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Am erican fern journal 3

American Fern Society, JSTOR (Organization)



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Amrrtratt 3tvn Jlottrttal



A QUARTERLY DEVOTED TO FERNS



Published by the



AMERICAN FERN SOCIETY



R. C. BENEDICT
Editor



E. J. WINSLOV
Managing Editor



VOLUME m

I 9 I 3

AUBURNDALE, MASSACHUSETTS



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CONTENTS.



No. 1, January-March, Issued March 22, 1913.
Polypodium Speluncae L., a question of nomenclature

Carl Christensen 1

Wayside ferns of the Dolomites C. A. Weatherby 4

Schizaea pusilla in its natural surroundings, (Plate 1)

R. C. Benedict 11

Ferns of northern Berkshire County, Mass. .^. J. Winslow 13

Aspleniimi angustifolium in Louisiana. .Francis W. Pennell 16

A belated maidenhair L. S. Hopkins 17

Notes and news 18

American Fern Society 20

The Journal for 1913 23

No. 2, April-June, Issued June 12, 1913.
Hunting the hart's tongue and holly fern, (Illustrated)

H. E. Ra7isier 25
Pteridophytes of the north shore of Lake Superior

O. E. Jennings 38

Addenda to Prof. Jennings' article L. S. Hopkins 47

My herbarium and its one enemy J. A. Bates 49

Ferns of New England and old England. . .5. P. Rowlands 53

Notes and news 59

Questions and comments 60

American Fern Society 60

No. 3, July-September, Issued August 30, 1913.
The fern of Washington (Plates 1-4)

T. C. Frye and M. McM. Jackson 65

A new hybrid fern, (Figs. 1-7) F. C. Greene 83

A great day G. L. Moxley 85

Double sori in Athyrium. (Fig. 1, 2) E. J. Winslow 88

Notes and news 92

American Fern Society 96

No. 4, October-December, Issued December 30, 1913
The ferns of Washington (Plates 6-8)

T. C. Frye and M. McM. Jackson 97

Some recently described ferns from the Southwest W. R. Maxon 109
A new Polystichum from British Columbia, (Plate 9)

L. S. Hopkins 116

Notes on nomenclature W. N. Clute 118

Notes and news 121

Amexican Fern Society 122"

Index to Volume 3 12a



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Vol. 3 JANUARY 1913 No. 1

Kmmtm Ifitxn 3i«trnal

%

A QUARTBRLY DEVOTED TO PERNS
PubllatMd hf tlu

AMERICAN FERN SCXHETY

R. C BENEDICT, EdHor
E. J. WJNSLOWp BmiiieM Manager

CONTENTS

Polypodlum speluncae L. A question of nomenclature

Carl Cbbistensen 1

Wayside ferns of the Dolomites C. A. Weathsi^t 4

Schlzaea puslUa In Its natural surroundings

R. C. Benedict 11
Ferns of Northern Berkshire County, Mass.

E. J. WiNSLOW 13

Asplenlum angustlfollum In Louisiana

Fbancib W. Pennell 16

A belated Maidenhair L. S. Hopkins 17

Notes and News 18

American Fern Society 20

The Journal for 1913 23



ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION, 90 CENTS t FOREIGN, |f.00

AUBURNDALE, BOSTON, MASS.

Application for entty as second class matter at the Aubumdale, Mass.
Post Office. x6 P 191 X, under the Act of March 3» 1879.



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WU American Wttn ^octetp



Exettitittr (Smsttrtt

OFFICERS FOR 1913

Robert A. Wars, 246 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. P^-esident
NEI.WE MiRiCK, Oneida, N. Y. - - Vice-president

I^BWis S. Hopkins, A.M., Kent, Ohio. - - Secretary

Haroi^d G. Rugg, Hanover, N. H. - - • Treasurer



Aihttsorti (Siimtdl
Past Prcsiocnts
C. E. Waters, Ph.D., Bur. Standards, Washington, D.C. Chairnmn
Wm. R. Maxon - U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C
J. H. Ferriss - - - - - Joliet, 111.

E. J. WiNSi^ow - - - Aubumdale, Mass.

J. A. Bates ... South Royalston, Mass.

Phiwp DowElri*. Ph.D. - . Port Richmond, N.Y.



