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were unidentified and were supposed to be alum, but that they
had not received particular attention. Dr. Sadtler kindly
offered to give one of the crystals for further examination,
which accordingly was brought to Washington. Specific
gravity determinations showed that it could not be alum and
soffgested sulphohalite, although the few specimens of this
mineral that had been previously described are of dodecahedral
form. The index of refraction of the unknown crystal was
determined by Mr. Larsen but no record of the index of refrac-
tion for sulphohalite could be found. Accordingly, it was
decided to make a chemical analysis. As this would necessi-
tate the destruction of the crystal in hand, Dr. Sadtler was
informed of the developments and kindly presented the other
specimen for reference. Hence one of the crystals has been
used in the investigation and the other deposited in the XJ. S.
National Museum.

The two crystals were almost identically alike, each a little
over a centimeter in diameter, slightly yellowish and clouded,
transparent to translucent, resembling in color and substance,
but not in form, the hanksite crystals among which they were
included in the collection referred to. The crystals are reported
to have been collected by Mr. Moerk, having been taken by
him direct from the drillings in the saline deposits at Searles
Lake, from the sand bucket at the drill holes. It is believed
that, like the other described occurrences of sulphohalite, these
originally occurred in association with the hanksite crystals in
the main salt body of that deposit, and therefore at a depth of
less than 100 feet.

Minor cubic and octahedral faces were mentioned in the
previous description as being present on the dodecahedral
crystals, but the material described in this paper is unique in
that the octahedron is the only form present. The broken
surfaces show no indication of any cleavage and the fracture is
irregular and hackly. The specific gravity was determined as
about 2*5. The mineral is isotropic and the refractive index
for sodium light was kindly determined by Mr. Esper S. Larsen
as 1*455.

* Pablished by permission of the Director of the U. S. Geological Survey.



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274



Gale and Hicks — Sulphohalite.



The mineral is readily soluble in water, fuses below red heat,
and has no water of crystallization. It contains large quantities
of sulphates, chlorides, fluorides and sodium, and a trace of
potassium. The analysis on a 0*24 gram sample was carried
out in platinum. In reporting the results enough sodium has
been calculated to the oxide to combine with the SO, to form
the molecule Na,SO^, and the remainder of the sodium
reported as Na. The analytical data are as follows (W. B.
Hicks, analyst) :



Per cent

SO, 42-00

NaO 32-50


Calculated for

2NaaS04.NaCl.NaF

Per cent

41-61
32-25


Na' 11-36

CI 9-19

F (by difference) 4-71
Loss at 200° C... 0-26


11-97
9-23
4-94



10000



100-00



The result of the investigation identifies the specimen con-
clusively as sulphohalite, and confirms the previous analysis*
by Penfield of this rare mineral.

* This Journal, (4), ix, p. 426, 1900.



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Van Tuyl and Berckheiner — Problematic Fossil, 275

Art. XXII. — A Problematic Fossil from the CatskiU Forma-
tion ; by Francis M. Van Tuyl and Fritz Brrokhembr.

During a recent geological excursion of the students of
Columbia University in the Delaware Water Gap region of
Eastern Pennsylvania, Mr. C. W. lioness and Mr. F. M. Van
Tuyl discovered in the Catskill red shale in a cut of the Dela-
ware, Lackawanna & Western Ry., a short distance east of the
station of Henrysville, a very peculiar organism which, on
account of the scarcity of fossils in this formation and the sin-
gularity of its characters, seems to be worthy of description.

Rectogloma problematical n. g. ; n. sp.

(See Fig. 1, nat. size.)

Fio. 1.




Fio. 1. Rectogloma problematica, Nat. size.

Professor Grabau has generously consented to let us undertake
this work.

The fossil occurs in a bed of red shale 5 or 6 ft. thick which
is interstratified with other red beds. There are no marine
fossils associated, nor do such fossils occur in adjacent layers.
We have not been able to identify the form either specifically
or generically, and have given it the name Rectogloma jproo-
lemati<:a^ a description of which follows :

Form slightly tapering, elliptical in transverse section, about
two-thirds as thick as wide ; apex terminating in a spiral coil.
Surface marked by closely-placed sinuous sutures which grad-
ually disappear on the lateral margins. Distance between
sutures 1 to 3""", very gradually decreasing towards the apex



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276 Van Tuyl and Berckhemer — Problematic Fossil.

and disappearing completely on the apical coil. Sutures arch-
ing upwards wiUi a slight depression near the middle, continu-
ing a slight distance interiorly.

