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Indian tribes on the island of Maraj6
which have their modern equivalents in
the massive life-figures of the Carajas of
to-day ; and the Amazonian stone idols
from localities on the Rio Trombetas,
Lake Sal]6, etc. The ever-present
motive of these stone idols is an animal
in conflict with man, the latter always
succumbent, possibly a symbolic repre-
sentation of his weakness as against the
powers of nature.



Gordon (G. B.) Notes on the Western
Eskimo. (Trans. Dept. Archaeol. Free
Mus. Sci. and Art, Univ. of Penn.,Phila.,
1906, II. 69-101, 18 pi., 23 fg. ) Treats
of habitat and food ( increasing dangers
of extinction of Alaskan Eskimo, firom
weakening of physical strength, etc.
(through change in diet) ; trade (stimu-
lated by intertribal festivities) ; educa-
tion (good if properly adapted, but '< I
know of nothing that civilization can
offer the Eskimo that is capable of taking
the place of their hereditary forms of
entertainment"); condition of native
arts (clothing, weapons, boats, drawing
and carving, personal decoration, tattoo-
ing, labrets ; until quite recently all the
materials used in the arts were of local
production) ; pottery (none now made,
but formerly pottery lamps and cooking
vessels); string-games (19 figures de-
scribed). This paper is valuable as
indicating the changes that have occurred
since the visit of Nelson 1877-81 among
the Eskimo of the Alaskan coast.

An engraved bone from Ohio. ( Ibid. ,

103-5, 3 P^O Describes an engraving
of a puma or a lynx on a bone found in
a mound at Cincinnati in 1 801 and re-
produced in an old print in the collec-
tion of the University Museum — the
plate having been cut from some octavo
volume.

de la Grasaerie ( R. ) La langue Tehuelche.
(Int. Amer.-Kongr, Stuttgart 1904,
1906, XIV, 611-47.) This monograph
on the Tehuelche (Tsoneka^ language
of Patagonia contains a Tehuelche- French
(from republished MS. of A. d'Orbigny
in Paris, National Library) vocabulary
of about 600 words, with a number of
others (Ramon Lista, v. Martins, Brin-
ton — including the "Hongote,** after-
ward found to be Salishan, and Patago-
nian, Musters, F. Miiller, D. Melanesi).
The author compares Tehuelche with
Pehuelche and the Fuegian tongues,
finding some striking resemblances {e,g.,
names of parts of body) between Te-
huelche and Ona.

Hagar (S. ) The Peruvian asterisms and
their relations to the ritual. ( Ibid., 593-
602.) Treats of the star-groups, etc.,
their names, the festivals connected with
them, among the ancient Peruvians. H.
thinks that the correspondence between
the Peruvian ritual and that of Walpi
(Pueblo) is **too striking to be acci-
dental." The Peruvian ritual is pre-
Columbian. The Peruvians ** believed



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that everything on earth reflected in form
and all other characteristics the attributes
of its prototype which exists invisibly in
the sky." This prototype was called
mama (mother).

Handelsbeziehniigen zwischen Japan und
Mexiko im Beginne des 17. Jahrhun-
derts. (Globus, Bmschwg., 1906, xc,
205-6. ) Resumes the recent monograph
of Mrs Zelia Nuttall.

Hay ( R. ) Kaw and Kansas : a mono-
graph on the name of the State. (Trans.
Kans. State Hist Soc.. Topeka, 1906,
IX, 521-6.) Author cites ** 24 forms of
the word [Aaw, Kansas\ applied to the
Indians, or to the river, or to both, and
I o forms of Arkansas. " K aw appears to
be **a legitimate abbreviation" of
** KautaUy the way one tribe pronounced
their own name," — Kansai^s) is the
same word nasalized.

Holmes (W. H.) Contributions of Amer-
ican archeology to human history. ( Int.
Amer.-Kongr. Stuttgart 1904, 1906,
XIV, 345-54. ) Treats of quarrying
and mining (America's contribution
* * exceptionally full and satisfactory " ) ,
architecture ( from lowest stage to about
level of keystone arch J, sculpture (**the
whole story of the evolution of sculptural
phenomena within the horizon of bar-
barism"), metallurgy (smelting of ores
in its infancy ; but gold, copper, and sil-
ver were extensively employed, and
** forged, fused, cast, alloyed, and plated,
and otherwise handled with a skill that
astonished the conquerors"), ceramics
(<< pre-Columbian Americans furnish a
larger mass of material for the study of
this art up to level of glaze and wheel
than any other known people " ), graphic
art (illustrates evolution from lower
margin of glyphic to very beginning of
graphic), etc. America exemplifies all
steps of culture from the savage to the
lower limit ot civilization.

