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Thomas Frean, of Newberry, Surveyor- General, Fees.

Henry Bailey, ci GioBxl^Xxm, Attorney- General, $1,100 and Fees.

T. D. Earle, of Greenville, Supt. of Public Works, 1,500

F. H. Elmore, of Charleston, Pres, Bank of the State of S, C, 3,000

W. E. Martin, ^ of Grahamv'le, Clerk of the Senate,

Thomas W. Glover, of OrangeVg, Oerk of the House, 1,000

24



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278



OBOBOIl.



[1848.





JumoiART.






Job Johnston,
William Harper,
Benj. Faneuil Dunkin
J. J. Caldwell,


Chancellars in Equity.

of Newberry,
of Fairfield,
of Charleston,
of Colambia,


Appointed.
1^30,
1835,
1837,
1847,


Salary.

$3,000
3,000
3,000
3,000


Judges of the General Sessions and Common Pleas.




D. L. Wardlaw,
John S. Bichardson,
Josiah J. Evans,
Edward Frost,


of Abbeville,
of Sumter,
of Society Hill,
of Charleston,


1841,
1818,
1829,
1844,


$3,000
3,500
3,000
3,000


T.J. Withers,


of Camden,


1847,


3,000


J. B. CNeall, of Newberry, 1885,
James A. Strobhart, of Graham ville,5itflrfe Reporter, 1 847,
Alexander Herbemont, Clerk of Court of Appeals,


3,000
1,500




XV. GEORGIA.







The first English settlement of Georgia was formed at Savannah, in 1733,
by General James Edward Oglethorpe, together with 160 persons. Of
the thirteen states which belonged to the Union at the time oi the Declara-
tion of Independence, this was the last settled.

GoyEBNORS.

Under the Croum of Oreat Britain.



Henry Ellis, Governor^ 1757

James Wright, do. 1760

James Habersham, Act. Gov. 1771



James Edw. Oglethorpe, Goo. 1732

William Stephens, Act. Gov. 1743

Henry Parker, do. 1751

John Reynolds, Governor^ 1754

During the Bevolution.
William Cawin, Pres. Council, 1775 I Button Gwinnett, Pres. Council, 1777
Archibald Bullock, do. 17761

Under the Constitution,



John A. Treuilen, dected


1777


Nathan Brownson,


dected


1781


John Houston, do.


1778


John Martin,


do.


1782


John Werriatt, Acting Gov.


1778


Lyman Hall,


do.


1783


George Walton, elected


1779


John Houston,


do.


1784


Richard Howley, do.


1780


Samuel Elbert,


do.


1785


Stephen Heard, do.


1781


Edward Telfeir,


do.


1786



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184a]



OSOB6L1.



879



QeoTge Matthewi,


dected


1787


Greorge Handley,


do.


1788


George Walton,


do.


1789


Edward Telfair,


do.


1790


George Matthews,


do.


1793


Jared Irwin,


do.


1796


James Jackson,


do.


1798


I>ayid Emannel, Acting Oov.


1801


Josiah Tatnall,


dected


1801


John Mllledge,


do.


1802


Jared Irwin,


do.


1806


David B. Mitchell,


do.


1809


Peter Early,


do.


1813



David B. MitdieU, tkcted 1815

William Rabnn, do. 1817

Matthew Talhot, Acting Gov. 1 819

John Clarke, elected 1819

George M. Troup, do. 1823

John Forsyth, do. 1827

George R. Gilmer, do. 1829

Wilson Lumpkin, do. 1831

WiUiam Schley, cfo. 1835

George R. Gilmer, do. 1837

Charles J. McDonald, do. 1839

George W. Crawford, do. 1843



Abstsact of the Constitution.

The first constitotion of Georgia was formed in 1777 ; a second, in 1785 ;
and the present one in 1798. Many amendments have been made.

