltai


SubJ. Opt.
xioifiai xtolfir,v
xiri xioto
xdfijai xioiTO


Imp^ InL

xBto^ai
Xflao
xiia&m Pwft.


p.


1 xtlfit&a

2 xtla&B

3 xttnai,


KfiifitSa XtolfiS&tt

xdfjo&B xioia&B
xfOitviai xioiPto


xilfifvog
xita&B
xtla^oioar, xda&wf


D.


2 xtla&op
3


xiria&or xioia&op
XBolodr^v


xtia&ov
xtla&wr






Imperfect or Pluperfect.


8.


1 intlfifip

2 ixBiao

8 IxfiTO


P. ixslfieSa

BXtia^B

Bxtirro


D.

Bxtia^op
ixBla^np






Future, xbIoo/am.



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76 TABLES. -^ CBAMOBS Hf THE ROOT. [1(61

1[61. XVI. Changes in the Root



Euphonic Changes.

[S§259>a64.]



Precession



fa. of « to fl.

(b. of • and » to u
S- Csntraction.
S. Syuoo|^



4. Metathesis.

5. To avoid Double Aspiratioa.

6. Omission or Addition of ConsonanU

7. From the Omission of tlieDigamnJU



1. £to n.

S. «t0M.

8. Vario^ks Changes of «.



R Emphatic Changes.
Bt IflNGTHSiniio A Shobt Yowxl.

[««866-270.]

4. f to M.

5. r to r.

6. ttou.



#tO ««tr
ffUtSs

a to tth



I. Of •



S. (Hi



{I



II. By thb Addition of Ck>N80NANT8.
[H 271 -282.]



To Labial Roots.
To Other Roots.



«. Prefixed.
/3. Affixed.
Uniting with a

y. Palatal to form #v(rr).

J. " " c.

I. yy " t

C. Lingual " Z-

/.Labial " ?;,##.



S. Of



4.0f#






Prefixed to a Consonant
Affixed to a Consonant.
Affixed to a Vorvrel.
Prefixed, to «.



«. Without ftirther change.
fi. Vowel changed by ^rec4^
y. Vowel lengthened, [sioii
i. Metathesis.
•« Coiteonant dropped.



5. OfKr^^.X'



III. Bt Incbsjuhno the Number of Syllables.

[$$283-300.1

1. By RedupUeaium (§§ 283-286).



Proper.

Attic.

Improper.



«. In Verbs in .^m.
fi. In Verbs in -r»«.
y. In Other Verbs.



a. « and i.

/'«. Without further change,
b &» -</3. With the Insertion of ».
(^v. With a» prolonged.

«. N.



2. ^ SyOabie Affixes (§§ 287 - iJ99).

(«. To Pore Roots.
d* r» -1^. To Palatal Roots.

(y. To Lingual and Liquid
e. «#». [Boots.

f. .:.

g. Other Syllables.
8. By Exchange of Letters (§ S00>
r becoming I.



Anomalous Changes.

[I301.J



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1I«2.J



DERIVATION.



77



D. Tables of Formation.

U 63. I. Table op Derivation.



1. Fbom Verbs, denoting

1. The Action f in .«-r<, .r/4, -n, •«,
-•I (-♦»), .r#f, -•# (-•#*), -^tfj, -/«ii.

2. The ^ec* or Object^ in ./*«.

3. The Iher, in -mj, -t»j^, -t4»{^
(F. -r^iA, -rii^A, -Tgr^, -T/|,) -ii/j,

4. The F/actf, Irutrmment^ &c», in

IL Fbom Aojbotivbb, expressing
the AbatracU in -m (.»4a^ .«i«), m-ik,



A. Nouns.
IH 305-313]
III



4.



5.



Prom Otueb Nouns.
FfttrialSf in -nw (F. -r/f), -i^

(F.-r,>

Patronymics, in -IJnf, •«^ff^9
-<2»J»il (F. ."f#, -«;, -^«l)» -'Aw^
(F. .M^yff, -/wf).

Female Appellatives, in -/#, -«/y^
-•Me, -wf& {-rr&)*
Diminutives, in -r«» (-1^i«», -l^i««t

'*X*1i -'i**^» 'UXkif, -tXoft &C
AugmentcUiveSf in •«*, -«»<«, -«^



B. ADjEcnyss.

[§§ 314-316.]

L FiMMC Verbs ; in Knit, -rn^J*/, I patrial ; .^ig, -i^^, .if^, -ItXist,

MM ; -IffMf , fitness ; -d^ist -as, &'c | quality,

n. From Nouns ; in -ra; (-«i«f, •!/«{, i III. From Adjectives and Ad-

-•f«f , -ytff , -V40;)» belonging to ; 'Xnit, TERBS.