Upper extremity of fossil unknown. Apical coil spii^al and
laterally compressed, lying in the plane of the greatest diame-
ter and consisting of about one whorl. Another specimen in
our possession varies from the form described. It is only half
as broad, even in the early stages, the suture lines are about
half as far apart and the sides are more nearly parallel. This
possibly represents a diflferent species.

The fossil stands vertically in the bed with the spirally
coiled apex downwards. This is the relationship exhibited by
all the specimens found in place. The more perfect speci-
mens, upon which the description is based, are now in the
Paleontological Museum of Columbia University.

The affinities of the organism are somewhat obscure. One
would at first sight take it for an abnormal cephalopod, on
account of its apparent distinct septation, The only slight
continuation of the sutures interiorlv and their disappearance
on the lateral margins, as well as the absence of a siphuncle
and the non-septate character of the apical coil, are, however,
not in favor of this view. But these negative characters may
be due, in part, to the imperfect preservation of the fossil in
the red shale. John M. Clarke* describes Orthoceras speci-
mens from the Oneonta sandstone occupying a position in the
beds similar to that of our organism, but his forms exhibit
undoubted cephalopod characters.

Paleontological Laboratory, Columbia Univereity.

♦N. Y. State Mna. Bull. 89, vol. viii, pp. 167-171, 1900.



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Bigdow — Determination of the " Solar Constant.^^ 277



Art. XXIII. — The Determination of the '^ Solar Constant ^^
by Means of Computations Based on the Data of Balloon
Ascensions; by Frank H. Bioelow.

It is well known that the value of the " solar constant " as
derived from pyrhelioraeter observations, extrapolated by the
Bouguer Formula I=I,j»'", is found to be something less than
2'00 gr.eal/cm.' min. On the other hand, Abbot's ordinates
in the bolometer spectrum energy curve are best satisfied by an
initial effective temperature at the sun of about 6900°, corre-
sponding with whicn the solar radiation at the distance of the
earth is about 4*00 gr.cal./cm.' min. This wide discrepancy
has been the subject of research in connection with the writer's
development of non-adiabatic meteorology, and the results of
an extensive computation are here summarized, the method of

irocedure being described in Bulletins No. 3, No. 4, Oficina
[eteorologica Argentina, 1912, 1914; this Journal, Dec.
1912, April 1913 ; Bigelow's Treatise on Meteorology, 1914.

If To is the temperature, P© pressure, p^ density, K© gas-
coefficient on the level z^^ satisfy mg Po = Po Bo To, the corre-
sponding P, = /), K, T, on the 3,-level are computed from the
observed temperatures (T, T,) by

yik n n— 1

,,x p. _ / TAF^ p. _ / T AF^ R, __ / T \

(1) P.-VX/ ' Po"VTo/ ' Ro""\T>

T — T
where n==^^ — rfr per (^i " ^o) meters; 1000 for example.

Thence, R is variable, C/? = R j-—- is variable, k = p . The
working gravity equation becomes

(2) -Cp.(T^-T,)=ff(z-Z,) = -^^'- }(g\-g\)-(Q-Q^)

T, is the adiabatic temperature at 2, ; T. - T,= — 9°'87 per
1000-meters for example; p,^ is the mean density in the
column (3,-2,) for same value of n; {q^ q^ are the observed
velocities.

(3) (Q,-Q.)=(W-W,) + (U-U.) = P,.(i,-t;J + (U.-U.)

(Qi — Q.) IS the free or non-adiabatic heat, (W, — W,) the
work, (TJ,— TJ,) the inner energy, {v^-^v^ the change of
volume. Hence,

Q __ O U — U

(5) J.=c.T,«.-c.T.».. (6, J.=c,T.'-c.T;



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278 Bigelow — Det&f*inination of the " Sola/r CouBtardP

K,„ is the mean radiant energy in the stratum {z^—z^^ and
it is equal to a selective absorption for the coefficients (cj, c,),
and exponents (a, «,), as computed from the temperature
observations. The corresponding black body radiation is
J.=(c.T/-c.T/).

