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A grammar of the Greek language online

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(agreeing with — , &c.,) '

■nd connects — to — .] RemafkM.

•is a

Transitive Verb,
Intransitive "
Deponent **
Barytone **
Contract "
Verb in /m, &c., .


-(->^)» KSS-


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rlj i^ - }' CP««x T.] ^ -' «- a

{wary and




Pros. 1 Ind.
Impf. Sabj.
Fut. 1 Opt
Fut Imp.
1 Aor. Inf.
&c J Part _
_ Sing.)

(if/nite) the 2>- P«n. Phir.S- , agneing with — ,
S) Dual)

(if Inf.) having for ite .abject -, and {f^g^^ ^

(ir /•art) the gT'I Rufil ^l ; "^Jf^"!;^^ "? .

^ &c ) Dual) Neut) ««^~b«tantovely, Ac,


Pes. )
, [in the Comp. > Dt*
Sup. )

Interrogatiye ^ Place

Indefinite I Time

■ is an Demonstrative V Advbbb of Manner

Complementary I ' Order

Ac J &c.

le&ra to — at its antecedent and connects — to — .] JUtmark$.

its relation to — , Rule. Remarks.

Copulatiye "j

. . Conditional I n^^r^w^^^^ p)erived from — , ] ..^..^^

» • Complementary f Cc»-^<^oir, ^Compounded of -,j «"""**•

&c J

ing — to — i Rule. Remarks.

is an lOTEiuEcrioN, [^^^^ o7'- j "* ^^^P~^* ^^ «™-

matical construction \ § 645). Remarks.

Noma (a) When dec/ension in./W{ is not desired, gire the Nom. and Gen. In Sub
■tantires and in Adjectiras of I Term., and the diflerent forms of the Nom. in Adjeaivas
of 9 or 8 Term. (6) In eot^ugating, gire the Theme, with the corresponding Put. and
PerC (if hi use), to which it is also well to add the 3 Aor. If used, (e) The term
**i»ry " is used abora in a specific sense, to denote giving the different modes ^f a
fense, or, as it Is sometimes called, giving the synopsis of the tense; and the term "<»>
Jlcel," to denote giving the numbers and persons (in the Participle, declensionf of
course, takes the plhce of this), (d) After completing the formula abore, which, to
aroid confusion and consequent omission or delay, sliould always be giren in the pro*
•eribad order, add such Remarks as may properly be made upon the form, signiJicaOon,
and tiss of the word ; as, hi respect to contraction, euphonic changes of consonants,
Uteral or figurative senss, the force or use of the number, case, degree, reice, modi^
tansa, Jbc. ; citins, from the Orammar, the appropriate rule, remarlc, or note, (e) SosM
particulars in thv forms aljoye, which du not apply to ail wordd. are inclosed In brackals.


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1I66» B. Of Sentences.

\ followf og Iqr ample ■nccwioo.

Adject ine.
Adrerb. «

IL Ana/^«e <A£ Sentence into tte Logieai mnd Orommatteal Divm&nat ii» Primary
and Secondary Parte, jfc.

Compellative ) ««,«i* > ^*>»'

Thf Logical SuWact S it , eontaiaing the cUSpSaad ( Gtammellcri Sub-

AdjectiTS n

pellative ; Adverb /

jna > — — , modified bj the AppoeiUr* \ <— ^ Shorn how tkme an mo^

d.cate ] Adjunct L

Dependent Clause 7

^^, and OMo/yM Subordinau or Incorporated CZoneet, «nf»l Me .^lenleiice if a^

1167. C. Of Metres,

I. CMm a gefieni/ deecription of the Metre in which the Poem. i§ tpnflen.
IL Deeeribe the particular Veree,

Iambic ) Monometer ) Acatalectic ) 1 )

It ia Dactylic > Dimeter } Cataiectic } , constatinf of 2 > Paat, wUch «f
. Ac ^ Jce, S ^Bc S ^tc )

tiMmm^ ^ Penthemlm, )
. The Caaura is the [g'™j Hepbtbttroim, 5 after

m. Analyse by [Dipodiee and] Feet.