•»««, •««««, -«'»«f> relating to; -<•«, | 1. As from Nonns.

'iftt -«»t material; ^mi (t), <>ir« 8. Strengthened Forms ; Ck>Bft*

9r |imNifaic» ; .o*f, -nMf, -«v«f, I parative. Superlative.

0. Pronouns.
^ 11317.]

D. Vbbbs.
rH 318, 319.)



L From Nouns and Adjechves;
in 4», -f VM, ^4», Id fe or efo ; -«*>,
.«i»M, 4mv, to moAe; .i^*>, Me^«s
fnu/uliM, oc^roe, &e. ; -m with penolt
strengthened, active, &e.

E. Adverbs.

(U 320-322.]



n. From Other Verbs; in -^Im^
-met, •««, deuderathe; -^*>, -r»»^
&c, frequentative, intensive, me^
five, c&nmutive, &c.



I OnuQUB Cases of Nouns and
AugutonvBS.

1. Genitives, in -fit, place whence i

-,90^ place where; -nst &0.

S« JDoftVMi in .»i, '•il, -neJ, 'A«X,

♦ place where; -ii, -«, -«/, -T, way,

pUve where, time when ; &c.

3. Accusatives, especially Neut.

Sing, aud IMur. of Adjec-



IL DERrVATIVES SIQNIFTINO

1. Manner, in -ivf, .ff^«t, -in, 4«%
•aitif, -^Of -A -«'» -*•

2. TtfM tt^A^n, in •««, -Ts*.

3. F/ace whither, in .#i.

4. Number, in •«»/;.

in. PRttlNlSmONS WTTH THEIR CaSBIL

IV." Dkrivath'es from Preposi-
tions, or Pkkpiwitions

OUT CAMfcS.



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73 TABLES. [U 631

5T 63. II. Pronominal

[Obsolete Primitives are printed ia capital*
Negative. Relative.



> •

r

Q

£



Orders, L U. lU, TV. V. VL

Interrog. Indef. Objective. Subjective. Definite. Indefinite

Positive, rii i r)f, #tfT/f, fi^TtSy h, ?•"«*,

no2 1 no2, cvh'if, f^Ms, 'onos,

»v^aftisf fAfihafAOf,

Compar., irirt^ts t 9^•r^^os, •wJiTif**, fAnHnfof, Mrt^$s^

Superl., v'irrcf i Mrr»t,

Quantity, «•**•«# i «••••« j, •rot, Mrf,

Udrtoff

Quality, m'oTof i ^roiiff oitriiavif, Mt, W^t,

Age, Size, wmXtKot \ iikiMs, iv^Xitui,

Country, iroiav'it t ««'«^««'/r.

Day, wo^Ttitot i i^ot^ratH

Whence, wfl^ivi w**^!*, fi^^oStty «^fv, wriitf^

Wliere, sr*? i flr^v, ftv^rav, oSt Met, twu,

0vhct»OVt fAnhetfAOV, irtt^OVj

Whither, «'mi wa/, ftn^a/Atltt •!, Wt^

I a. Way, or w-jf i «^, oS^ift y^ X«^,

^ Place where, •vliv'if,

^ «'««'«;)^^l ^thetftl^t fifUnfA^ i^»XVi ^•'••'•aA

3. Manner, frSf i «■«!;, «^ir4wf, f^nvts, if, t^rmi,

cviec/Atisf fAijheifii£sf

olttf, •«'«/«#,

9'og'axSt I [«•», [«••», Uax'^h

trS I «*«, tt^vAr, «v2i. fifi^ttf fjiniim

General, «'«ri i watI, olhrtrt, /Kit9'0rt, 7n, isrirtf

Specific, ttn/tiui % hintt^ lwmf»^

Various, ^n/Aot i ^A««*» ^•'•'t «*»V**'>

tats, i<p(», •

6. Number, «'0«'4^»«f i §^ifdMiif l^AxiSt ittordma.



i'



Dertvativb N0DN8. m'tvoTtift v9i0Tfit^ 9'irX/x0r*ir, tvietfuvirns, hr»iimi
In^irnft Irt^oiirnst ifAnornt, <V«Tiff, iri^a/ftf, iftotato'tt, ifuftf, etWoittta, &0.



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1163.J



PRONOMINAL CORRELATIVES.



79



Correlatives.

Pbetle and Dialeaic Fonna ara not markad.]

Deflnita or Demonstrativa. UnivarsaL



vn. vm. IX. X XL

SImpIa. Emphatic Deictic. Dlitributiva. OoUactira.
T02, imMt, Af»^^,



[ruffif.








Ttftif T^tVT9t%


veiAu














TMty rttwr0f.


rMt%,




WMfTMt,


i»tiws.