It is evident that the temperatures (T, T^J in the successive
strata can be taken from the observations in oalloon ascensions
up to 25,000 or 30,000 meters, and then the series of computa-
tions can be extended upward to the vanishing limit of the
atmosphere, by assuming for trial certain temperatures T,
which shall produce such values of P, p^ R, in (1) as will
finally satisfy the gravity equation' (2) without important
residuals. By means of such trial temperatures the conrputa-
tions have been made for four balloon ascensions: Uccle
June 9, Sept. 13, Nov. 9, 1911, Huron, S. Dak., Sept. 1, 1910,
extending up to 80,000 or 90,000 meters, and thence there have
been derived for the entire atmosphere on every 1000-meter
level the dynamic data (P, p^ Ej T,), the thermodynamic data
(Cp . Ct> . S . W . TI . (? . a . J. . Jo) and the Kinetic Theory
data (H.TJ.5'.7.K.n.N. 1,^. v . 7/1^ . ^), This will be
published in full in Bulletin No. 4, O. M. A.

The ^' Solar Constant'^ and the "JEff'ective Radiation.^'

The following summary of the data for sea level will give
an idea of the outcome of the computations, which were con-
ducted in the (M. K. S.) system, but transformed in the sum-
mations into gr.cal./cm*. min.

Summary of the Beindts of the Computations on Three BaUoon

Ascensions for the Values of the Thermodynamic

and Radiation Energies,



Station and Date of the Observations.
Height in meters for O^'A, by computation.

2 [ //( «, — ^o) J gravity acceleration

2 [— — (?*!"■ S^'o)] kinetic energy of circulation

2 [— (Qi— Q.)] fi'ee heat (non-adiabatic)

2 [.«7(«.-2.)+ .^(^'.-y'J + CQ-Q.)] summary

P — P

2 [ — *p " hydrostatic pressure

2 [Jo=c,^\'-^oT/] black body radiation ....




9-6792
0-OpOO
5-4260
4-1542

4-1146
3-9690



11-0895: 12-4565

I

— 0-0006 +0-0002

6-6676 8-6590

4-4219 3-7975

4-1608 3-9386

3-9261 *3-5373



* This valae is omitted from the mean becanse of Son's large Zen. Dist.



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Bigdow — Determination of the " Solar Constant^ 279



2 [K,— KJ radiation energy i 1-4528

Q Q '

S [ ' _ * ] free heat per vol. change ; 0-0000

2 r P,'— P J pressure difference I 1 -4602

t [ J.=o,T,» 1 — c,T^* ] selective radiation i 1-4603



1-4672 1-4802

—0-0087J+ 0-0352

1-44041 1-4085
1-4610! 1-4395



General mean of the thermodynamic data 4-0979

General mean of the black body radiation data J, 3-9476

General mean of the radiation and pressure data 1-4516

General mean of the selective radiation data J, 1 -4536

It will be noted that the thermodynamic and the black body
radiation agree upon 4*00 gr.cal./cm'. min. as the amount
required to raise a solid atmosphere at O'A, through the liquid
air state, into the conditions P . /) . R . T . now existing from
the surface to the top. Since this action is continuous 4*00 cal.
is the true value of the "solar constant" and not 2*00 cal. as
given by the pyrheliometer. The thermodynamic and selective
radiation data agree that there is an absorption of 1*45 calories
from the top down to the surface, which is in a condition to
continuously emit the same amount of radiant energy.

We reproduce more specifically the values of J on several
levels, that is the total amount from the top to the given level,
for Sept. 13, 1911, in order to develop the corresponding
curve of absorbed nidiation.

77ie Equation for Temperature Equilibrium.
(7) Effective radiation inward = I = A — J,— B. I = B.



z


J.


^(4-00-J.)=I = B


A


90000


0-0000


2-000


4-000






2-000








2-000






• . • . -


2-000








1-999


**


46000


0-004


1-998




36000


0-034


1-983




26000


0-100


1-950


"


16000


0-258


1-871




6000


0-806


1*597




000


1-461


1-270


4-000



A = Solar constant 4-00
I = Effective radiation from 2*00 to 1-27
B = Return radiation from 1-27 to 2-00
J. = Absorbed and emitting radiation from 1-46 to 0.



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280 Bigelow — Determination of the ^' Solar ConBtamt^



2
90000



800C0



70000



€C€^00



scoco



^oooo







|A



To



B



IA



Bo




/em, THfn.



^.OO B.CC 9.00 'AOO



Gram calories per centimeter square per minute.