Dactyl, ) 1 ) . ^. , Nature, )

— la a Spondee, S the 9 V Syllable |^^* \ by Position, > Salt.


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^ 1 • Thb Ancient Greeks were divided into three principal
races ; the Ionic, of which the Attic was a branch, the Doric
and the MoWc, These races spoke the same general language
but with many dialectic peculiarities.

The Ancient Greek Languaob (commonly called simply
the Greek) has been accordingly divided by grammarians into
four principal Dialects, the Attic, the Ionic, the Doric, and
the iEoLia Of these the Attic and Ionic were far the most
refined, and had far the greatest unity within themselves. The
Doric and JEkAic were not only much ruder, but, as the dialects
of races widely extended, and united by no common bond of
litemture, abounded in local diversities. Some of the varieties
of the Doric or iEolic were separated from each other by dif-
ferences scarcely less marked than those which distinguished
them in common from the other dialects. Of the iEolic, the
principal varieties were the Lesbian, the Boeotian, and the
Thessalian. The Doric,' according as it was more or less
removed from the Attic and Ionic, was characterized as the
stricter or the milder Doric ; the former prevailing in the La-
conic, Tarentine, Cretan, Cyrenian, and some other varieties ;
the latter in the Corinthian, Syracusan, Megarian, Delphian,
Rhodian, and some others.

^ 9» The Groek colonies upon the coast of Asia Minor and
the adjacent islands, from various causes, took the lead of the
mother country in refinement; and the first development of
Greek literature which secured permanence for its productions,
was among the Asiatic lonians. This development was Epic
Poetry, and we have, doubtless, its choicest strains remaining
to us in the still unsurpassed Homeric poems. The language
of these poems, often called Epic and Homeric, is the old Ionic,
with those modifications and additions which a waqdering bard


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would insensibly gather up, as he snmg from city to city,
and those poetic menses which are always allowed to early
minstrelsy, when as yet the language is unfixed, and critics are
unknown. Epic poetry was followed in Ionia by the Elegiac
of which Callinus of Ephesus and Mimnermus of Colophon
were two great masters ; and this again by Ionic Prose, If
which the two principal names are Herodotus and Hippocrateb,
who chose this refined dialect, although themselves of Doric
descent. In distinction from the Old Ionic of the Epic poets
the language of the Elegiac poets may be termed the Middle
Ionic, and that of the prose-writers, the New Ionic.

§ 3. The next dialect which attained distinction in litera
ture was the .£olic of Lesbos, in which the lyric strains ot
Alcaeus and Sappho were sung. But its distinction was short-
lived, and we have scarce any thing remaining of the dialect
except some brief fragments. There arose later among the
iEolians of Boeotia another school of Lyric Poetry, of which
Pindar was the most illustrious ornament; As writing, however
for the public festivals of Greece, he rejected the peculiarities
of his rude native tongue, and wrote in a dialect of which the
basis consisted of words and forms common to the Doric and
iEolic, but which was greatly enriched from the now universal-
ly familiar Epic. He is commonly said, but loosely, to have
written in the Doric.

§ 4« Meanwhile, the Athenians, a branch of the Ionian race,
were gradually rising to suQh political and commercial impor-
tance, and to such intellectual preeminence among the states
of Greece, that their dialect, adorned by such dramatists as
iEschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, and Menander,
by such historians as Thucydides and Xenophon, by such phi-
losophers as Plato and Aristotle, and by such orators as Lysias
iEschines, and Demosthenes, became at length the standard
language of the Greeks, and, as such, was adopted by the edu-
cated classes in all the states. It became the general medium
of intercourse, and, with a few exceptions, which will be here-
af,er noticed, the universal language of composition. This
diffusion of the Attic dialect was especially promoted by tlie
conquests of the Macedonians, who adopted it as their court
language. As its use extended, it naturally lost some of its
peculiarities, and received many additions ; and thus diffused
and modified, it ceased to be regarded as the language of a
particular state, and received the appellation of the Common
Dialect or Language.

