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the whole a scabrous appearance.

(b. 1.) Naked or with very few scattered, spread-
ing hairs, surface smooth, polished darker than in

(1. 1.)

Fertile Pinnae:

(1. 1.) Upper, simple, stalked except the topmost
pair, narrowly lanceolate or oblong to linear, reaching

5 X 45 mm, smooth and pure green above, light
green or whitish below with scattered, colorless
hairs on the midvein, many halberd shaped or
forked. Apex acute, base truncate or slightly
cordate. Lower pinnae pinnate with one to five
pairs of ovate to lanceolate pinnules. Stalks of
compound pinnae up to 2 cm. long.

(b. 1.) Upper pinnae ovate to elliptical, some-
times oblong, rarely larger than 4 x 20 mm., sessile
except the lower pairs, apex rounded or slightly
emarginate; base truncate or cordate, sometimes
auricled and clasping. Upper surface bluish, glau-
cous green, otherwise smooth. Lower surface
smooth with veins almost free from hairs at all
ages. Lower pinnae completely or incompletely
pinnate with ovate pinnules or broad rounded
Sterile Pinnae:

(1. 1.) Upper pinnae simple, ovate-oblong to
oblong, up to 12 X 25 mm. Margin strongly
crisped with a narrow (.25 mm.) membranaceous
border. Apex rounded or acutish, base cordate.
All but the top pair are stalked with stalks up to

6 mm. in length. Upper surface, smooth, true

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100 American Fern Journal

green and showing the veins more plainly than in
the broad leaf form. Lower surface, whitish green
and smooth except the midveiri which has many
long, scattered, colorless hairs. Lowest pinnae
compound with one or two pairs of pinnules in
every way like the simple pinnae.

(b. 1.) Simple pinnae, cordate to ovate or ellipti-
cal, up to 8 X 15 mm. Margin, plane with a wider
(.5 mm.) membranaceous border. Apex, broadly
rounded to emarginate; base cordate or clasping.
Pinnae crowded or overlapping, blue-glaucous above,
smooth and slightly lighter green below. Lower
pinnae lobed or pinnate with orbicular or cordate
pinnules, sometimes short stalked.
Scales at Base:

(1. 1.) Linear, two to ten cells wide at base and
extending into very long and slender tips, colorless
or yellow, rusty in mass.

(b. 1.) Linear-lanceolate, ten to twenty cells wide
at base, without the long slender tips, orange to
b I own in color.

Spores :

(1. 1.) 47-62 ti X 58-78 ti, ovoid, with a few promi-
nent, uneven ridges, giving the spores a ragged

(b. 1.) 58-78 ti X 79-109 ti, obscurely tetrahedral,
with numerous slight ridges, appearing almost
smooth and darker than the (1. 1.) form.
Culture experiments are now in progress to determine
whether or not there are differences in gametophytic
structure. The results of these will be reported later.
The original descriptions are not available here, but
taking Eaton's description as a basis it seems that the
(1. 1.) form is nearer the type, varying from the descrip-
tion in the acute tips of the fertile pinnae, the longer

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American Fern Society 101

and rather narrower sterile pinnae with strongly crisped
margin, and the presence of many appressed hairs on
the stipe. Probably the nearest description of the
(b. 1.) form is that of P. glabella by Mettenius and Kuhn;
but the writer has not seen the full text of that descrip-
tion. Eaton considers P. glabella as a regional form of
P, atropurpurea. If the (b. 1.) form is the same as P.
glabella it is certainly distinct enough for consideration.
If it does not fit that description it is certainly worthy
of a place as a form or variety of P. atropurpurea and
might probably be designated as var. latifolia of that

Any notes of similar forms found elsewhere or any
suggestions as to diagnosis will be very welcome.
BoT. Dep. Indiana University,
Bloomington, Indiana.

American Fern Society

East Hartford, Conn., July 19, 1914.
To C. H. Bissel,

President American Fern Society:
The detailed vote on the revision of the Constitution
of the American Fern Society is as follows:

Total number of votes cast 62

Necessary for adoption 42

For 60

Against 2

The revised Constitution is therefore adopted.

C. A. Weathers Y, Secretary,


Acting in accordance with the result of vote as an-
nounced by your Secretary, I hereby declare that the
revised Constitution, as presented by your committee,
Mr. R. A. Ware and Mr. E. J. Winslow, has been regu-
larly adopted and is now the recognized and official
Constitution of the American Fern Society.