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Bigelow — Determination of the " Solar Con^tantP 281

The effective i-adiation, I==A— J.— B, is built up of the
total solar radiation A =4*00, neutralized in the lower levels
by the emitting radiation J, from 1*46 to the vanishing quan-
tity at about 40,000 meters, and the return radiation B = I on
every plane during steady temperatures. The pyrheliometer
at any station observes the " enective " radiation I, and never
the solar constant, which is A =21 on the upper level where
J,= 0. The depth of m in the Bouguer Formula is about
3000 meters for each constant p in the lower levels. The
value of jp changes from p=0-83 at sea level, through />=0-86,
^=0-89, /?=0-92 ^=1-00 in the upper levels, so that,

(8) I=IoP,"' * • />,"*./>,"' - - r 'P^ - •

The total solar constant A =4*00 is neutralized by J, and by
the return radiation B which is continuous, otherwise the
temperatures would change in values. At night 1 = B=A=0,
and the nocturnal radiation proceeds from J, only.

If the spectrum energy of a 6900® black body radiation is
computed, and the ordinates summed for A \ = 0*05/^, the
sum is 80'30; if the Abbot observed ordinates are summed for
Washington, D. C, the result is 51-19; for Mt. Wilson
(1780 m.) it is 59*55; for Mt. Whitney (4420 m.) it is 61-38; for
the topmost curve (8000 m.) it is 67*26. Hence by division
the ratios for the absorbed parts of the spectrum are readily
found. Similarly, divide the values of J. by A on the same
levels, and we obtain the ratio of absorption.



station ^""^^K*""
o4 m.

Bolometer spectrum. 0*363
Thermodynamics 0-362


Mt WUson
1780 m.

0-258
0-287


Mt. Whitney
4420 m.

0-236
0-225


Assumed
8000 m.

0162
0-163



This shows that the energy lost in bolometer spectrum is
the same as J^^, and it is absorbed in the lower levels.

Oficina Meteorologica, Baenos Aires, Argentina.
March, 1914.



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282 Scientific Intelligence.

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

1. Method for Cleaning Diatomacece ; by E. R. Darlfng
(communicated). — ^There are a number of methods to be found in
various books on microscopy for cleaning diatomacese. None of
which proves to be perfect in all details. The method generally
resorted to is to boil with nitric acid. This does not, however,
remove all of the organic matter, and leaves a mounted specimen
contaminated with black specks. Another method is to boil the
specimen with sulphuric acid and potassium chlorate. This too
has its disadvantage as in boiling neutral potassium sulphate is
formed, this salt being sparingly soluble in water. The follow-
ing method, which is a modification of that of Edwards,* will be
found to work with great success.

The sample is first dried, and then about five grams taken and
well washed with distilled water. The washing is best done by
placing the sample in a filtering paper fitted to a glass funnel, and
replacing the water as it runs out. The washmg is complete
when about 260^*^ has run through. A hole is then punched in ♦
the apex of the filter paper and the sample washed into a 250^^
beaker with concentrated hydrochloric acid, about 60*^ being
required. This is allowed to boil gently for 30 minutes, 100*'® of
hot water is then added, and the whole filtered. The sample is
washed with hot water until it gives no white coloration wnen a
drop is added to a weak solution of silver nitrate. The sample
left on the filter paper is then washed into the beaker with 60^® of
concentrated nitric acid and gently boiled until red fumes cease to
be given off. This is then diluted with hot water, filtered, and
washed until free from acid.

The above method removes all the mineral matter except silica
diatomaceae, and a large part of the organic matter. The product
from the last operation is removed to a beaker by means of a
small spatula. To this is added a mixture of concentrated sul-
phuric acid and water, 8 parts of acid and 2 parts of water. In
mixing care should be taken to add the acid to the water. This
is boiled for about 30 minutes, or until the organic matter is
charred. As soon as the acid starts to boil weigh out about 2
grams of potassium chlorate and add to the acid m small quanti-
ties until the solution becomes colorless. The acid solution is
then poured into 250^® of distilled water, filtered, and washed
free from acid. The product is then washed into a beaker with
about 20^*^ of concentrated hydrochloric acid and gently boiled
for about 15 minutes. It is then diluted with hot water, filtered,
washed first with distilled water acidified with hydrochloric acid
and then with hot water until free from acid, which is determined
by adding a drop of a weak solution of silver nitrate.

By the addition of the potassium chlorate to the sulphuric acid
solution the organic matter is destroyed. The neutral potassium
sulphate which is formed is changed into the chloriae by the
addition of the hydrochloric acid. The chloride is soluble in hot
water and is removed in this way. When thus purified the diato-
macese should be kept in a mixture of 6 parts of alcohol and 4
parts of water to prevent them from matting together.

* Quart. Jour. Micr. Soi., toI. vii.



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Ward's Natural Science Establishment

A Supply-House for Scientific Material.

Foiuided 1862. Incorporated 1800.