Hrdlicka (A.) Contribution to the phys-
ical anthropology of California. (Univ.
Calif. Pub., Am. Arch, and Ethn., Ber-
keley, 1906, IV, 49-64, 10 pi. ) Treats,
with details of measurements, description,
etc., of 47 skulls of adult Indians, chiefly
from the central counties of California.
The mainland crania are characterized
mostly by small size (the mean size
is nowhere on the continent lower) and
by a marked sagittal elevation, connected
possibly with small cerebral growth. Of
the male skulls 72 {>ercent, of the female
92 percent are mesocephalic. Most, if



not all, of the California tribes to-day, in
spite of their linguistic and other differ-
ences, have apparently sprung from one
original people. Dr H. sees somatic re-
lations also between Californian Indians
and many Mexican tribes and peoples —
Otomi, aborigines of Puebla, Michoacan,
Aztecs even ; also Tarahumare, etc. An
original identity of all of these is deemed
probable. The peoples of Arizona and
Sonora (andent as well as modern) are
not allied physically to the Califomians.

▼on Ihering (H.) Ueber das natiirliche
Vorkommen von Nephrit in Brasilien.
(Int. Amer.-Kongr. Stuttgart 1904,
1906, XIV, 507-15.) Describes, with
account of chemical composition, etc.,
axes and blocks of nephrite ( now in the
Sfto Paulo Museum) from Amargosa
( Bayatinga) in Bahia, which indicate the
occurrence of nephrite in situ in the
coast mountains of this region. The
local origin of the nephrite muiraquitas
(amulets) of the Amazonas region will
probably be demonstrated ere long.

de Jonghe ( E. ) Der altmexikanische Kal-
ender. (Z. f. Ethn., Berlin, xxxviii,
485-512, 4 fg.) Treats of the tonala-
matl and the solar year, the 18 month
festivals, the relation of the Mexican
year to the real solar year, the corre-
spondence of the Mexican with the
European years, theories of intercala-
tion, synchronological tables (the author
gives one for 1519-22), etc. The cal-
endar-wheel of Valedes owes much to
the synch ronologic efforts of the monks.

Koch-GrOnberg (T.) Die Maki!i. (An-
thropos, Salzburg, 1 906, I, 877-906, 5
pi. ) After a brief general account of the
Mak6 of the Rio Negro- Yapura region
of Brazil, whose language forms a distinct
stock, Dr K. gives vocabularies (pp.
885-99) from the closely related dialects
of the Rio Curicuriary and the Rio Tiqui6
and the Makii of the Rio Papur^F only
distantly related apparently ; and a gram-
matical sketch of this interesting tongue.
A few loan-words are listed. This is a
valuable addition to our knowledge of
S. American languages. The illustra-
tions are of Indian types.

Krftmer ( A. ) Curasao, nebst einigen Be-
merkungen liber eine westindische Reise
1899-1900. (Globus, Brnschwg., 1906,
xc, 293-99, 7 fg., map). Contains a
few notes on language ( Papiamenta jar-
gon), and refers to the finding of stone

■ axes and other evidences of pre- European
inhabitants.



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AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST



[N. s., 9, 1907



Krankheiten ( Die ) der Indianer. ( Ibid.,
256. ) Brief resume of Hrdlicka's mono-
graph. See Anurican Anthropologist^
9oi6, VIII, 189.

Lahy (J. M. ) Gen^se de la notion d'&me
d'aprts quelques textes ethnographiques.
(A. d. V. Congr. Int. di Psicol. Roma
1905, 1906, 707-714.) Treats of the
conception of the soul among the Eski-
mo of Alaska, the Tlingit, Bellacoola,
and Kwakiutl Indians of the N.
Pacific coast. Based on Nelson, Krause,
and Boas. The conception is material
with some touch of the spiritual. All
things possess a double.

Lehmann (W. ) Zu dem Aufsatz *< Das
WissenderQuichi-Indianer in mythischer
Form.'* (Globus, Bmschwg., 1906,
xc, 274-5.) Criticises the article of
Prowe (q. v.), particularly the etymolo-
gies of Xbalanque, Hurakan, Huitzili-
pochti, imox, Hunaphu, etc., and their
mythological interpretations.

