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COOKING COURSE

No. 1
By AMELIA AVERY COOKE



1912




The Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute

COOKING COURSE

No. 1
By AMELIA AVERY COOKE



The Press of

The Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute

Hampton, Virginia

1912



w



^^^^



lU



COOKING COURSE No. 1

RULES FOR WORK

1 Wash the hands thoroughly with soap and water and
be sure that the nails are clean. Be sure that the hair is neatly
combed.

2 Put on caps, aprons, and sleevelets.

3 Take your appointed seat in the kitchen.

4 When the signal is given to begin work,, place your
chair back against the wall, out of the way, and place all books,
papers, and pencil in a neat pile on the top of the apron cup-
board .

5 Get all the utensils ready that will be needed, not for-
getting a plate on which to put soiled utensils.

6 Attend to fire and see that it will be ready for use
when needed.

7 Get all the materials needed. Measure them and have
them ready for use before beginning to cook. •

8 Cover the flour dish, sugar dish, baking powder can,
shortening pail, etc., as soon as you have taken from them
what you need.

9 To taste of what you are cooking, take up a little food
on the mixing spoon, put it into a teaspoon and taste from the
teaspoon.

10 Do not make work for yourself by using more uten-
sils than are necessary . When dry ingredients, liquids, and
fats are called for in the same recipe, measure them in the
order given, thereby using but one cup or spoon.

11 Clear up as you work, putting soiled utensils of a kind
together and putting them to soak until you are ready to wash
them.

12 When you have finished cooking, put away all materi-
als and utensils in their proper places.

13 Leave everything you have used clean and the room
in perfect order.



MEASURING

Exact measuring is necessary to get the best results in
cooking.

A standard measuring cup, teaspoon, tablespoon of regu-
lation size, and a case knife are necessary for correct measur-
ing. A standard measuring cup is one that will hold just one-
half a point of water, or granulated sugar, or butter packed in
solidly, and it is divided either into quarters or thirds or both.

Fine dry materials, such as flour, powdered and con-
fectioner's sugar, and soda, should be sifted before measur-
ing. All materials except liquids should be measured level.

To measure a cupful of dry material, dip the material in-
to the cup lightly with a tablespoon until the cup is slightly
rounded, then level with the dull edge of a case knife.

To measure a spoonful of dry material, dip the spoon into
the material, fill, lift, and level with the dull edge of a case
knife.

To measure half a spoonful, divide the level spoonful
lengthwise and remove one portion. To measure a quarter,
divide a half spoonful crosswise a little nearer the handle than
the tip and remove one portion. To measure an eighth, di-
vide the quarter diagonally. A speck is as much as will lie on
the tip of a pointed knife.

A cupful of liquid is all the cup will hold; a spoonful is all
the spoon will hold.

To measure cottolene, butter, or any solid fat, pack it
solidly into the cup and level with the dull edge of a case
knife.

ABBREVIATIONS

tbsp. equals tablespoon
tsp. " teaspoon
c. " cup

g. " gill

pt. " pint

qt. " quart

3 tsp. equals i tbsp.

4 tbsp. " \ c.
2 g. "I c.



oz.


equal;


s ounce


lb.


((


pound


spk.


n


speck


m.


<(


minute


h, or


hr. "


hour


2 c. (


iquals I


pt.


2 pt.


" I


qt.


4qt.


" I


gal.



CLASSIFICATION OF FOODS

Proteids or nitrogenous food ( Fish, lean meat, white of

I Build and repair tissue -l eggs, cheese, peas, beans,

II Give strength ( milk.

Carbohydrates

( o , j cereals f sugar cane

Yield heat and energy } ^^^^^'^ \ vegetables | " beet

( Sugar ....-{ maple sap
fruit



^ , „., r butter 1 milk

3 Fats and Oils , J cream

^"'"^^M fat of meat

I Yield heat and energy 1^ oil of fish

TT -c i: 4.. 4.- ffat of cereals

II Form fatty tissue ^j.^^ ^-^

Vegetable i ^^ -^ ^^^^

l^oilin cotton seed

4 Mineral matter

I Helps to harden bone and teeth

II Assists in digestion

5 Water

I Helps to build tissue

II Purifies blood

III Assists in digestion

IV Equalizes temperature of body

WATER

Water is found in nature in three forms: as a liquid
(water), as a solid (ice), and as a gas (steam). Pure water is
composed of hydrogen and oxygen

Water is an ingredient of all foods. Our bodies require
it to soften the food, assist in carrying off waste material, and
to equalize the temperature of the body

Water boils at the temperature of 212 degrees Fahren-
heit, at the sea level, and freezes at 32 degrees F.