Curator of the Herbarium
L. S. Hopkins .... Kent, Ohio.



OFFICIAL ORGAN

laimertcan Jf em Journal

5[ An illustrated quarterly devoted to the general study
of ferns. Subscription, 1913, including membership in
the AMERICAN FERN SOCIETY, $1.00, or without
membership, 90 cents. Foreign subscriptions 10 cents
a year extra. Volume I, six parts, $1.40; Volume
II, four parts, $1.00. Send subscriptions to E. J.
WiNSLow, Aubumdale, Mass. Send matter for publica-
tion to R. C. Benedict, 2979 Decatur Ave., N. Y. City.



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Ammrmt Iffmt Jotrrnal

Vol.3 JANUARY. 1913 No 1

Polypodium speluncae L. A question of
nomenclature

CARL CHRISTENSEN

During the preparation of a supplement to my Index
Filieum, which I hope will be issued within the summer
of 1913, I came upon several corrections to the nomen-
clature of the Index, pointed out by different pteridolo-
gists during the last six years. Many of these corrections
are right and will be taken up in the supplement, others
are in my opinion unjustified. I can not, of course, pro-
test against all false binomials, but shall confine myself to
protest against a single one, which has appeared in the
American Fern Journal. The case is very illustrative
because it shows: (1) how new combinations can be pub-
lished in a very tedious manner, even by an American,
and (2) on what superficial reasons a pteridologist, though
commonly very exact and consequent, has arrived at his
results.

In an article on Bermuda ferns, H. G. Rugg^ uses the
name Dryopteris speluncae (L.) Und. As far as I can find,
that combination was never used by Underwood in his
papers on ferns, but it may, of course, have been pub-
lished by another author in a publication unknown to me.
This being the case, Mr. Rugg is correct in using the name,
but I believe that the name appears for the first time in



^ This Journal 2: 16-18. 1912.
[No. 4 of the Journal (2: 97-128) was issued Oct. 1912].

1



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2 American Eern Journal

Mr. Rugg's article,* and the question is then: Can the
new binomial be considered rite published? I answer:
No! No one not very familiar with tropical ferns can
know which species Rugg is speaking about, because he
does not quote even one synonym. I seriously protest
against that kind of publishing of new names. In a paper
of purely phytogeographical contents, the author ought
to use such binomials only that are published before.
An instance of a correct publication of a new name ap-
peared in the same number of the Journal, viz., in Mr.
Maxon's paper on Polypodium Saffordii.

But now as to the combination Dryopteris speluncae (L.)
Und. itself, I shall shortly again try to show that it is
founded on a false base. In my paper on some Swartzian
ferns,^ I have dealt with the question once before. The
question being of special interest to American pteridolo-
gists I shall here repeat my conclusions about the matter
in English.

Underwood wrote in 1907 the following:^ "We repro-
duce here a single plate [i. e, Plukenet tab. 244] from the
latter, which is just now interesting because it figures a
fern peculiar to the caves of Bermuda and named from
that circumstance {Polypodium speluncae L.), but one
which jugglers of the past generation of botanists have
placed outside its proper species, genus and even tribe,
and have attributed to nearly all parts of the tropical
world except, alas, the very island from which it origi-
nally came!*\ It is probable that Mr. Rugg has used
the combination Dryopteris speluncae (L.) Und. on the



* If this is the case, the responsibility belongs not to Rugg but
to Benedict, to whom, as noted in the paper, the material had
been referred for partial identification. Ed.

^Arkiv^Bot. 9:" 6,7. 1910.

2 Pop. Sci. Monthly 70 : 504. 1907.



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Christensen: Polypodium spelunca L. 3

authority of Underwood believing that Underwood's
statement in the sentences quoted above was right. Let
us then examine the matter from the bottom.