Altmexikanische Mosaiken und die

Geschenke Kdnig Motecuzomas an
Cortes. ( Ibid. , 3 1 9-22. ) Treats of the
23 specimens of ancient Mexican mosaics
(London 9, Rome 5, Berlin 3, Vienna
3, Copenhagen 2, Gotha I ), which, with
2 described in the 1 7th century and since
lost, represent the material of this nature
in the museums of Europe. Of these 23
mosaics, 9 are masks, 5 heads and figures
of animals, 3 knife-handles. The home
of mosaic art seems to have been in the
regions east of the Mexican plateau, and
to these non-Mexican countries appear to
belong most of the 23 specimens ; part
were doubtless a portion of Motecuzoma's
gift to Cortes.

Die Historia de los Reynos de Col-

huacan y de Mexico. (Z. f. Ethn.,
Berlin, 1906, xxxviii, 752-60. ) Treats
of the nature and contents of a MS.
(described by Boturiiii) in the National
Library, Paris. The unpublished part
is important for the mythology and his-
tory of Mexico.

Einige Fragmente mexikanischer

Bilderhandschriften. (Int. Amer.-
Kongr. Stuttgart 1904, 1906, xiv.
321-42, 5 pi.) Reproduces and de-
scribes three fragments (a list of natural
products, a tax-list, a genealogy) of
ancient Mexican MSS. in the Royal
Library at Berlin, and a genealogical
tree of 50 persons, belonging to the Uhde
collection.

Lehmann-Nitf che ( R. ) EuropSische
Mirchen unter den argentinischen Arau-



kanem. (Ibid., 681-94.) Gives Ger-
man texts of 6 tales from the Argentine
Araucanian Indians, which strongly sug-
gest borrowings from European mdrchen
of the Grimm type, etc. ; the greater part
of the mSrchen and animal fables of these
Indians shows, however, no such influ-
ence.

Latz (J. J.) The Methodist missions
among the Indian tribes in Kansas.
(Trans. Kans. State Hist. Soc , Topeka,
1906, IX, 160-230, 20 fg.) Gives inter-
esting information concerning missionary
activities (white and native) among the
Shawnee, Kaw, Delawares, Kickapoo,
Peoria and Kaskaskia, Potawatomi,
Wyandot, etc. Among the individual
Indians treated of are : Rev. C. Blue-
jacket (Shawnee) ; Mrs A. M. Grinter,
Rev J. Ketchum ( Delawares) ; S. Arm-
strong (Wyandot).

Markham (C) The megalithic age in
Peru. (Int. Amerik.-Kongr. Stuttgart
1904, 1906, XIV, 521-9.) M. argues
that the origin of Peruvian culture is to
be sought in the builders of Tiahuanacu,
who *• preceded the Incas b^ many gen-
erations. ' ' In South America • * man ex-
isted, with some extinct mammals, before
the Andes had risen to their present
height" (Tiahuanacu has been lifted
geologically since the construction of its
monuments). The Titicaca myths are
memories of Tiahuanacu and its ancient
culture ; its language is represented now
by Quichua-Aymara. Megalithic cul-
ture was of southern (cf. Tucuman, etc. )
origin.

Mead ( C. W. ) Technique of some South
American feather-work. (Anthrop. Pap.
Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., 1907, i,
I-17, 4 pi., 14 fg.) Treats of ancient
( Peruvian feather ponchos, head-dresses,
shawl, plumes) and modem (feather
bracelet and ear-ornament of Chama-
coccos Bravos of Paraguay ; waist-band
of Guatos ; shoulder-ornament and wands
of the Karaja of Brazil ; hat-band and
belt-ornaments of Bolivian Aymari ;
forehead-band of Yahgans of Tierra del
Fuego). In the matter of attachment,
the Peruvians employed a true knot,
modern works show a loop or turn about
the shaft. The use by certain Aymaras
of artificially (aniline dyes) stained
feathers is looked on by M. as an evi-
dence of ** decadence.'*

Mead ( J. R. ) The Saline country in 1859.
(Trans. Kans. State Hist. Soc.,Topeka,
1906, IX, 8-19.) Contains some items



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PERIODICAL LITERATURE



427



concerning Indians (Pawnee, Cheyenne,
Sioux, Oto, Kaw). One of the pioneer
hunters '* had for a tobacco-box an Indian
skull sawed in two/'