The Attic- and Common dialects, therefore, do not differ in

Digitized by VjOOQIC


any eflsential feature, and may properly be regarded, the one
as the earlier and pure, the other as the later and impure, form
of the same dialect. In this dialect, either in its earlier or
later form, we find wn'tten nearly the whole that remains to us
of ancient Greek liten^ture. It may claim therefore to be re-
garded, notwithstanding a few splendid compositions in the
other dialects, as the national language of Greece ; and its
acquisition should form the commencement and the basis of
Greek study.

The pure Attic has been divided into three periods ; the 0/rf,
used by Thucydides, the Tragedians, and Aristophanes; the
Middle, used by Xenophon and Plato ; and the New, used by
the Orators and the later Comedians. The period of the Com-
mon dialect may be regarded as commencing with the subjec-
tion of Athens to the Macedonians.

§ •!• Of the Doric dialect, in proportion to its wide extent,
we have very scanty remains ; and of most of its varieties our
knowledge is derived from passages in Attic writers, from mon-
uments, and from the works of grammarians. In Greece it-
self, it seems scarcely to have been applied to any other branch
of literature than Lyric Poetry. In the* more refined Dorian
colonies of Italy and Sicily, it was employed in Philosophy by
the Pythagoreans { Archytas, Timeeus, &c.), in Mathematics by
the great Archimedes, in Comedy by Epicharmus and his
successors, and in Pastoral Poetry by Theocritus, Bion, and

§ O* To the universality acquired by the Attic dialect, an
exception must be made in poetry. Here the later writers felt
constrained to imitate the language of the great early models.
The Epic poet never felt at liberty to depart from the dialect
of Homer. Indeed, the old Epic language was regarded by
subsequent poets in all departments as a sacred tongue, the
language of the gods, from which they might enrich their sev-
eral compositions. The iEolic and Doric held such a place in
Lyric Poetry, that even upon the Attic stage an ^olo-Doric
hue was given to the lyric portions by the use of the long of,
which formed so marked a characteristic of those dialects, and
which, by its openness of sound, was so favorable to musical
effect. Pastoral Poetry was confined to the Doric. The Dra-
matic was the only department of poetry in which the Attic
was the standard dialect.

^ 7, Grammar flourished only in the decline of the Greek
language, and the Greek grammarians usually treated the die-


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lects with litde precision. Whatever they found in the old
lonie of Homer that seemed to them more akin to the later
cultivated MoWcy Doric, or even Attic, than to the new lom'c
they did not hesitate to ascribe to those dialects. Even in the
common language, whatever appeared to them irregular or pe
culiar, they usually referred to one of the old dialects, terming
the regular form x<hp6v^ common^ though perhaps this form was
either wholly unused,* or was found only as a dialectic variety
On the other hand, some critics used the appellation xoiv6<; as a
term of reproach, designating by it that which was not pure
Attic. In the following Grammar, an attempt will be made to
exhibit first and distinctly, under each head, the Greek in its
standard form, that is, the Attic and the purer Common usage ;
and af\erwards to specify the important dialectic peculiarities.
It will not, however, be understood that every thing which is
ascribed to one of the dialects prevails in that dialect through-
out, or is found in no other. This applies especially to the
Doric and .£olic, which, with great variety within themselves
(§1), are closely akin to each other; so that some (as Mait-
taire) have treated of both under jthe general head of Doric ;
and in the following Grammar some forms will be simply men-
tioned as Doric, that also occur in the iEolic. By the term
iEolic, as employed by grammarians, is commonly denoted the
cultivated .^olic of Lesbos ; as the term Ionic is usually con-
fined to the language spoken (though, according to Herodotus,
with four varieties) by the lonians of Asia Minor and the adja-
cent islands.

,§ S. It remains to notice the modifications of the later
Greek. The Macedonians, who had previously spoken a rude
and semi-barbarous dialect of the Greek, retained and diffused
some of the peculiarities of their native tongue. These are
termed Macedonic^ or, sometimes, from Alexandria, the prin-
cipal seat of Macedonian,' and indeed of later Greek culture

The Greek, as the common language of the civilized world,
was employed in the translation of the Jewish Scriptures, and
the composition of the Christian. When so employed by na-
tive Jews, it naturally received a strong Hebrew coloring ; and,
as a Jew speaking Greek was called 'ii'U^vi ari/V ( from lUi^v/^w,
to speak Greek) ^ this form of the language has been termed the
Hellenistic (or by some the Ecclesiastical) dialect. Its pecu-
liarities naturally passed more or less into the writings of the
fathers, and through the diilusion of Christianity exerted a greai
general influence.