Every citizen of the state, 21 years old, who has paid all taxes demanded
for one year, and has resided in the connty for six months next before the
election, may vote. Bepresentatives (130 in number) shall be 21 years old,
citizens of the state for three years, of the county for one year, and of the
United States for seven years, next before the election. Senators, 47 in
number (chosen in districts), shall have the qualifications of representatives,
shall be 25 years old, and have been citizens of the United States for nine
years. Both houses of the General Assembly are chosen biennially. A
census shall be taken once in seven years, to apportion representative dis-
tricts. The governor shall be 30 years old, shall have been a citizen of the
United States for twelve years, an inhabitant of the state for six years, shall
possess 500 acres of land, or $4,000 in other property, above all debts, and
shall be elected for two years by a majority of votes of the people ; or, in
case there be no choice, one of the two highest candidates shall be chosen by
joint ballot of both houses. If the office of governor be vacant, it shall be
filled by the president of the senate, and after him by the speaker of the
house. He may veto a bill ; but it may be passed by " two-thirds of both
houses," notwithstanding his veto. The supreme court for the correction
of errors shall consist of three judges, elected by the General Assembly for
such a term as the law may prescribe, and removable upon address of two-
thirds of each house. AU causes shall be determined at the first term ; and
|n case the plaintiff is not ready for trial, unless he be prevented ** by s(Hne
providential cause,** the judgment of the court below shall be affirmed.
Judges of the superior court are elected for six years, with jurisdiction ex-
dnsive in criminal cases, and in land cases ; and concurrent in all other civil
cases. Justices of the inferior courts are elected by the people, and act as
inobate judges. Justices of the peace are elected by the people, in districts.
All the judges have fixed salaries. Sherifis are appointed for two years,



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280



GBOBGIA.



[1848.



but not for two terms in snccession. Imprisonment for debt is not permit-
ted, except in cases of frand. There shall be no importation of slaves
"from Africa or any foreign place "after Oct. 1, 1798. The legislature
shall have no power to free slaves without the owner's consent, or to pre-
vent immigrants from bringing with them persons deemed slaves by any
one of the United States. Slaves are protected in their persons, like free
whites, except in case of insurrection, and unless their " death should hap-
pen by accident, in giving such slaves moderate correction.'' Amendments,
if passed by two-thirds of each house, shall be published six months before
the next election of members of the General Assembly ; and if passed, in the
same manner, at the first session thereafter, shall be adopted.



(JOVEBNMENT.



Geo. W. Cbawford, of



Salary.



Nathan C. Bamet, of
William a Mitchell, of
David E. Bothwell, of
P. M. Compton, of

John S. Thomas, of

Anderson W. Bedding, of
Jesse H. Campbell, of
Absalom H. Chappell, of
T. E. B. Cobb, of

Charles J. Jenkins, of
John J. Wordj of



Bichmond Co., Governor (term of office

expires, November, 1847), $3,000
Clark Co., Secretary of State, 1,600

Baldwin Co., Treasurer, 1,600

Jefferson Co., Comptroller' General, 1,600

Butts Co., Surveyor- General, 1,600

Baldwin Co., Director of the Central Bank,
Harris Co., Keeper of the Penitentiary,
Baldwin Co., Commissioner of the Deafer Dumb.
Bibb Co., President of tJte Senate, $5 a day.

Clark Co., Secretary of the Senate, 500

Bichmond Co., Speaker ofH, ofBep., $5 a day.
Cass Co., Clerk of House of Rep,, 500



JUDIGIART.

Supreme Court,



Joseph H. Lumpkin,
Hiram Warner,
E. A. Nisbet,

The state is divided
W. B. Fleming,
E. L. Gamble,
N. C. Sayre,
Charles Dougherty,
James A. Meriwether,
J. J. Scarborough,
John Floyd,
Bobert B. Alexander,
Aug. B. Wright,
E. Y. Hill,
Lott Warren,



Chief Judge,
Judge,

do,

into eleven circuits, with a judge for each,
of Chatham Co., Judgeofihe'Etdi&ttm. Circuit,



Tenn ends.

1852.

1850.

1848.



of Clark Co.,



of Cass Co.,



do,
do,
do,
do.
do,
do,
do,
do,
do.
do.



Middle
Northern
Western
Ockmulgee
Southern
Flint
Chatahoochee do.
Cherokee do.
Coweta do.

Southwestern do.



do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.