Merwin (R. E. ) The Wyandot Indians.
Ibid., 73-87.) Historical sketch of
the Iroquoian people known to the
French as Hurons (** shock- heads " )
and to the English as Wyandot, from
Wendat (** of one speech " ) their na-
tive designation. Their earliest home is
said to have been north of the St Law-
rence. Toward the end of the 1 7th cen-
tury they were about Michilimackinac,
whence they moved to Detroit ; later
they were in Ohio, and in 1843 migrated
to Kansas. In the French-English war
the Wyandot sided with the French ; in
the Revolution they supported the Eng-
lish. In the war of 18 1 2 part espoused
the American cause, part the English, the
latter afterward settling in Canada. The
provisional governor of Kansas territory
in 1853 was a member of the Wyandot
tribe through his mother. In 1902 the
western Wyandot living on the reserva-
tion numbered 354. They are more
white than Indian (not even a half-
blood now exists ; the last full -blood
Wyandot died in Canada in 1820).

Meyer (H.) Die Kunst der Xingu In-
dianer. (Int. Amer.-Kongr. Stuttgart
1904, 1906, XIV, 455-71, 4 pl- ) Treats
of the art in wood, wax, stone, resin,
shell, clay (pottery rich inform), textile
substances, skins, nature ornaments,
decorative motives, pxattems, etc., of the
Nabuqua- Akuku, Trumai, and Bakairi
Indians of the source-region of the
Xingili. The carved and pminted house-
points of the Trumai, the dance masks
of the Trumai, Kamayura, Aueto, Na-
buqua, etc., are discussed in some detail.
In this region an ethnographic unity
exists where there is no linguistic one.
Since the introduction of the European
knife and axe the art of the Xingu In-
dians has declined, the old love and
exactness in work being lost.

Montana ( L. ) EI idolo de la Gran Tierra
de Maya. (R. de la P'ac. de Letr. yCi.,
Univ. de Habana, 1906, 111, 303-4, 2
pi. ) Preliminary description of a wooden
**idol" of pre-Columbian age, suggest-
ing Mayan influence, found at Baraco, in
the province of Oriente, Cuba.

▼an Panhuys ( L. C. ) A European cus-
tom of pagan times brought over to
America. (Int. Amer.-Kongr. Stutt-
gart 1904, 1906, XIV, 695-9.) Notes



I on ** Hallowe'en " festivities as observed

I . in Chicago in 1902, and allied customs.
Ueber die letzte niederlflndische Ex-

I pedition nach Surinam. (Ibid., 427-
35.) Brief account of the Bakhuis
( 1 901 ), van Stockum ( 1902-03), Frans-
sen Herderschee (1903-04; expeditions

I in the Cop{>ename, Saramacca, Gonini,
and Tapanahony regions of Surinam

I The last expedition visited the Bush
Negroes of the Tapanahony, whose in-

I fluence upon the Indians has been con-
siderable.

NSlheres iiber die Omamente der

Naturv6lker Surinams. (Ibid., 437-9.)
Discusses briefly tattooing (not cere-
monial ; women exclusively the artists ;
begun at 7 years and continued for some
time) of the Bush Negroes. Favorite
figures are the eagle-tail, pine-apple
plant, etc. Tattooing is given up on
conversion to Christianity. Comparison
with the tattooing of Negroes in Africa
is suggested.
Pinart (A. L. ) A few words on the
Alaska D6n6 in answer to Father Morice,
accompanied by a short vocabulary of the
A' tana or Copper River Indian language.
( Anthropos, Salzburg, 1906, i, 907-13. )
P. holds, contra Morice, that the A' tana,
a Den6 people, do touch the ocean. The
vocabulary given contains some 300
words, with 20 words from Capt. Vas-
silieff, who visitedjthe Kuskokwim country
in the flrst half of the last century.
Plagemann ( A. ) Ueber die chilenischen
** Pintados." Beitrag zur Katalogisie-
rung und vergleichenden Untersuchung
der sudamerikanischen Piktographien.
(Int. Amer.-Kongr. Stuttg. 1904, xiv,
Ergzgsb., 1906, 1-87, 7 pi.) After dis-
cussing the method and objects of picto
graphic investigations, P. catalogues,
under 6 types (chromolith, petroglyph,
relief-petroglyph, various colossal mark-
ings and ** drawings" of stones, etc.)
the Chilean pintados (stones, rocks, etc.,
with signs, symbols, etc., painted on
them). A seventh type exists in Ar-
gentine. Some pintados mark old grave-
sites, cult-spots, etc. The pintados of
southern Chile differ in style from those
of the north ; those of Cauquenes alone
seem to be ** genuinely Chilean," ( these
are related to those of northern Argentine,
etc.). The Cauquenes pictographs are
not due to outlying Araucanians. In
the pintados of northern Chile are many
traces of Peruvian influence. The style
of the pintados of Tarapaca, P. thinks,



AM ASTH., S.