Polypodium speluncae was named by Linnaeus in the
first edition (1753) of Species Plantarum, p. 1093, and
described thus: ^^ Polypodium fronde supradecomposita
pilosa: foliis lanceolatis pimiatis: pinnis oppositis pnna-
tifidis. FL Zeyl, 384.^' 'Filix bermudensis elegans ra-
mosa pinnis rarioribus dentatis, cauliculis muscosa lami-
gme obductis. Pluk. aim. 155 t. 244 f. 2.'' ''Habitat
in Indiis.^'

Hereafter it is evident that the species was described
first in FL Zeyl. 384, and that the Indian plant described
there is that species, which Linnaeus in Spec. Plant, gives
the specific name: spelunca. In Flora Zeylanica, a
work of Linnaeus, published in 1748, we find, p. 182,
imder No. 384 a ''Polypodium fronde supradecomposita
pilosa, foliolis lanceolatis pinnatis, pinnis pinnatifidis, '^
and following other quotations we find again a reference
to Plukenet, but now quoted thus: "Filix bermudensis
elegans ramosa, pinnis rarioribus profunde dentatis spel-
unca rupium innascens, caulculis muscosa lamigine
ohdxiciis— Pluk, Aim. 155 t. 2U /• 2. Certo. "

The word "certo" (certainly, surely) means that
Linnaeus was convinced that his species, collected in Ceylon
(or India) by P. Hermannus, was the same as that plant
from Bermuda figured by Plukenet, and therefore he
later on took his specific name from Plukenet's short
description. But Linnaeus was not correct. Plukenet's
plate figures what is generally known as Dryopteris ampla
(Willd.) 0. Ktze., a species not at all occurring in
East India, whence Polypodium speluncae came! The
explanation of Underwood^s mistake is, I think, that he
had overlooked the quotation: ''Fl. Zeyl. 384'' in Spec.
Plant, which follows immediately after the diagnosis.



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4 American Fern Journal

Polypodium speluncae L. was first by Moore identified
with Davallia polypodiodes Hk., which species is since
commonly called Microlepia speluncae. Whether Moore
was correct in that identification is mifortunately^not
quite sure. According to B. D. Jackson,^ no specimen of
P, spelunca is to be found in the Linnaean Herbarium.

Summary: The combination Dryopteris speluncae (L.)
Und. is not well founded, and it ought not to have been
published. The Bermuda plant is probably D, ampla,
as given in my forthcoming revision of the American de-
compound species of Dryopteris, Polypodium speluncae
L. may be the species generally called Microlepia speluncae
(L.) Moore, but this is not proved, certainly it is not D.
ampla,

Copenhagen, December, 1912.



Wayside ferns of the Dolomites

C. A. WEATHERBY

The route through the Dolomite region, which is usu-
ally followed by travelers arriving from the south, runs
from Belluno in northeastern Italy, where the railway
stops, by way of Cortina and the new ^^ Dolomites Road, "
to Bozen in the valley of the Adige. Geologically speak-
ing, it hardly touches the real Dolomites at all. For three-
quarters of its length, it traverses a belt of **more or less
pure** Triassic limestone which .wholly lacks the high
percentage of magnesium characteristic of true dolomite.
For the latter part of the way, on the descent through
the Eggenthal to Bozen, the prevailing rock is a rather
close-grained, purplish porphyry, in appearance very like



^ Index to the Linnaean Herbarium. Proceedings of the Linnaean
Soc. London 124th Session 1912: 120. 1912.



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Weatherby: Ferns OF THE Dolomites 5

the African porphyry with which the ancient Romans
were wont to decorate their temples and baths. This is
a siliceous rock, containing very little lime.

If the name of the *' Dolomites Road "is, scientifically,
something of a misnomer, no exception can be taken to
the scenery which it displays. The first few miles out
of Belluno are, indeed, comparatively uninteresting; but
once in the Ampezzo valley, one enters a region of pecu-
liar and distinctive beauty. Smooth green pastured
slopes lead up and into forests of larch, above which, in
the near distance, tower the bare rock summits of the
moimtains. They are not orthodox summits: besides
tending to a pinky gray color, somewhat frivolous for
mountains of their size and probable age, they are strangely
splintered and serrated, and fantastic in outline. Their
very names — ^Tofana, Pomogognon, Antelao — ^are strange
and as if especially designed to express the singularity
of the peaks to which they belong.