C. H. BissELL, President.

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102 American Fern Journal

To the Members:

Your president has had two matters brought to his
attention on which it seems desirable to get an expres-
sion of the wishes of the members. One is as to whether
the Fern Society shall hold a meeting at Philadelphia in
connection with the meeting of the American Associa-
tion for the Advancement of Science, Dec. 28th to Jan.
2d; the other is as to whether the Fern Society shall
hold a meeting in connection with those to be held by
other natural history societies at San Francisco in
April next year. It is desirable that your officers should
be informed as to whether there would be a probable
attendance at such meetings sufficient to justify arrang-
ing for them.

Will not all members who think they could attend
either of these meetings, if held, send a postal giving
the information to the Secretary of the Fern Society,
so that your officers may be able to act intelligently.

C. H. BissELL, President.

George F. Cleveland was killed by electric shock at
Miraflores Locks, on the Panama Canal, on May 23,

Mr. Cleveland was born in Oneonta, N. Y., in 1876.
From his earliest boyhood he was deeply interested in
the natural sciences, and while at Brown University
became a member of the Louis Agassiz Society. He
was the possessor of a large collection of Lepidoptera
of the United States, and, later, of the Isthmus of
Panama. Entomology was always his favorite hobby.
About eight years ago he became interested in the study
of ferns, and joined the Fern Society.

His last four years were spent in the service of the
Isthmian Canal Commission at Porto Bello, Panama,
and his life was lost in the service of his country.

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American Fern Society 103

The Annual Field Meeting
West Englewood, New Jersey, July 15, 1914.

Owing to the unpropitious weather conditions on the
day appointed for the field meeting, the attendance at
the actual point of rendezvous was somewhat meagre,
although quite a number of members of the Society
were in New York.

Pennsylvania alone was represented at West Engle-
wood by one member.

On this member then devolves the pleasant duty of
reporting the proceedings for the Society.

The editor of the Fern Journal had made every
necessary arrangement for the meeting and had notified
the Germantown members and others interested, of
the details on the Friday preceding the date of the pro-
posed event. Fitful showers ushered in the week,
throughout the whole territory adjacent to New York,
and on the eve of the day appointed for the field meet-
ing the rain fell in torrents so that the proposed trip
assumed the complexion of an elimination race in which
the honors would go to the swift and the battle to the

The member from Pennsylvania left Philadelphia on
the 5:25 train, Wednesday morning, arriving at head-
quarters in New York at eight o'clock, and at the Forty-
second Street Ferry at half past eight, five minutes before
the appointed time for the departure of the train for
the last leg of the journey. No other members were
there and on signaling the S. 0. S. wireless ''Flatbush
668M,'' established by the editor for the benefit of mem-
bers, the member from Pennsylvania learned that
owing to weather conditions and the non-arrival * of
members, the trip had been declared "off'' for the

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104 American Fern Journal

day, details being given for the trip of the Torrey Club to
Staten Island the day following.

The train for West Englewood was ready, however,
and the Pennsylvania member proceeded to that point
and opened the meeting a la solitaire. The roll call was
then taken up, beginning with the Empire State with
its fifty-six members, and no answers being heard Massa-
chusetts providing the treasurer of the Society was
polled without response. Then Pennsylvania with its
twenty members, third in point of numbers, was called,
responding with one resonent "present" that made the
welkin ring, or words to that effect. Of course, the pro-
ceedings were held entirely in "Soliloquy,'^ the only
audible disturbance, the sighing of the humid, ambient
air through the antler like foliage of the "Bull Moose
hybrid" Onoclea sensibilis protruding from the neigh-
boring thicket.

Roll call finished and a quorum "counted," new
business was taken up and discussion opened (a la Sel-
kirk, of course) as to the selection of a suitable fern floral
emblem for the great Commonwealth of Pennsylvania,
an idea suggested by the Germantown Independent
Gazette. All fern students present agreed that Penn-
sylvania, the Keystone State of the arch of the Repub-
lic, with its one hundred named species and varieties of
ferns should have for its official and eternal floral emblem
some member of its interesting fern flora.

W. A. Poyser, in his fern flora of Pennsylvania, says
"From the standpoint of the fern student the flora is a
most interesting one. The geographical position of the
State is such that quite a number of northern species
find their southern limit within its borders while some
southern forms just pass north of its limits giving it a
goodly admixture."

Within the boundaries too of the Keystone State are
the type stations of Asplenium pinnatifidurrij Isoetes

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American Fern Society 105

ripariaj Nephrodium cristatum x Goldieanum and
Asplenium ebenoides.