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Another influence modifying the Greek came from the lan-
guage of the Roman conquerors of the world. Of necessity,
the Greek, notwithstanding the careful compositions of such
scholars as Arrian, Lucian, and iElian, and the precepts of a
class of critics, called Atticists, was continually becoming more
and more impure. The lai^guage of the By^^antine pejriod was
especially degenerate. Since the destruction of the . Eastern
Empire by the Turks, the fusion of the Byzantine and Eccle-
siastical Greek with the popular dialects of the different dis-
tricts and islands of Greeoe has produced the Modern Greek,
or, as it is often called, by a name derived from the Roman
Empire in the East, Romaic This language has been es-
pecially cultivated and refined within the present century, and
has now a large body of original and translated literature.

§ O. Tlie Greek, therefore, in its various forms, has never
ceased to be a living language ; and it offers to the student a
series of compositions, not only including many of the highest
productions of genius, but e^^tending through a period of nearly
duree thousand years.





JBKhylus, Prom. ViosU



[inr I, 2.)

^ lO. The Greek language is written with
tu^nty-four letters, two breathings, three accents^
four marks of punctuation, and a few other char-

1. For the Letters, see Table, f I.

Remarks. 1. Double Forms. Sigma final is written q\
not finals a ; as, axaa^q. In compound words, some editors,
without authority from manuscripts, use g at the end of each
component word ; thus, n^ogtiggfigtui. The other double forms
are used indifferently ; as, ^ovg or 6ovq

2. Ligatures. Two or more letters are often united, except
in recent editions, uito one character, called a ligature (liga-
tura, tie) ; as, j^ for xal^ 8 for ov, cS* for a^, ^ (named ail or
atlyfia) for or. For a list of the principal ligatures, see Table,


§ 1 1. 3. Numeral Power. To denote numbers under a
thousand, the Greeks employed the letters of the alphabet, as
exhibited in the table, with die mark ( ' ) over them ; as, a 1,
*' 10, */r 12, Q%y 123. The first eight letters, with Vau, rep-
resented the nine units ; the next eight, with Koppa, the nine
tens ; and the last eight, with Sampi, the nine hundreds. The
thousands were denoted by the same letters with the mark be*
necUh ' as, «' 5, / 5,000, x/ 23, x^y or *^ 23,000, ^atufti 1841.


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Konm. «. Tan, in its usual small fbrm (r\ resembles tbe figature for #v
(§ 10). Henoe some editors coofoond them, and employ 2T, as the lai^ge form
if Van, to denote 6.

/3. Sometimes the Greek letters, like onr own, denote ordinal numbers, ao-
eording to their own order in the alphabet, ta this way the books of Homer
are marked; as, 'Du^dtr, A, Z, H, TAe Iliady Books /., F/., XXIV,

y. Another method of writing numerals occmv in old inscriptions, by which
1 denotes one, n (for Iltvrf) /m, A (for Aixa) ton, H (for Htx«r0v, § 22. «)
a hundred^ X (for XiXtu) a thouaaad^ M (for tUv^toi) ten thousand, 11 drawn
around another numeral multiplies it by five. Thu^, BiXX^H^ AAIII
— 12,676.

^13. 4. Roman Letters. By the side of the Greek
letters in the table (U 1)) are placed the Roman letters which
take their place when Greek words are transferred into Latin
or English ; as, Kvxlwy/^ Cyclops.

Notes. «. The letter y becomes n, when fbllowed by another palatal ;
but, otherwise, g ; as, AyytXf^ Lat. angduiy £ng. angd ; ^vymeTny nfneope g
Xu^vyi^ larynx ; Ai^f »«, ^glna,

fi. The diphtiumg m becomes in Latin « ; ti, ce ; «#, { or e (before a conso-
nant almost always i) ; «(/,«; and m, yi ; as, <I>«i^^«f, Phadnu ; B«i«r/«,
BoBotia; NiiXtr, NUu$; A«^t7«f, Darim; Mii^tiff, Medea; M«(7rff, Mu$a,
EiXfiVviA, Hithjia.