.9-28.



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AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST



[N. s., 9, 1907



is **as early as that of the oldest archi-
tectural ruins of Peru- Bolivia." The
riddle is not yet solved.

Prenss (K. T.) Sonnenfeste der Alt-
mexikaner und der Moki. (Ibid.,
343-4. ) Brief compmrison of the sun-
festivals (Soyalunga, PowamG) of the
Moki with those (xocotl uetzi, etc.) of
the ancient Mexicans. The situation of
the realm of the dead in the center of the
earth, and also in the west, occurs with
both peoples. The summer animals are
primary.

Prowe ( R. ) Das Wissen der Quich6-In-
dianer in mythischer Form. (Globus,
Brnschwg., 1906, xc, 157-60.) Treats
of <'the traces of almost scientific in-
sight" in the mythologic data of the
Quiche Indians as recorded in the
Popol Vuh, the Titulo de los SeHorts
de Totonicapatty etc. — crealtion-myths
(with evolutionary aspect), flood-legends,
myths relating to volcanic eruptions,
earthquakes, etc., meteorology, astrol-
ogy, etc. Dr P. accepts the views of
Mrs Nuttall re swastika, Hurakan, etc.

Regel (F.) Die Reste der Urbervol-

' kerung (Indios bravos) in der Kolum-
bischen West-Kordillere nach eigenen
Beobachtungen im jahre 1896. (Int.
Amer.-Kongr. Stuttgart 1904, 1906,
XIV, 517-20. ) In 1896 Prof. R. found
remnants of the Chocos Indians in the
region of the Andes; other unmixed
aborigines about Frontino in N. w. Anti-
oqua. Colombia has a population of
about 4,000,000 (** white" 50 percent,
Indian 40 percent, Negro 10 percent —
a good deal mixed).

Ridgeway (W.) Note on the motives
carved on same Haida totem spoons and
pil>es. (Man, Lond., 1906, 145-8, ipl.)
Describes the carvings on a spoon in the
author's possession and on two others in
the British Museum ; also on a fine old
pipe in the British Museum. One spoon
has the motive of a woman clasping a
frog or a toad to her breast and kissing
it, another a woman and a bear, a third
a woman and a butterfly clasping each
other ; the pipe a woman and a raven in
such union. Prof. R. considers these to
signify totemic origins.

▼on Rosen ( E. ) The Chorotes Indians
in the Bolivian Chaco. (Int. Amer.
Kongr. Stuttgart 1904, 1906, 649-58,
13 pi., I fg. ) Based on visit of 1901-02.
Treats of physical characters (av. height :
men 170 cm., women about 152 cm. ;
dolichocephalic, no signs of deforma-



tions), clothing and ornaments (ear- pegs,
face -tattooing as puberty-signs), houses
and villages ( village chieftans and tribe-
chieftain over all), utensils, fire-making
( twirling arrow-shaft) , activities, weapons
(bow and arrow, chaguar fiber coat of
mail ; burning arrows used to set huts on
fire, play (gambling with chips; hockey-
like game — the stakes, which are neck-
laces of disks of mollusk shells, are legal
tender in the Chaco), music (not highly
developed), spirit-lore \ evil-spints shown
great respect, good thought harmless),
death and burial (death-dances to pro-
tect deceased), language (different from
Matacan, Toban, etc.). According to
V. R. the Chorotes "did not ap[>ear to
be any lethargic or degenerate race (in
contrast with the Matacos)," but quite
the contrary. If subject to the evil influ-
ences of the whites however, they will
gradually become extinct.

Sapper (K.) Titulo del Barrio de Santa
Ana. Agosto 14 de 1565. (Ibid.,
373-81.) Gives Pokonchi text and
Spanish version (by V. A. Narciso) in
parallel columns. See : StoU iO. ).

Sitten und Gebriluche der Pokonchi-

Indianer. (Ibid., 403-17.) Based on
the MS. E studios geogrdficosy historicos
y etnologicos dt San Cristobal Verapai
of V. A. Narciso. Treats of habitat and
activities, clothing, habitations, house-
building festival and sarabanda^ charac-
ter, marriage (proof-period), religion
^Christianity and heathenism mixed),
doctors, wizards, shamans, sickness and
death, astronomical knowledge, names
of months and days of the week, count-
ing. Text, translation, and music of
mourning- song.