$1,800
1,800
1,800
1,800
1,800
1,800
1,800
1,800
1,800
2,100
2,100



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1848.] VMJOKIDA, 281

SiOaiy.

John W. Flomnoy, Attorney' Generd, $260 and perquisites.

J. E. Harden, of Chathfun Co., Judge of Court of Oyer and

Terminer^ Savannali, 1,000
John W. Wilde, of Bichmond Co., Judge of Court of Oyer and

Terminer^ Ai^nsta, 1,000
RuLBOABS (see ante, p. 196).
The Central Kailroad was began in 1886 and finished in 1843, less than
eight years, and cost aboat $2,550,000. Beceipts year ending November
30th, 1846, for freight, $223,620; passengers, $59,238; carrying mail,
$20,580 ; total, $303,438. Expenditures of every kind, $170,237. From
1 St October to Jnne last, there have been received by the road, a new busi-
ness : 846 bales domestics ; 1,595 packages merchandise ; 134,992 pounds
bacon; 3,389 pounds beeswax; 5,780 pounds dried fruit; 8,100 pounds
fathers; 277,399 pounds flour, in sacks ; 3,024 barrels flour; 17 barrels ap-
ples; 445 head poultry; 16 steers; 1,487 bushels meal; 100,493 busheb
com; 281 bushels wheat ; 1,035 bushels oats; 280 bushels sweet potatoes;
417 bushels rice; 576 bushels peas ; 160 bushels cotton seed; 1,925 dozen
eggs ; 64 sheep.



XVI. FLORIDA.

Florida was conquered by the Spaniards as early as 1639. In 1763, it
was ceded to Qreat Britain, and divided into East and West Florida ; but,
in 1781, it was again recovered by Spain.

In 1821, it was ceded by Spain to the United States; and, in 1822, both
parts, East and West Florida, were formed into one government or prov-
ince, under the name of " The Territory of Florida.** It was admitted into
the Union as an independent state, March 3d, 1 845.
Territorial Governors,

Robert B. Beid, appointed 1839

Bichard K. Call, do. 1841

John Branch, do, 1844



William P. Duvall, appointed 1822
John H. Eaton, do. 1834

Bichard K. Call, do. 1836



Governor under the Conttitution,
William D. Moseley, elected 1845

Abstbact or the Constitution,
Done in Convention, Jan. 11, 1839.
Every free white male, 21 years old, two years a resident in the state, and
in the county six months, and who shall be enrolled in the militia, or ex-
empted by law from serving therein, may vote ; and provision shaU be
made for the registration of all qualified voters.
24*



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282 VLOBIDA. [1848.

Representadyes, not more than 60 in nnmber, most be 21 years old, white
citizens of the United States, two years resident of the state, and one year
of the eonnty, and be elected for one year. In 1845, and every tenth year
thereafter, a census shall be taken, and the representatires shaU be appor-
tioned by adding three-fifths of the slaves to the whole number of free
whites. Senators are elected for two years ; they must be 25 years old, and
otherwise have the same qualifications as representatives. The General
Assembly, chosen on the 1st Monday of October, shall meet on the 1st Mon-
day in November of each year.

The governor shall be elected by a plurality of votes for four years, and
shall be ineligible for the four years next after his term. He shall be 30
years old, ten years a citizen of the United States, or an inhabitant of
Florida at the adoption of the constitution, and a resident thereof for fivo
years next before the election. He may veto a bill j but a majority of those
.elected to both houses may pass it again, notwithstanding his veto. If tho
office be vacant, the president of the senate, and after him the speaker of
the house, shall act as governor. No officer in a banking company, while he
serves in a bank, or for twelve months afterwards, shall be eligible for the
office of governor, senator, or representative. No duellist, or second in a
duel, shall hold any office under the state. The secretary of state shall be
elected by the legislature for four years.