A few words ending in »ta and m« are excepted ; as, fAmm^ Mma^ '^C**'h
Troia or Trofa ; so also A7«;, Ajax,

y. The improper diphthongs f, }?,**, are written in Latin simply a^e,oi
as, @f fxn, TAroce, 'Ai^n^ , HadeSy O^Jftf-r*, TAreno, ^^ ode. But in a few
compounds of ^^, f becomes or; as, r^yfiimj trag(Bdiay Eng. frc^ecfy.

}. The roM^ breathing becomes, in Latin and English, A, while the tmooth is
not written ; as,*Exr*r(, Hector^'^viy Eryx^ Ti«, Bhea (the A being placed
after the r l^ the same inaccuracy as after the w in our whUe^ pronounced
koo-Ue; since in both cases the breathing introduces the word).

^13. IL The Breathings are the Smooth or
Soft ('), and the Rough ('), also called the As-
pirate (aspiro, to breathe). The first denotes a
gentle emission of the breath, such as must precede
every initial vowel ; the second, a strong emission,
such as in English is represented by h. One of
these is placed over every initial vowelj and over
every initial or doubled g.

Notes. 1. An mitial » has always the rough breathing to assist in its
utt(>r.ince (as in English an initial long u is always preceded by the sound <^
y ; thus, Ss^ &fiti*s^ as, in English, use, pronounced yttee, union) ; except in th«
JColic dialect, and in the Epic forms Sftptts^ Sfifu or t>/«^v, t^u^i.


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93 eBABACSEBS. [book &

S. Am trnttof ^ Teqrim, fiw its pnpar vibrMioii or volfliici» • stioiig a^jdn-
tion, and is tharefore always Buu^rad with the roqg^ breathiiig; as, ^uw.
When ^ is doubled^ the first ^ has the smooth breathing^ and the second the
rough ; as, Uufpot* See § 62. /3.

8. In diphthongs (except «, y, and y), the iHeathfaig is placed over the
second yowd ; as, avris, cSt§s. See § 26.

4. In place of the rongfa breathing,. the .£olic seems oommonlj, and the
Epic often, to have used the digamma (§ 22. %\ or the smooth breaUiing. In
Homer we find the smooth for the rough particularly in words which are
strengthened in some other way ; as, ilUnA,*;, «vX«f, oZ^of^ liiXi*;, iV^^t;, for
f «iiX«f, (i>.Hy •(•Sy «Xi»f, vfiu$,

^ 1 4f HI. The Accents are the Acute ('), the
Grave ('), and the Circumflex ("or ;. For
their use, see Prosody.

^ tS. IV. The Marks of Punctuation are the
Comma ( , ), the Colon ( • ), the Period ( . ), and
the Note of Interrogation ( ; ), which has the
form of ours (?) inverted.

To these, some editors have jadicioosly added the Notb of Exclaxa*
WON ( I ).

§ 16. V. Other Characters.

1. CoRONis and Apostbophv, The martc ( * X which at the begmmng of
a word is the smooth (n-eathing^ over the mielidle is the Coroni^ (»M*rviV, oroo/^
td mark)j or mark of crasif^ and at the end^ the Apostbophb; (§ SO) ; as, r«tf-
rd fbr r« aura, &XX* \yu for aXXit \y»t,

2. The Htpodiastola (Jbir»^evX^ aeparatUm henea^i)^ or Diastoue (I/.
«irT«X«, 8eparation\ is a mark like a comma, placed^ for distinction's sake,
after some forms of the article and relative pronoun, when foUewed by the en-
clitics ri and ri ; as, |i,ri, r9,rt, 0,r«, to distingiiish them from the particles
•rt, r«Tt, ert. Some editors more wisely omit it, and merely separate the en-
clitic by a space.