.mXinUU,




TffriV) awfiviVi




Uirr0/f»,


«'«fr0/iv.


tvitv, IvrifViy,


i»^i4i,


U«rr«;^0^iv


, Wtfvrtf;^^^!*,


UfiVif,




l»iin^#»v.




WJe«#.t,




Utiri^ar^iv,


iift,^»r%^»0iiu


M«, lmS#«,


Iv/i^i,






Uu,


^


l»«rr«;);«^


9'»v'rmx»»,


rH^




l»«rri^/,^


weitrittt


\»u9i,




&««rr«;^0^<,


9»9Taxitt,


Iri^^H




U-riH*.


kt^M^mi^


\fia$^ Xwrmwiu,




Xnmerax***


wmitrmx^.


UiTn,






irmvriri.



lrs^«»n.



•MU9y,



rmSr^ ry^



rt^mttrmxSti
r«rt.



Itut^mxp, 9'»frttx?*



xiL xm.

Of Like- Of Idantl-
neaa, and ty, Diranl
Equality, ty, 4ec.



AXXmxiStn

kkXitu
kXXMxi^i*



iftw,



'a*?.



IXXmxf.









ifuif, mSrmt*
ifftatf, kXXiimi*









DsBXYATivv Verbs. «'«r««, «^vMf, Irt^iitt (fW>m !«(•*•;, omitted
■bore), ifttittj iV«», AkXssiet, •v^ivi^«#, Aftftrtd^h Umti^Sm, AXA^rw, &C.



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BO T4BLE9. n S^



III. PRINCIPAL RULES OF SYNTAX.

IT 04* I. An Apposititk agrees in ease with its subject § 331.

II. The Subject of a finite ybrb is put in the Nominative. § 349.

III. Substantives indepenoent of grammatical comstkuction art
put in the Nominative. § 343.

General Rule for the Genitive. The Point of Departure and
THE Cause are put in the Gemi-^'ve. § 345.

fV Words of separation and distinction govern the Genitive. § 346

V. The comparative degree governs tl^e Genitive. § 351.

VI. The origin, source, and material are put in the GenitiTe. § 355

VII. The theme of discourse or of thought is put in the Genitive.
1356.

VIII. Words of PLENTY and want govern the Genitive. §357.

IX. The whole of which a part is taken is put in the Genitive
I 358.

X. Words of SHARING and touch govern the Genitive. § 3G7.

XL The motive, reason, and sud ir view are put i^ th% Genitiv«
I 372.
XII Price, value, merit, and crime are put in the Genitive. § 374.

XIII. Words of SENSATION and of mental state or action guvera
the Genitive. § 375.

XIV. The TIME and place in which are put in the Genitive. § 378.

XV. The AUTHOR, AGENT, and giver are put in the Genitive. § 386L

XVI. An ADJUNCT DEFINING A THING OR PROPERTY is put iu the Gen-
itive. § 382.

General Rule for the Dative Objective. The Object of Ap-
proach AND OF Influence is put in the Dative ; or. An Indirect
Object is put in the Dative. § 397.

XVU. Words of nearness and likeness govern the Dative § 398.

XYIII. The OBJECT OF influence is put in the Dative. § 401.

General Rul» for the Dative Residual. An Attendant Thivg
OK Circumstance, simply viewed as such, is put in tb« Dativ^.
§414.

XIX. The MEANS and mode are put in the DatiTf* § 415.

XX. The TIME and place at which are put in the Dative. § 420.
General Rule for the Accusative. An Aojuect expkessino

Direct Limit is put in the Accusative. § 422.

XX-I. The DIRECT OBJECT and the effect of an action are put in the
Accusative. § 423.

Advrbbs op swearino are followed by the Accusative. % 496.

Oausativbs govern the Accusative together with the case of the includsd verb, f 430l
The aame verb often governs two acci»ativb8, which may be, — (I.) The birboi
OBJBOT and the bfprct in apposition with eachoiher: as with verbs of moJb'n^, appoint*
ing, ehooHngf eateeming^ naming, A^. — (IT ) The dirbct objbct and the effect, not
hi anpo9ition; as with verbs of tSoing, saying^ ice. — (HI.) Two objects diSbrently re-
lated, but which are both reirarded as niRBCx; as with vertw ofuy^kinv and rtquiringt of
WqfWwf ^d unclothing, of nonMoUng and aeptiving^ of persuading and isaching^ iw.
ff 4M — 496.



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PRINCIPAL RULES OF SYNTAX. 81

XXIi An adjttiiGt applying a word or expression to a r^RTiciiLAm
f ART, PROPERTY, THING, or PERSON, is put in the Accusative. § 437.
XXIil. Extent of tims and space is put in the Accusative. § 439.