Seler (Cecilie). Zur Tracht der mexi-
kanischen Indianerinnen. (Ibid., 419-
26, 4 pi., 2 fg.) Treats of the dress
of Mexican Indian women (Mazatec,
Huave, Guatemala, Oaxaca, etc.).
Tribal differences in form due to cli-
mate and topography existed. In the
modern shirts and coats the ancient pat-
terns are not preserved — the Indians
transformed £uro{>ean patterns in deco-
ration, etc., or created others in their
style, not merely and simply imitating
them. Much technique is also of Euro-
pean origin.

Seler ( E. ) Parallelen in den Maya-Hand-
schriften. (Globus, Brnschwg., 1906,
xc, 187-93, '4 %• ) Discusses various
parallels between the Dresden MS. and
Codex Cortes.



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Sergi (G.) Contributo airantropologia
americana. (A. d. Soc. Rom. di
Antrop., 1906, XII, estr., pp. 10, I pi.)
Discusses three types of American Indian
skulls: Peruvian (Sphenoides parvus
peruvianus)f Bolivian (Ovotdes bolivi-
anus)f mound-builder {Sp/tenoides, a
cuneo). The first, according to S., in-
dicates a Negrito or Oceanic Pigmy cle-
ment in ancient Peru ; the second a
Melanesian element in parts of South
America ; the third Asiatic immigration
into North America.

Smith ( H. 1. ) Some Ojibwa myths and
traditions. (J. Am. Folk-I^re, Boston,
1906, XIX, 215-30.) Gives English
texts of 7 legends (the invasion of the
valley, the war-party that saw the
thunder-bird, Mejewedah, the white
deer, the girl with the long hair, the
rape of the Ojibwa maiden, the {>eculiar
Nomitchine), with many interesting
historical, explanatory, and interpretative
notes, etc. The Ojibwa refer to their
enemies, the Sauk, as ** savage and bad,"
taking the attitude of the so-calied
** higher" races.

StoU (O.) Titulo del Barno de Santa
Ana. Agosto 14 de 1565. (Int. Amer.-
Congr. Stuttgart 1904, 1906, XI v, 383-
397. ) Gives phonetic transcript of Pokon-
chi text and rendering in German of the
** titulo," or title of possession of the
people of Sta Ana in Chama. Diver-
gences from the modern Pokonchi of the
locality are noted. See : Sapper (K.).

Teichaner (C. ) My then und alte Volks-
sagen aus Brasilien. ( Anthropos, Salz-
burg, 1906, I, 731-44. ) Brief cosmic
myths and **old traditions," in German
text, with comments and explanatory
notes. The beginning of the world
(Munduruku legend), the origin of the
river Amazon (from the region of Soli-
mOes), the origin of plantation (Mura),
myth of Orion (Makusi of Rio Branco),
Pleiades, Canopus, Tamanduar6 — the
Brazilian Noah — the two brothers, the
origin of manioc, etc. In the transmis-
sion of these legends from generation to
generation the pajes^ or medicine-men,
had a large share.

Thompson (A. H. ) Dental lesions
among the ancient Peruvians, Mexicans
and mound-builders. ( Dental Brief,
1906, repr., 1-15 I fg. ) Gives results
of observations on 500 Peruvian and some
Mexican and mound-builder skulls. Dr
T. find smany dental lesions, etc., in the
Peruvians and believes them ** due to the



swift changes produced by the rapid ac-
quirement of a higher culture and luxur-
ious living, as compared with the true
savages. * ' The Nahuas ( Aztecs ) , * * more
savage than the Peruvians," had "neither
the same refinement of osseous structure,
nor the same amount of dental'disease."
The dental structure of . the mound-
builders offers ** a mixture of savage and
refined features."

Torres (L. M.) Classificacion y exposi-
cion de colecciones arqueol6gicas en
museos argentinos. (An. Mus. Nac. de
Buenos Aires, 1906, xiii, 379-407, 5
fg., map.) Discusses system of classifi-
cation of Argentine archeological collec-
tions, technique, exhibition, etc. In his
**geo-ethnic" map, T. recognizes in
Argentina 6 regions : Chaco, Parana,
Central, Pampean, Andean, Patagonian.
Upon this the classification is based.



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