Water standing in lead pipes over night or longer may
take up some of the lead and become poisonous. It should be
allowed to run for at least five minutes in the morning to draw



^ 6

off all that has been standing in the pipes. Never use water
from the hot-water faucet for drinking and cooking. Hot
water can take up more lead than cold water.

BEVERAGES

A beverage is any drink. Examples; tea, coffee, lemonade.

Tea is a beverage prepared by steeping the leaves of the
tea plant in water.

There are many kinds of tea most of which are mixtures
of black and green tea.

Tea grows in tropical countries; most of our tea comes
from China, Japan, North-East India, and Ceylon.

TEA

I tbsp. tea. I c. freshly boiled water.

Scald teapot and put in onetsp. of tea for each c. of tea
required.

Add I c. boiling water for each tsp. of tea. Cover, allow to
stand on back of stove or in a warm place, and steep five
minutes. Strain into cups and serve immediately.

Note: An enameled ware, silver, or earthen ware tea-pot
is best for making tea as it does not give the tea a strong taste.

Never boil tea or steep the leaves a second time. This
draws tannic acid from the tea. A cup of tea made from boiled
tea leaves often produces head-ache and causes indigestion.

COFFEE

Coffee is the roasted seed or berry of a tree which grows^
in Africa, Mexico, the Indies, and Mocha.

RECIPE (for 7 cups) COFFEE

I c. coffee 6 c. boiling water

I small egg and shell i c. cold water

1 Scald coffee pot

2 Wash Qgg, break and beat slightly.

3 Mix egg, shell, \ c. cold water, and coffee and put into
coffee pot.



4 Add boiling water and boil five minutes.

5 Add remaining cold water and allow to stand 20 min-
utes on back of stove (where it will not boil). Serve in hot
cups with cream and sugar.

VEGETABLES

I Definition

A vegetable is any portion of a plant which is used for
food.

II Perparations for Cooking

Asparagus: wash and break off the tough end, tie in
bundles, or break into inch bits.

Beets : wash carefully, for if the skin be broken the
sugary juices will escape.

Cabbage and cauliflower : trim and soak top down in
slightly salted water to draw out any insects.

Carrots : scrub and scrape off the thin outer surface.

Celery: wash and scrape off any rusty portions.

Green corn: husk with clean hands, brush off silk, but do
not wash corn.

Onions: peel and soak.

Parsnips: scrub till white, trim off fine roots.

Peas and beans: shell and wash quickly.

Potatoes: scrub and pare when necessary.

Soft shell squashes: wash, pare, and cut as desired.

Hard " " : wash, split, and cook in the shell.

Spinach : (and other greens) : pick over and wash in
sev^eral waters.

Turnips: scrub, cut in slices and pare.

String beans: strip off the ends and strings on each
side, cut or break into small pieces and wash.

Note: All green vegetables should be crisp and firm
when put to cook. If vegetables have lost their firmness and
crispness they should be soaked in very cold water until they
become plump and crisp.



Ill General rules for cooking.

Vegetables may be baked, roasted, fried, steamed, or boil-
ed. Boiling is most common and one of the best ways of
cooking them.



Asparagus
Celery



I Use as little water as p ossibleand
P - [let it boil away, leaving just enough

Ijreen corn y ^^ moisten. Do not salt until nearly

(jreen peas | jQ_g

Shelled beans J

Cabbage ^ Cook uncovered in a large kettle of

Cauliflower v rapidly boiling salted water and a

) saltspoon of soda.
Onions Scald and change the water twice.

Cook all other vegetables in enough freshly boiling and
slightly salted water to cover, cooking quickly until done.
The length of time required will depend upon the age and
freshness of the vegetables.