XXIV. The Accusative is often used apverbially, to express d«-

eRER, MANNER, ORDER, &C. § 440.

XXV. The CoMPELLATivE of a sentence is put in the Vocative. § 442.

XXVI. An Adjective agrees with its subject in gender^ number j and
ease. § 444.

XXVII. The A&TiCLX is prefixed to sobstantives, to mark them ai
definUe. § 469.

XX VIII. A PRONOUN agrees with its subject in gender ^ number, and
ftretm. | 494.

The RBLATiVB eammanly takes the ease pf the antecedent, when the AirTBOBin»T la a
Genitive or Dative, and ihe r^jltivb would properly be an Aectuative defending upon
a verb. S 586.

XXIX. A Verb agrees with its subject in number and person. § 543.

The Nbtttbr Plural has its vbrb in the singular. $ 549.

The Passive Voicb has for its subject an object of the ilc/iue, commonly ^direct,
but sometimes an indirect object. Any other word governed by the Active remains un^
changed with the Passive. The subject op the Actitb is commonly expressed, witk
the nssive, by the Genitive tnth a preposition. § 663.

An .Minn I. r.nm.*nt«<l hv th« \ Definite Tonses, as (a.) eontinuid or prolonged ^
An action is represented by the J j^^^ ^ ^^^ momentary or tranwnt,

Sib.) a habit or continued course of conduct; (c.) doing at the time of, or untA tn^
} (6. ) a single act ; <c. ) simply doTie in its own time ;

S other action ; (d.) begun, attempted^ or designed; (c.) introductory. ) ,, KTn^sJd,
i {d.)aecomplished; {e.) conclusive. ^ ^^" **^*

The generic Aorist often supplies the place of the specific Perfect and PiupeiAct
1580.

The XioiCATiVB expresses the actual; the Subjunctive and Optative, the contingent,
1587.

Prbsbnt continobmct is expressed by the primary tenses ; past coivtinobnct, by tlM
s^ondary. i SSQ.

The Sttbjunctivb. for the most part, follows the primary tenses ; and the Optativ%
the itfcondary. S 592.

Suftposition oh fact is expressed by the appiopriate tense of the Indicative ; supposi'
twn fhnt may hpcomf fact, by llie Subjunctive; supposition ttithout regard to fact, by
t1»e Optative: and supposition contrary to fact, by the past lensea of the indicative.

Tlie OpTATivB is the distinct mode appropriate U» the oratio obliqua in past time. 5 608.

XXX. The Infinitive is construed as a neuter noun. § 620.

The iNPiNrriVB often forms an elliptical command, request, counsel, salutaHon, exdm-
mti/ion, or question. $ <J26.

XXXI. The Subject of the Infinitive is put in the Accusatim,

XXXII. A PARTICIPLE AND SUB5TANTIVF. are put absolute in the 6fei»
kive; an impersonal participi.k, in the Accusative. § 638.

The Iktrrjbction is independent of grammatical construction. § 645.

XXXIII. Ai»VERB8 modify sentences, phrases, and words; particularly
ierbsy adjectives, and other adverbs. § 64o.

XXXIV. Prkpositions govern substantives in the oblique cases, and
mmtk their relations. § 648.

XXXV. Conjunctions connect sentences and like parts of a sentence



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83 TABLBS. [II (

IV. FORMS OF ANALYSIS AND PARSING.
11 eS. A. Op Words.



ba



Ooimnon

Proper

Abstract

Collective

Irregular



Nouvof the



^ Comm. J



(*^)'[^::Snror-.l«~'-



IToin.
Gen.
^ Affix - -; tlM Dst.
Aoc
Voc



Sing.
Plur.
Dnal



}



the subject of — ,
governed by — ,
the Gen. of — ^
the Dat of — ^
^the Ace of — f Ac,



" Rale. JUmarki,



P09 ">

— — is an AiiJBOTiyB [in the Comp. >• Degree, from — . .— — . («om|mv«V
Sup. )

•r2| Termination. (^«»e);[^;^;^^^^ Root -, Affix ..

,) Sing.) Masc )
Y Phir. y Fern. ^ ;
) Dual) Neut. )



^Nora.
^Gen.

(&0.



agreeing with — \ .

used substantively, &c.) *



Rule. JbtMrii.



Personal "|

Reflexive I H

— is a Relative ( Proitoun, of the 2 >• Pers. i- , ttom — — — (di»>
&c. J S)

Article
r-Tk • A !> n Norn.) Sing.) Masc.)

rthe subject of — ^, ) Q K* t >

^governed by , ^ Rule. [It refers to — as its A^^e„. k Rule;



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