The work of selecting from the checkUst of its fern
flora the plant most suitable to typify the floral char-
acteristics of the State and foster in the minds of its
school children a state pride and patriotism as suggested
by House Bill 888 was the question before the meeting.
(All this in soliloquy.) What fern then should be chosen?
Not Asplenium pinatifidum — not Isoetes riparia — not
Asplenium ebenoides — not Nephrodium cristatum x
Goldianum — not any one of these but all of them,
together with the rich and varied fern flora of American
Ferns. '*The Fern" simply should be chosen as the
emblem. Pennsylvania, Penn's woods, Pennsylvania!
with its

''Rocks and rills; its woods and templed hills'*

nominates, appropriate and proclaims as its official
floral emblem ''The Fern."

The day was half gone and no other member appear-
ing, the sole representative of the Society was graciously
put aboard a returning train by Dr. M. S. Ayres, the
village host, and the 1914 field meeting had passed into
history. The following belated members were found
next day at the "Shore Day" outing of The Torrey
Club: Dr. and Mrs. N. L. Britton, Miss Pauline Kauf-
man, Prof. R. A. Harper, Dr. Marshall A. Howe, Dr.
Ralph C. Benedict, Norman Taylor, and the member
from Pennsylvania.

Germantown, Pa. James Grimshaw Scott.

July 18, 1914.

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106 American Fern Journal

New Members

Laird, J. A., 274 X. Goodman St., Rochester, N. Y.
Leibelsperger, W. 11., Fleetwood, Pa.
Marshall, Dr. Ruth, Rockford College, 111.

Changed and Corrected Addresses

Flynn, Mrs. Nellie F., 2.51 S. WiUard St., BurUngton, Vt.

Jennev, Hon. Chas. F., Court House, Boston, Mass.

Mansfield, Miss Nellie F., 168 Neal St., Portland, Me.

Mattem, Edwin S., and Walter, 1042 Walnut St., Allentown, Pa.

Moxley, Geo. L., 526 W. Ave. 53, Los Angeles, Cal. (As in
Annual List, changed inadvertently in preceding number.)

Robinson, Miss Winifred J., Women's College of Delaware, New-
ark, Del.

Spalding, Mrs. William, 405 Comstock Ave., Syracuse, N. Y.

Satchwell, Mrs. M. W., 143 West 6th St., Jacksonville, Fla.

Steere, Mrs. Wm. W., 10 Holmfield Ave., Mattapan, Mass.


Cleveland, George F., at Miraflores Locks, Panama, May 23>
Knauff, Mrs. Martha Ryland, at Pensacola, Florida, Dec, 1913.

Additions to the Herbarium

Mrs. M. A. Noble, of Inverness, Florida, recently sent a small
contribution to the Society Herbariiun. The lot included two
species of Asplenium, A. firmum, and A. myriophjllum, which were
new to the herbarium.

The four-page leaflet accompanying the present
number is designed to aid members in advertising
the Fern Society and the Journal. A large number
were printed and members who know of people to whom
they might be of interest are urged to send to Mr.
Winslow for as many as may be needed, or to send him
addresses to which it would be worth while to send
copies of the leaflet or sample copies of the Journal.

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Ambrican Fern Society 107

Notice to Delinquent Members.

The attention of the members is called to the provi-
sion of the new Constitution as to delinquent members.
The Council will feel obliged to enforce the rules and
this is the last number of the Journal which will be
sent to members who are too far in arrears.

C. H. BissELL, President,

The election of new officers this year will be the first
to be held under the new Constitution. It is to be
hoped that a large number of members may avail them-
selves of the opportunity of voting.

Notice should be taken of the change in price of back
numbers indicated on the second page of the cover.
The need of increasing the price brings realization of the
fact that the Journal is now in its fifth year of publi-
cation, the first number having been issued in August,
1910. With another number the fourth volume will
be completed. It may be of interest to note that the
copy for this number is entirely assured, the greater
part of it being already in galley proof. It was most
desirable to keep the present number within the space
of twenty-four or twenty-eight pages in order to com-
plete the year entirely on the income at present absolutely
assured. But it proved difficult to cut the present num-
ber, so the paring will have to fall on the last number for
the year, unless some generous member is moved to
send the treasurer a money order (check will probably
be accepted) to cover any deficit caused by last number.
If only the delinquents referred to in the paragraph
above would meet their obligations, we could issue not

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108 American Fern Journal

merely a thirty-two page number but forty-eight or

The editor regrets that the present number of the
Journal has been delayed past the end of the quarter
in which it was scheduled to appear, especially as this is
probably the first time such delay has occurred. Re-
sponsibility for the delay does not, however, rest with
him, nor can it fairly be assigned to any other single
individual or agency. It was the result of a number
of slight delays due to different causes, and all of them
more or less excusable of themselves. We trust no
apology may be necessary with the next issue.