IV Care of vegetables

Summer vegetables should be cooked as soon after gather-
ing as possible. In case they must be kept, spread on bottom
of cool, well-ventilated cellar, or place in ice-box.

Winter vegetables should be kept in a cold dark place.
Put beets, carrets, turnips, and potatoes in barrels or bins,
excluding as much air as possible. Squash should be spread and
needs careful attention. Cook at once if dark spots appear.

V Recipes

BOILED POTATOES

1 Select potatoes uniform in size.

2 Scrub and pare them lengthwise

•3 Remove the "eyes" and dark spots if there are any.

4 Drop into cold water.

5 Place in a kettle with enough boiling water to cover.

6 After boiling 20 minutes, add i tbsp. salt to every 12

potatoes.

7 When the potatoes can be pierced easily, drain off
water.

8 Shake the kettle gently over a low flame until the po-
tatoes have a dry and mealy appearance.



RICED POTATOES

1 Press boiled potatoes through a ricer or coarse strainer

2 Serve piled lightly in serving dish.

MASHED POTATOES

1 Mash potatoes in the kettle in which they were boiled,
using a fork, wire potato masher, or ricer.

2 When free from lumps add to each pint of mashed po-
tato.

I tbsp. melted butter
3 tbsp. scalded milk
\ tsp. salt
8 tsp. pepper

3 Beat all together until light and creamy.

4 Pile lightly in a dish without smoothing the top.

CREAMED CARROTS

Cut carrots into straws.

Cook in boiling salted water until they may be easily cut
with the edge of the fork.

Drain off the water. Cover them with white sauce and
serve hot.

CREAMED TURNIPS

Cut turnip in half inch, cubes.
Cook in boiling, salted water until tender.
Drain off the water. Cover with white sauce, and serve
hot.

CREAMED POTATOES

Cut cold boiled or baked potatoes into half inch cubes.
Place them in a sauce-pan of white sauce and leave on the
stove till potatoes are hot.

WHITE SAUCE (FOR CREAMED VEGETABLES)

1 tbsp. butter i tsp. salt

2 tbsp. flour I c. milk

spk pepper



lO



1 Scald the milk (while milk is scalding prepare other
ingredients)

2 Cream butter, add flour, salt, and pepper, and cream
together to a smooth paste.

3 Add scalded milk a little at a time, stirring constantly.

4 Place in a double boiler and cook until of the consis-
tency of thin cream and free from a raw, starchy taste.

5 Season to taste and serve very hot poured over hot
vegetables or toast.

Tomato Sauce (to serve with macaroni or rice)

1 tbsp. butter \ tsp. salt

2 tbsp. flour I c. tomato juice

spk pepper.

1 Cream butter, add flour, salt and pepper, and cream
together to a smooth paste.

2 Add tomato juice and boil 3 m.

3 Season to taste and serve hot.

SOUPS

General rules for thickened soups.

1 Cook vegetables until soft.

2 Press through a seive.

3 Heat milk, add vegetable-pulp, and heat together.

4 Cream butter and flour together.

5 Add to the vegetable pulp and milk mixture and cook
until free from starchy taste.

6 Season to taste and serve hot in a hot soup plate.
Note : The butter and flour creamed together are of-
ten spoken of as binding material.

POTATO SOUP

4 potatoes 3 tbsp. flour

\ onion i qt. milk

3 tbsp. butter 2 tsp. salt

tsp. pepper.
Heat milk and onion together until milk is scalded. Re-
move onion and prepare soup by general rules.



I r



BEAN SOUP

(1 c. dried beans) i onion

or ,

(2 c. fresh beans) i^ tbsp. butter



I qt. stock li " flo^"- ,

i tsp. pepper \ tsp. celery salt

i tsp. salt.

Soak beans over night or several hours.

Cook in boiling water till soft.

Prepare soup by general rules.

EMERGENCY SOUP

I qt tomato (canned) 6 tbsp. flour

I pt. water i tsp. celery salt.