The supreme court, having appellate jurisdiction only, shall be composed
of the circuit judges for five years after the election of these judges, and
thereafter until the General Assembly shall otherwise provide. The circuit
courts shall have original common law jurisdiction in all matters, dvil and
criminal. They shall also have original equity jurisdiction, until a separate
chancery court be established by the legislature. The judges shall be elect-
ed by concurrent vote of a majority of both houses, and shall be chosen at
first for five years ; after that term, during good behavior. They may bo
removed by impeachment, or by address of two-thirds of each house. An
attorney-general shall be elected by joint vote of the two houses for four
years ; also a solicitor for each circuit, for the same term. No act of incor-
poration shall be passed or altered, except by the assent of two-thirds of each
house, and by giving three months' notice. No bank charter shall be for
more than 20 years, nor shall it ever be extended or renewed. The capital
of a bank shall not exceed $100,000, nor shall a dividend be made ex-
ceeding 10 per cent a year. Stockholders shall be individually liable for
the debts of the bank, and no notes shall be issued for less than $5. The
credit of the state shall not be pledged in aid of any corporation whatsoever.
No law shall be passed to emancipate slaves, or to prohibit the immigraUon
of persons bringing slaves with them ; but free colored persons may be pre-
vented from entering the state. For an amendment of this constitution,
two-thirds of both houses must assent ; the proposed alteration must then
be published six months before the succeeding election, and then be again
approved by a two- thirds vote in the succeeding assembly.



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1848.]



ALABAMA.



283



Wm. D. Mosblet, of Mickossukie,



James T. Archer,
Nathaniel P. Bemls,
Benjamin Byrd,
Oscar A. Myres,
Dennet H. Mays,
Bobert Brown,
Hugh Archer,
Mariamno D. Papy,
A bill to make the
doling the last session.



Government for the year 1848.

Salary.
Governor (term expires

October, 1849), $1,500

Secretary of State, Fees & 600

Comptroller^ 800

Treasurer, 800

Governor's Private Secretary, 500

, President of the Senate, $3 a day.

of Columbia Co., Speaker of the House, 3 a day.

of Leon Co^ Secretary of the Senate, 6 a day.

do. Clerk of the House, 6 a day.

sessions of the General Assembly biennial was passed

If ratified at the next session, it will become a law.



of Tallahassee,

do.

do.

do.
of Madison Co.,



JUDICIABT.

Circuit Courts,



Thomas Douglass,
Geoige S. Hawkins,
Thomas Baltzell,
George W. M'Rea,
Joseph Branch,
Idariamno D. Papy,
John C. Smith,
Thomas J. Heir,
Felix G. livingston,
Thomas F. King,



of Jacksonville,
of Apalachicola,
of Tallahassee,
of Key West,
of Tallahassee,

do.
of Apalachicola,
of Monticello,
of Columbus,
of Key West,



Salary.

Chief Judge,Eastem CiVcmV, $2,000

Judge, Western do. 2,000

do. Middle do, 2,000

do. Southern do. 2,000

Attorney- General and Rep., 500

Clerk of Supreme Court, Fees.

Solicitor, Western Circuit, F. & 200

do. Middle do. " 200

do. Eastern do. " 200

do. SouAliem do. « 200



Finances.



Principal Items of Expenditure,
Logislatiye department, $14,724.83

Bxecutive, 5,838.66

Judicial, 9,263.76

Printing, See., laws and reports, 1,690.69
Criminal prosecutions, 6,606.26



Oontingent expoises courts,
Contingent fund.



$1,766.05
1,705.85



Chief Sources of Income.
Taxes, 89,500



XVII. ALABAMA.

Mobile, in the southern part of Alabama, was settled long since by the
Spanish ; yet the territory which now forms this state contained but very
few civilized inhabitants before 1810. Since that time, its increase in popu-
lation has been exceedingly rapid.

Alabama was erected into a territ(Mrial government in 1817, and in 1820
it was admitted into the Union.



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284



[1848.



GOTEBNOBS.

"WHliam W. Bibb, appointed 1817, Goyemor of the Territory of Alabama.
Under the Constitution.



"William W. Bibb,


elected


1819


Clement C. Clay,


elected


1835


Israel Pickens,


do.


1821


Arthur P. Bagby,


do.


1837


John Murphy,


do.


1825


Benjamin Fitzpatrick,


do.


1841


Gabriel Moore,


do.


1829


Joshua L. Martin,


do.


1845


John Gayle,


do.