If the traveler is botanically inclined and if, as we did,
he avoids the too rapid motor-diligence and travels in
the old-fashioned way, by carriage — ^and still more if, as
in our case, his carriage is ballasted with some two hundred
and fifty pounds of driver — he will have considerable
opportunity, not only to take in the greater features of
the landscape, but to observe the abundant and varied
vegetation by the way. Our journey was made in June,
and our eyes were first caught and long held by the pro-
fusion of gaily-colored flowers in the mowing-fields at the
bottom of the valley.

When we had somewhat recovered from the impression
made by their abundance and their very real beauty, we
were moved to uneasy reflections by these flowers. For
the fields which they completely overrun are evidently
hay-fields; and I, at least, had been accustomed to sup-
pose that hay should be made of grass. But here it is



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6 American Fern Journal

made of — to name its more prominent constituents —
blue sage, yellow-rattle, a species or two of the Legumi-
nosaCj a lousewort, globe-flowers, a very dark purple
columbine, a pale lavender plantain, an occasional hare-
bell or Phyteuma, two or three species of Orchis, an under-
growth of Euphrasia and Viola tricolor and two or three
composites of the hawkweed persuasion, thrown in for
good measure. Grass is, apparently, a negligible ele-
ment. The Dolomite cows must need all their stomachs
to dispose properly of so mixed a diet. However, we
were forced to conclude that it agreed with them; for
they produce excellent butter and are expert mountain-
climbers in addition.

A great part of my own wayside observations was
devoted to ferns, since most of the species in that group
were either familiar to me or readily recognizable. In
the Ampezzo valley, the commonest species was Cystop-
teris fragilis — so common that my notes dismiss t with
the single word " everywhere. '^

A good second, in point of abundance, was the wall-rue
spleenwort, Asplenium Ruia-muraria. To one who lives
in a sandy New England valley, and is obliged to travel
many miles and to seek out certain particular ledges in
order to get a sight of it, the abimdance of this species
in the southern Tyrol is positively disconcerting. It grows
vulgarly as a weed, in the crevices of every old wall and
on every rocky bank. We reahzed how well it deserved
its old name of "Wall-rue.'' It is extraordinarily toler-
ant of differences in degree of light, growing, with appar-
ently equal satisfaction, on the open roadside and on
densely shaded boulders in the woods. In America, it
is pretty strictly a Hme-loving plant; but according to
Dalla Torre and Sarntheim's "Flora von Tirol,'' it is
here also tolerant of chemically different substrata. It
is said to occur frequently about Bozen on porphyritic



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Weatherby: Ferns of the Dolomites 7

rocks which show no effervescence when tested with acid,
and far from any source of calcareous sediment. As
would be expected in a plant of so diverse habitat, it
develops considerable differences in the size and shape of
the fronds and numerous named varieties are recorded
in local floras.

A frequent companion of the wall-rue on walls and way-
sides is the maiden-hair spleenwort, Asplenium Tricho-
manes. It does not, however, penetrate the woods.
There, on shaded, mossy boulders and ledges, its place is
taken by Asplenium viridej distinguishable at a glance by
its green rachis. A, viride seems to prefer not only more
shaded situations, but also higher altitudes, than A.
Trichomanes.

Another frequent species of open rich woods is Phegop-
teris Robertiana, The ''Flora von TiroP' reports Ph,
Dryopteris as also common in the region which we tra-
versed. Even with our leisurely m.anner of traveling,
we could not*stop to search for glands on every specimen
of beech fern we passed, nor always make out clearly the
outline of the frond from our m.oving carriage; but all the
plants I saw seemed to be, and all that I examined surely
were, Ph, Robertiana, In moist places in the woods, in-
dividual specimens sometimes attain a remarkably large
size for this species — so large that, from a little distance,
it would be easy to mistake them for small plants of
Pteris aquilina.

The bracken, though occasional all along our route,
was nowhere abimdant and, when seen, was somewhat
small and starved looking. Nowhere were there such
thickets of fronds shoulder-high as may be seen in Eng-
land. Another familiar species, Asplenium Filix-feminay
was similarly occasional throughout our course but never
in great quantity.