I tbsp. sugar 2 " salt

4 " butter 3 cloves

1 bay leaf spk. pepper

1 Cook tomato, water, sugar, celery salt, salt, pepper,bay
leaf and cloves together 20 minutes,

2 Strain ; add binding material and boil 5 minutes.

T. Serve hot. j . 1 v^

Note : Omit water if fresh tomatoes are used; twelve to

fourteen tomatoes will be needed.

CEREALS

Cereals or grains are cultivated grasses, the seeds of which

are used for food. . .

Cereals should be kept in tightly covered jars or tms;

glass jars are preferable.

GENERAL RULES FOR CEREALS

Look over cereal and remove husks or any other foreign
matter There are two methods for cooking cereals. A dou-
Se boiler is the best utensil for both methods. The lower ket-
tle should be kept 1 full of boiling water.

ist method-Put water, cereal, and salt into the upper
kettle of the double boiler. Place over the lower kettle, cover,
and steam without stirring several hours or until ready to serve,



12



2nd method — Put water and salt into upper kettle of dou-
ble boiler, place over direct heat and when it begins to boil
rapidly stir in the cereal gradually. Allow to boil ten
minutes, stirring to prevent burning. Place it over the lower
kettle and steam until ready to serve.

Use a fork for stirring coarse cereals and a spoon for fine
cereals.







TABLE




Cereal


Amount


Salt


Water


Time of cooking in
a double boiler


Oatmeal


I c.


I tsp.


2 c.


30 m.


Cream of










Wheat


I c.


I tsp.


4C.


30 m.


Rice


I c.


I tbsp.


2qts.


30 m.


Corn meal


I c.


I tsp.


4C.


2—3 hrs.


Hominy










(coarse)


I c.


2 tsp.


2 qts.


6—8 hrs.


Hominy










(fine)


I c.


I tsp.


4C.


I hr.


Fried


mushes:


Mush left


over from


breakfast may be



packed in greased or wet pound baking powder cans. The
next morning remove from can, slice thinly, dip in flour and
saute.

Serve with a syrup made of white, brown, or maple sugar.

Syrups for mushes;

Brown or white sugar Water Vanilla

I c. ^ c. 5 drops

Maple sugar i c. ^ c.

Mix sugar and water, stir until dissolved, and let boil until
a thick syrup is formed.

DEFINITIONS

Boiling — Cooking food in boiling water.
Steaming — " " over hot water.

Sauteing — " " in a small quantity of fat

Frying — " ** sufficient fat to float the food.



13



BATTERS AND DOUGHS

A mixture of flour and liquid, which is thin enough to be
beaten, is called a batter.

A mixture of flour and liquid stiff enough to be moulded
on a board is called a dough.

Batters and doughs are made to rise by the addition of
some material which will form bubbles in the mixture. When
the batter or dough is baked, the heat of the oven causes these
bubbles to expand or grow larger, thus causing the mixture to
rise.

Popovcrs and many other thin batters are made to rise by
the expansion of ( b ) air and steam formed from the li-
quid in the batter. White of eggs beaten until stiff and added
to the batter furnishes bubbles of air, as in sponge cake.
Yeast forms bubbles of gas in bread.

Other batters and doughs are caused to rise by the expan-
sion of gas, formed by the action of baking powder or some
acid mixed with soda.

POPOVERS

I c. flour I egg

I tsp. salt I c. milk

1 Sift flour and salt.

2 Add unbeaten egg and \ c. milk. Mix well.

3 Add remainder of milk and beat with egg beater until
smooth.

4 Bake in hot oven in hot buttered gem pans 40 ms.

BAKING POWDER

Pure baking powder is composed of 6 parts of cream of
tartar, 3 parts bi-carbonate of soda, and i part starch.

Cream of tartar is the acid of grapes. It is obtained from
the casks in which grape wine has fermented. In the crude
state it is called argol.

Bi-carbonate of soda, cooking soda, is made from common
salt or from a mineral called kryolith, which is found in Green-
land.



14

When an acid substance and an alkaline substance are
united moistened, and heated, they set free a gas called car-
bon-dioxide. This gas comes from the alkali, but cannot es-
cape until mixed with an acid liquid or hot water. Hot water
is not used in batters because it does not destory the taste of
the soda.

Alkali (soda) is commonly mixed with the following acids
to form this gas: sour milk, lemon juice, molases, cream of
tartar.