1831


Reuben Chapman,


do.


1847



Abstract of thb Constittttion,

Which was framed in 1819.
Every white male person, twenty-one years old, a citizen of the United
States, resident in the state one year next preceding an election, and three
months in his county, city, or town, may vote. Representatives shall be
white citizens of the United States ; resident the last two years in the state,
and one year in the place they represent ; shall be chosen for two years, and
shall number not less than forty-four, nor more than sixty, until there are
one hundred thousand white inhabitants in the state, and thereafter not less
than sixty nor more than one hundre^. Senators shall not be more than
one-third, nor less than one-fourth, of the number of the representatives, and
shall have all their qualifications, and shall also be twenty-seven years old,
and chosen for four years — one-half every second year. The sessions of
the General Assembly shall be biennial A census shall be taken every six
years to apportion senatorial and representative districts, and every county
shall have at least one representative. The governor is chosen, by a plu-
rality, for two years ; and, in case of an even vote, the legislature chooses one
of the two highest candidates. He must be thirty years old ; a native citizen of
the United States, and resident in the state for the last four years ; and shall
not be eligible more than fbur years out of every six. His veto may be de-
feated by a majority of the whole number elected to eadi house. A state
treasurer and comptroller shall be chosen annually, and an attorney-general
and county solicitors, once in four years, by the General Assembly. The
supreme court shall have only appellate jurisdiction j but its judges (unless
otherwise provided by law) shall sit at Nisi Prius, as a circuit court, which
shall have original jurisdiction in all criminal cases, and in civil suits
above fifty dollars. Judges are appointed by the General Assembly, with a
fixed salary, and to hold ofBce during six years ] and they may be removed
upon address of two-thirds of both houses, aflter notice to the judge and a
hearing. The Greneral Assembly may direct the manner of bringing suits
against the state ; may grant divorces, provided two-thirds of both houses
agree thereto, and a decree in chancery be jHreviously obtained. A state
bank and branches may be established upon certain conditions, by a two-
thirds vote of both houses ; and there shall be no other banks in the state char-
tered hereafter. No laws shall be passed to free slaves without the owner's



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1848.] ALABAMA. 285

consent, or without paying for them; or to prevent immigrants from bring-
ing in slaves of the same description as those within the state, provided
they be bondjide property, and not criminals. Laws may be passed permit-
ting owners to free slaves, saving the rights of creditors and the public
from being at their chaise; also, laws directing humane treatment of
slaves, and ordering a sale of them, on the owner^s account, if it be not
complied with. Slaves have a right to trial by jury in all charges above
petty larceny ; and the maiming or killing of a slave (except in case of
insurrection) is punishable like that of a free white person. No person
shall be imprisoned for debt, except in cases of fraud. Amendments to
the constitution, after being proposed by two-thirds of each house, shall be
submitted to the people, three months before the next election of represent-
atives ; and, if approved by a majority, and afterwards passed by two-thirds
of each house, they are valid.

Government for the year 1848.

Salary*
Beubbit Chapman, of Marshall, Governor (term of oflBce

expires on the 1st Monday in December, 1849), $2,500

William Garrett, Secretary of State, Fees and 1,200

Jefferson C. Van Dyke, Comptroller of Public Accounts, Fees and 1 ,000

Samuel G. Frierson, State Treasurer, Fees and 1,000

Thomas D. Clarke, of Tuscaloosa, Attorney- General, Fees and 425

James W. Lang, of Mobile, Adj. and Inspector^ General, 200

Carter R. Harrison, of Tuscaloosa, Quartermaster- Cteneral, 200

The first session of the legislature in the new capital at Montgomery
commences the first Monday in December, 1847.

JUDICIABT.

Supreme Court,

Henry W. Collier, of Tuscaloosa, CMef Justice, $2,250

John J. Ormond, of Tuscaloosa, Associate Justice, 2,250

Henry Goldthwaite, of Mobile, do. 2,250

Thomas D. Clarke, of Tuscaloosa, Attorney- General, Fees and 425

James B. Wallace, of Tuscaloosa, Clerk, Fees.
This court sits at the seat of government, on the first Monday of June
and the second Monday of December.