3. The Hyphen, Dl^resis^ Dash, and Masks of Pabbmthbbis and
QvoTATioH are nsod in Greek as in En^sh.

4. Among the other signs nsed by critics and editors, are Brackets C ], to
faidose words of doubtful authenticity ; the Obbusk ( f or — ), to mai^
verses or words as faulty ; the Asterisk ( * ), to denote that something ii
wanting in the text ; and Marks of Quantitt, viz. ( - ), to mark a vowel
or syllable as long ; (^ ), a^ short ; ( « or " ), as either long or short.


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^ IT* There are three methods of pronouncing
Greek which deserve notice; the English, the
MoD£RN Greek, and the Erasmian.

The ptommdatkm of 6v«ty language, ttom the very laws of laHgaage, is in
a continual process of change, more or less rttpid. And in respect to the Greek,
there ia full internal evidence, both that its pronunciation had materially
changed before its orthography became fixed, and that it has materially
changed since. Therefore, a» there is no art of embalming sounds, the an
dent pronunciation of the Greek can now only be inferred, and, in part, with
great uncertainty. Modem scholars have commonly pronounced it according
to the analogy of their respective languages. The English method, which has
prevailed in the schools of England and this country, confonns, in general, to
the analogy of our own tongu^ arid to our method of pronouncing the Latin.
The Modem Greek method (also called the Reuchlinian, fh)ni its distinguished
advocate, the learned Reuchlin) is that which now prevails in Greece itself.
It is given below, as exhibited in the Grammar of Sophocles. The Erasmian
method (so named from the celebrated Erasmus) is that which is most exten-
sively followed in the schools upon the continent of Europe, and which con-
forms most nearly to the prevailing analogy of the continental tongues.

Note. To avMd eonftision, the terms protraeted and abmpt are employed
below to denote what, in English orthoepy, we oommonly call Umg and Aori
sounds ; and the term ieha (ttroke^ beat\ to denote that stress of the voiei
which in English we commonly call accent. For the proper use of the terms
kmg and Aart^ and acceaiy in Greek grammar, see Prosody.

A. English Method.

^18. 1. Simple Vowels. i?, v, and « have always ih^
protracted sounds of e in metey u in iubey and o ih note ; as,
^"THfol^ tvniUy a^ctfy.

e and o have the abrupt sounds of e in let^ and o in dot ; ex<<
cept before another vowel, and at the end of a word, where
they are protracted, like e in real^ and o fn go ; as, Ac/ai, Xoyoq '
■^«o^, roog ' diy to.

a and I are, in general, sounded like a and i m English ^
when protracted, like a in hate^ and i in pine ; when abrupt,
like a in Ao^, and i in pin. At the end of a word, i always
maintains its protracted sound ; but or, except in monosyllables,
takes the indistinct sound of a in Columbia ; as, ^17^/9 leom '
stifayfMtt, (ptXla * id.

NoTPE. If « or 4 receives the idus^ whether primary or secondary, and is
foHowed by a single consonant or ^, it is protracted in the penult, but abrupt
hi any preceding syllable ; as, &yit^ ix^i^it • y^ti^trty ^<xi«r, 'ASn9m7»t. From
this rule is excepted « in any syllable preceding the penult, when the vowel of
the next syllable is 1 or 4 beforo another vowel (both without the ietus), in
which- case « is protracted ; as, «*«rU, nmtftttj yMkuf»v§fm;^m,


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2. Diphthongs. The diphthongs are, for the most part
pronounced according to the prevailing sound of the same com
bmations in our own language ; c« like ei in height ^ ot like oi in
boUy VI like id in quiety av like au in aughtj sv and ijv like eu iu
Europe^ netUerj ov and cut; like ou in thou ; at is sounded like
the affirmative ay (oA-ce, the two sounds uttered with a single
impulse of the voice), and vi like whi in while. Thus, tidma
avTo/, nXtvaoijfAmi ^v|oy, &»v/Aa^ vlog,

3. Consonants. The consonants are pronounced like tlie
corresponding letters in our own alphabet, with the following
special remarks.

7, «, and x "^ always hard in sound : y heang pronooBoed like ^ in ^
(except before a palatal, where it has the sound of ii^ in iong^ § 49) ; » and x

Online LibraryAlpheus CrosbyA grammar of the Greek language → online text (page 8 of 53)