BAKING POWDER BISCUITS

I pt. flour i tsp. salt

4 tsp. baking powder 2 tbsp. shortening

milk or water (about | c.)

1 Mix and sift dry ingredients.

2 Cut in shortening until the mixture resembles fine
meal

3 Add liquid gradually to make a dough as soft as can be
handled. Mix with a knife.

4 Toss on a floured board and roll out until \ inch thick.

5 Cut with a floured biscuit cutter.

6 Place close together on a greased pan.

7 Bake in a hot oven 10 to 15 rainnutes.

CORN MEAL GEMS

■^c. corn meal i tbsp. melted butter

I c. flour I tsp. salt

3 tsp. bak. powder f c. milk
I tbsp. sugar i egg

1 Mix and sift dry materials

2 Add egg well beaten; milk and lastly beat in the melted
butter.

3 Bake in hot gem pans 20-30 minutes.

BREAD

Bread is the most important article of food, and history
tells of its use before the Christian era.



15

Bread is made from flour of wheat, or some other grain,
mixed with liquid, salt, and some rising agent. Flour made
from wheat is best adapted for bread making because of the
large percentage of gluten in it.

To obtain gluten from wheat; Tie | c. bread flour in a
piece of cheese cloth. Wash out all of the starch by squezing
it in a bowl of cold water 10—15 minutes. The gluten will
be left in the cloth.

Every wheat kernel is made up of eight layers or coats
The four principal ones are the outer, called husk, removed
before the grain is ground and used as food for cattle. The
second, called bran, is largely cellulose with a little fat and
mineral matter. The next contains the gluten, and the inner-
most portion contains most of the starch. There are many
kinds of flour made from wheat. Graham flour is made by
grinding the wheat after the husk has been removed. It con-
tains a large amount of bran. Whole wheat flour (or entire
wheat flour) is graham flour with some of the bran removed.
White flour is made by grinding the wheat very fine and then
removing all the coarse portions by sifting through many
sizes of seives.

There are two kinds of white flour; viz.; bread flour and
pastry flour. Bread flour is made from summer wheat and
contains a large proportion of gluten.

Pastry flour is made from winter wheat and contains more
starch and less gluten than bread flour.

YEAST

Yeast is a very tiny (microscopic) plant found growing on
the skins of fruits and on the pods of the hop vine. When
yeast is mixed with a sweet liquid or a moist mixture contain-
ing starch, it grows and causes fermentation. Fermentation is
the process by which sugar is changed to carbon dioxide gas
and alcohol. Air, warmth, and moisture furnish favorable
conditions for its action.

Our yeast cakes are made from the yeast collected in the
vats where beer is made. The foam, containing the



l6

yeast, is skimmed off, washed, mixed with some starchy ma-
terial, and then pressed into cakes which are wrapped in tin-
foil to keep them clean and moist. Dry yeast is made by mix-
ing these yeast plants with cornmeal and then drying them
slowly.

GENERAL RULES FOR BREAD MAKING

1 Scald the milk or boil the water to kill any germs
that may interfere with action of yeast.

2 Put shortening, salt, and sugar into mixing bowl and
pour hot liquids over them.

3 Cool till lukewarm (hot liquids kill yeast)

4 Soften yeast cake in lukewarm water and add to other
liquids.

5 Add flour gradually (stir with a knife)

6 When dough is stiff enough to handle, turn onto flour-
ed board and knead until soft and elastic (this is to mix
thoroughly).

7 Place in buttered bowl, butter top of dough to prevent
a dry crust from forming, cover and allow to rise in a warm
place until double its bulk.

8 Knead until all gas bubbles are small and evenly dis-
tributed thoughout the dough.

9 Shape into loaves or biscuit and place in greased
pans.

10 Allow to rise in pans until double its bulk.

11 Bake loaves 45-60 m. in hot oven.
Bake biscuit 25-35 ^- i"^ very hot oven.

12 When bread is baked it will be browned on all sides
and will not stick to the pans.

DIVISION OF TIME FOR BAKING

First quarter, dough rises.

Second quarter dough finishes rising and begins to brown.
Third quarter, dough continues to brown.
Fourth quarter, dough finishes browning and draws away
from the pan.