Court of Chancery.

-^ ^ Salary.

Vacancy, Chancellor of the Southern Div'n, $1,500

Wiley W. Maaon, of Wetumpka, do. do. Middle do. 1,500

David G. Ligon, of Moulton, do. do. Northern do. 1,500

The state is divided into forty districts ; and one session of the court is
held annually in each district, except in Mobile, Sumter, and Montgomery
districts, where two sessions are held.



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286



HISBIB6IPFI.

CiBCuiT Courts.



[1848.



Judges.




Circuit.


Salary.


Attorneys.


JohB D. Phelan,


Marion,


1st,


$1,500


William E. Clarke,


Ezekiel Pickens,


Sehna,


2d,


1,500


Francis E. Beck,
Thomas D. Clarke,


George D. Shortaridge,


Monte vallo,


S


l^


Daniel Coleman,


Athens,


4th,


2,000


R. W. Walker,


George W. Lane,


HuntsTille,


6th,


h^


W. 0. Winston,


John Bragg,


Mobile,


6th,


1,500


John E. Jones,


Bamuel Chapman,


Livingston,


7th,


1,500


B. W. Pettus,


George Goldthwalte,


Montgomery,


8th,


1,500


Marion A. Baldwin,


Geo. W. Sttme,


TaUadega,


9th,


1,500


Thomas G. Garrett.



Salary.

ei,5oo



Two sessions of the Circuit Court are held each year in every county in
the state.

Criminal Court for Mobile Co,

Henry V. Chamberlain, of Mobile, Judge^

This court holds three terms in each year, on the first Mondays of No-
yember, Febmaiy, and June.

Finances.
« It is considered doubtful whether the uniyersity and school fonds, and the surplus
revenue, will ever be repaid from the treasury of the state. The interest on the stiU»
bonds has hitherto been punctually paid, and principally from the assets of the state
bank and its branches, which are all now in a course of liquidation. The a^r^ate
amount of these assets has been estimated at $14,028,118 ; and the wh(de amount col-
lected by the commissioners, from the period when they were placed in liquidation to the
first of July, 1847, is $2,864,771.35 ; — and it is very questionable whether more than
$4,500,000 vdll be realized altogether. Should this anticipation be verified, at least
$8,000,000 must be provided tat by taxattofi, or by some other means, which have not
yet been devised."



xvm. MISSISSIPPI.

This state was included within the country which was discovered and
possessed by the French, who formed a settlement at Natchez about the
year 1716 ; but, in 1763, it was ceded to the English, with the rest of the
French possessions to the east of the Mississippi.

There were but few inhabitants within the present limits of this state
before the end of the last centuiy. In 1798, the country was erected into a
territorial goyemment; and, in 1817, into an independent state.

CrOTEBNOBB

Under the Territorial Chvemment.
Winthrop Sai*gent, appointed 1798 I Bobert Williams, ctppoirOed 1805
W. C. C. ClairixMiie, do, 1802 I Dayid Holmes, do. 1800



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1848.] «8sx«nn?i* 287

Uhderthe OoruHtutitm.



David Holmes,


elected


1817


Hiram G. Runnels, elected


1833


George Poindexter,


do.


1819


Charles Lynch, do.


1835


Walter Leake,


do.


1821


Alexander G. McNutt, do.


1837


David Holmes,


do.


1825


Tilghman M. Tucker, do.


1841


Gerard C. Brandon,


do.


1827


Albert G. Brown, do.


1843




do.


1831







Absiiuot of thb CoirsTiTUTioir.

The constitution of this state was formed in 1817.

Every free white male person, twenty-one years old, a citizen of the
United States, resident in the state one year, and in his town or county four
mont^, next before the election, may vote. Representatives, not fewer
than thirty-six nor more than one hundred in number (and not less
than one to each county), shall be chosen every second year, on the first
Monday and Tuesday of October, for two years, and shall meet on the first
Monday of January following. They must have the qualifications of voters
and be residents of the state for two years, and for one year of the place



Online LibraryAmerican Almanac Collection (Library of Congress)The American almanac and repository of useful knowledge for the year .. → online text (page 34 of 44)