DEPARTMENTS:

Oeology, inclading Phenomenal and Physiographic.
MhieralogVy inclading also Rocks, Meteorites, etc. .
Palaeontology. Archaeology and Ethnology,

InvertebrateSy inclading Biology, Conchology, etc.
Zoology, inclading Osteology and Taxidermy.
Human Anatomy, inclading Craniology, Odontology, etc.
Models, Plaster Casts and Wall-Charts in all departments.



Circttlara in any department free on request; addreaa

Ward's Natural Science Establishment,

76-104 College Ave., Sochester, New York, V. 8. A.



Eimer&Amend

Complete
Laboratory Furnishers

Chemical Apparatus, Balances, etc.

C. P. and T. P. Chemicals and Reagents

Platinum Ware, Best Hammered Blbwpipe Outfits

and Assay Goods



WE CARRY A LARGE STOCK OF

MINERALS FOR BLOWPIPE WORK,

ETC.

ESTB-1651

203 -211 - THIRD -AVE

lEW-YORKrCIT



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CONTENTS.

Page
Art. XVIII. — Geology of Bermuda Island; the Igneous

Platform; by L. V. Pirsson 189

XIX. —The Ternary System: Diopside — Forsterite — Silica;
by N. L. BowEN 207

XX. — Estimation of Iodine and Bromine in Haloid Salts by

Means of Telluric Acid; by Harriet Isabblle Cole .. 265

XXI. — Octahedral Crystals of Sulphohalite; by H. S. Gale

and W. B. Hicks'. '. ., 273

XXII. — Problematic Fossil from the Catskill Formation; by

F. M. Van Tuyl and F. Berckuemer 275

XXIII. — Determination of the " Solar Constant " by Means
* of Computations Based on the Data of Balloon Ascen-
sions; by F. H. Bigelow 277

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.
Method for Cleaning Diatomaceae, E. R. Darling, 282.



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S"'^



^~ A



OCTOBER, 1914.



Establidied by BENTAMm SHUKAH in 1818.
THE

AMERICAN

JOURNAL OF SCIENCE.

Editor: EDWARD S. DANA.

« ASSOCIATB EDITOBS

PaoFKssoBS GEORGE L. GOODALE, JOHN TROWBRTOQB,
W. Q. FARLOW Ai^D WM. M. DAVIS, op Oambridgb,

PBOFB8SOB8 ADDISON E. VERRILL, HORACE L. WELLS,

LOUIS V. PIRSSON, HERBERT E. GREGORY

AND HORACE S. UHLER, of New Haven,

Professor HENRY S. WTTJJAMS, of Ithaca,

Professor JOSEPH S. AMES, of Baltimore,

Mr. J. S. DILLER, of Washington.



FOURTH SERIES
\rOL. XXXVIII~[WHOLE NUMBER, CLXXXVIII].
No. 226— OCTOBER, 1914.



NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT.
1914.

THK TUTTI-B, MOREHOUSE & TAYLOR CO., PRINTERS, 123 TEMPLE STREET.



Published monthly. Six dollars per year, in advance. $6.40 to countries in the
Postal Union ; $6.25 to Canada. Remittances should be made either by money orders,
legistered lettexs, or bank checks (preferably on New York banks).



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Epidote, from Enappenwand

Wagnerite, Salzburg

Linnaeite, Siegen

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Stephanite, diaphorite and millerite from Bohemia

Fluorite from Elsass

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ALBERT H. PETEREIT

81-83 Fulton St, New York Citj.



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THE



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE

[FOURTH SERIES.]



Art. XXIV. — Experiments on the Active Deceit of
Radium: by E. M. Wellisoh, Assistant Professor of
Physics, Tale University.

Introductory,

1. In a previous paper* the experimental result was
described, that when radium emanation is mixed with any gas
there is a definite limit to the fraction of the active deposit
which settles on the cathode in an electric field. This limiting
value is independent of the pressure of the gas, provided the
latter is hi^h enough to prevent appreciable recoil on to the
walls of the containing vessel ; it is however, in general,
dependent on the nature of the gas with which the emanation is
mixed. The values assigned in the previous paper were 89*2
per cent for air and hydrogen, 80-7 per cent for carbon dioxide
and 10 per cent for etnyl ether.

The physical meaning of this limiting value is that it
represents the fraction of the total number of deposit particles
wnich possess a positive charge at the end of the recoil path,
before either columnar or volume recombination have had a
chance to become operative. The small value of the limit in
the case of ethyl ether was surprising and was ascribed to the



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