From Cortina in the upper Ampezzo valley, we made a



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8 American Fern Journal

side excursion, over an exceedingly rough wood-road, to
a place where an ancient and insecure wooden bridge,
high up over a turbulent stream, coromands a view of
distant mountains, framed in by the sides of a wild and
wooded ravine. It also conmianded a view of the finest
and most completely inaccessible sipecimens oi Asplenium
viride I ever saw. Here, in rocky woods, were several
trim clumps of the holly fern, Polystichum Lonchitis,
looking like a smaller, neater and more elegant edition
of our own Christmas fern. Here, too, in a cold springy
place by the roadside, where the ground was covered with
the interlaced stems of an alpine willow, Salix reticulataj
were large patches of the pretty fern-ally, Selaginella
selaginoides.

Our last stopping-place* before reaching Bozen was at
Karersee, near the sununit of the watershed between the
Fassathal and the Eggenthal. The "See^^ is insignificant
— ^nowhere, I believe, are tinier bodies of water dignified
with the name of "lake" than in the eastern Alps — but
the forest which surroimds it is magnificent. It is a pure,
not very dense stand of tall old Norway spruces. It
shows no obvious signs of having ever been lumbered
and, unlike most forests of this region, none of having been
pastured. The groimd imder the trees is covered with
unimaginable quantities of deep, soft moss, in which
grow delightful woodland plants. The most interesting,
perhaps, was a little orchid, Listera cordata^ which here
occurred in abundance, in two forms, one with green, the
other with brownish flowers. Here were old friends —
the wood sorrel, Oxalis Acetosella, Lycopodium annotinum
and, in the way of ferns proper, Dryopteris spinulosa and
Phegopteris polypodioides, both seen only here. Here,
too, we saw for the first time Dryopteris Filix-mas and
for the only time, the delicate triangular fronds of Cysto-
pteris montana.



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Weatherby: Ferns of the Dolomites 9

After leaving Karersee, we passed out of the limestone
belt into the porphyry and at once a familiar fern, Poly-
podium vulgare, hitherto unseen, made its appearance.
All down the Eggenthal it clothed the tops of boulders
and fringed the crests of ledges, quite in New England
fashion. At Klobenstein, near Bozen, we were pleased
to find that queer fern, Asplenium septentrionale. It
grew in the crevices of a loosely laid stone wall, in the
full glare of the sun, its crowded linear fronds looking
Hke tufts of coarse grass.

And with it, we saw the last of our Dolomite ferns.

East Hartford, Conn.



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10 American Fern Journal

AMERfCAN Fern Journal Vol. 3, Plate 1



SCHIZAEA AT HOME



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Schizaea pusilla In its natural surroundings

R. C. Benedict

Schizaea pimUa — sometimes called "curly grass/' is
perhaps our most elusive fern. It occurs in only a few
very limited regions, — Newfoundland, New Jersey. It
is also the most diminutive and least conspicuous of all
our ferns. Possibly it is more wide-spread than has been
supposed as it might readily escape the notice even of a
careful searcher.

The plant shown in the plate was found last July near
the Toms River, New Jersey. The species had been
found there before, and the writer was guided in his
search by the careful directions of one of the earlier visi-
tors to the locality. One discrepancy between the lo-
cality as described and as found last summer was dis-
covered when it was found that according to the direc-
tions, the route lay through a pond of some acres extent
on which no boat was available. As was learned later,
this pond is a temporary affair, and is filled or emptied
according to the exigencies of cranberry culture.

The important landmark, according to the directions,
was a railroad embankment. This was visible the other
end of the pond, and was reached finally after a consider-
able detour. For the benefit of those who may wish to
hunt for Schizaea^ let me describe in some detail the actual
surroundings under which it grew at that particular lo-
cality.

The pond lay in a hollow only a little lower than the
adjoining tract. Along two sides, the ground was at
that time very dry and covered with blueberries and scrub
oak. Along the railroad embankment, the marginal
ground was very moist, with scattered patches of sphag-

11



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12 American Fern Journal

num. The soil here was sandy. In this section, within
a rod of the railroad, Schizaea was found. At first, only a
very small plant was discovered, later more and larger
ones were found. The plant shown in the picture was
not the largest clump, but it was of good size, and was in
a better position than some for photographing. The
plants noted all grew partially shaded. It may be noted
in passing that they needed shade. That particular


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