17



CARE OF BREAD AFTER IT iS BAKED

1 Remove from the pans and place on a broiler or rack
to cool, keep covered with a clean thin cloth but do not wrap
the bread in the cloth.

2 When bread is cold keep in a stone jar or tin box with
close fitting cover.

3 Scald bread box and wipe dry before putting fieshly
baked bread into it.

WHOLE WHEAT BREAD

2 cups scalded milk i >4 tsp. salt

^ c of sugar or ^ c. molasses i cake of yeast (softened

in j{ c. water )
3^ c. entire wheat flour,
white flour to knead.
Prepare and bake b}' general rules

BREAD

1 cup water }( yeast cake (softened in }{ c. water)

1 c. milk 2 tbsp. shortening

2 tbsp. sugar 2 tsp. salt

flour ( about s}4 cups)
Mix and bake according to general rules.

OATMEAL BREAD

1 cup rolled oats i tsp. salt

2 c. boiling water i}4 tbsp. butter

^2 c. molasses ^ yeast cake ( softened in }{ c. water)

flour to knead
Pour boiling water onto rolled oats and allow to cool.
Add other materials and mix according to genera] rules.

EGGS

Eggs are proteid or nitrogenous food. They contain al-
bumen in an easily digestible form.

There are three parts to an egg besides the membranes:
first, the shell ; second, the white ; third, the yolk. The white



i8



is enclosed in a tliick membrane. The yolk is enclosed in a
thin membrane. The shell is chiefly made up of mineral
matter and is porous. The white is almost pure albumen and
water.

Albumen is a proteid substance ; that is, a strength-giving,
muscle-building food. It is found in the white of eggs, in
fish, and in meat.

GENERAL RULES FOR EGOS

1 Wash as soon as brought from the store.

2 Keep in a cool place.

3 The unbroken yolk of an egg may be kept from hard-
ening by putting into cold water.

4 The water in which eggs are cooked should not boil
but should be kept at a temperature of i6o°-i8o° F. while
cooking. The water should cover the eggs.

5 Eggs may be cooked soft in two ways ;

ist method — Put into boiling water, cover them, remove
to back of stove where they will not boil, and let stand from
5 to 10 m.

2nd method — Put into cold water over direct heat and
when the water bubbles they are done.

6 To cook the egg hard, cook by first method 40-45 m.

TESTS FOR FRESH EGGS

1 A fresh egg will not rattle when shaken near the ear.

2 A fresh egg will sink to the bottom of a pan of cold
water.

DROPPED EGGS ON TOAST

Have ready a shallow pan of nearly boiling water.
Drop in muffin rings to shape the eggs. Carefully break the
eggs into a cup and slip them into the rings.

The water should cover the eggs.

When the white is firm and a thin film covers the yolk
lift out with a skimmer or perforated spoon and place on
toast. Garnish with small pieces of parsley and serve very
hot.



19



OMELETS

3 eggs 3 tbsp. water

% tsp. salt spk. pepper

I tbsp. butter

1 Beat white of egg till stiff.

2 Beat yolk till thick and lemon colored.

3 Add salt, pepper, and water.

4 Carefully fold in the beaten whites.

5 Melt butter in a frying-pan, pour in the Qgg mixture
and cook until brown.

6 Put into the oven and dry the top.

7 Fold on a hot platter, garnish with parsley.

8 Serve at once.

SCRAMBLED EGGS

I egg }i tsp. salt

I tbsp. milk spk. pepper

4 tbsp. butter

1 Beat egg slightly ; add salt, pepper and milk.

2 Melt butter in sauteing pan.

3 Pour in the mixture and cook slowly, continually scrap-
ing from bottom of pan.

4 When creamy turn onto a hot dish and serve at once.

GENERAL RULES FOR TABLE SETTING

1 The room must be in order, clean, free from dust,
and well aired. Temperature about 68° F.

2 Linen should be immaculate and china and glass
glistening

3 Place silence cloth ( this should be of seme soft, heavy
material, felting, canton flannel, or a clean cotton blanket).

Uses : deadens sound, protects top of table, improves


1

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