Wanted — I will pay 10 cents per sheet for any North
American pteridophytes not now in my collection, or
will exchange. List of desiderata sent upon applica-
tion. — L. S. Hopkins, 525 E. Main St., Kent, Ohio.

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ineliMliiig BvUdia, Mtmoin. and Tomjt, $5.00 • yetf


Biill^tiii. Monthly, established 1870. Price, |3.00 a year;
single nnmbers 80 cents. Of former volumes, only 24-40 can be
supplied separately. Manuscripts intended for publication in the
Bvu^BXis should be addressed to Prop. A. W. Evans, Editor,
Yale University, New Haven, Conn.

Torreya. Monthly, established 1901. Price, |1.00 a year.
Manuscripts intended for publication in Torreya should be
addressed to Norman Tayi^r, Editor, Central Museum, Eastern
Parkway, Brooklyn, N, Y.

Mamoirs. Occasional, established 1889. Price, $3.00 a volume.

Praliminary Catalogue of Anthophytaand Pteridophyta within
100 mUes of New York City, 1838. Price, $1.00.

Subscriptions and other business communications should be
addressed to the Treasurer, Bernard O. Dodge, Dept. of Botany,
Columbia University, N. Y. City.


Devoted exclusively to the seed-bearing plants and ferns.
Many illustrated articles. Special attention is given to the re-
describing and illustrating of old species not well tmderstood.
Sample copies may be had for the asking. Send in your sub-
scription now, and do not wait until it is impossible to ob-
tain a full set of the journal, or even one volume. Price, |1.00
a volume. Now in the 9th volume.

Send subscriptions to

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Box 853, Chico, California

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It ii a 16-20-page bimonthly devoted to the study of the Mosses,
Hepatics, and Xichens. Fully illustrated with original drawings
ana half-tones; it is indispensable to the working bryologist,
professional or amateur. Sample copies on request; subscription
price $1.25 a year in the United States, with membership in the
Sullivant Moss Society, $1.60.

Address Dr. O. E. JENNINGS,
Carnegie naseuni, Pittsburght Pa.

i8 West 89tli St., New York City


ANNA B. COMSTOC1C, Pnsiilent



D«vot«d prlmarly to all scientific studies of
Nature to Elementary Schools



Cemstock Publishing Company Ithaca, New York.

BOTANISTS.— We have supplied Driers, Mounting Papers,
Genus Covers and all essentials for Botanical Work for Thirty

We were never so well equipped to supply you with Prime
Material at reasonable prices and for immediate shipment.

CATALOGS No. 93 and No. 92 will be of interest to you.

SAMPLES of Driers, Genus Covers and Mounting Papers
sent on request. Special Discounts to subscribers of this Jomnal,

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Cambridge Botanical Supply Company

Laboratory Equipment


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JAN 4 19V3

Vol. 4 October-December 1914 No. 4

Kmmtm 3nn Sfnurnal

PuUlahed hy tlu


n. J. WINSLOW, Managing Editor


The Ferns of the Brazos Canyon, New Mexico ( Plates 1 and 2)

P. C Standubt 109

Notes on the Ferns of the Champlain Valley S. F. Biaks 116

Fern nomenclature C T. Drxhsst 119

What is the habitat of Ophioglossum vulgatum?

R. C. Benedict 121

Mr. Dniery on Fern Nomenclature and on the Collection
of ferns for Herbarium purposes R. C. Benedict 123

American Fern Society 125

Index to Volume 4 12



Hntered as second class matter at the Auburndale, branch of the Boston,
MaM. Post Office, under the Act of March 3, 2879.

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Qltje Amedcan Jffern Botittp

Cbnmril for 1914


C. H. BissElfZ., Southington, Conn. ... President

Nbixib Mirick. Ooeida« NY. - - Vice-president

C A. Weathbrby, East Hartford, Conn. - - Secretary

F. G. Fi^OYD, 325 Park St, West Roxbury, Mass. - Treasurer


amtrican Jftrn Journal


Rai«ph C. Benedict, 23()3 Newkirk Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.


E. J. WiNSifOW ... Aoburndale, Mass.

An illustrated quarterly devoted to the general study of ferns.

Subscription. 1914, including membership in the AMERICAN
FERN SOCIETY, $1.00, or without membership, 90, cents. For-
eign subscriptions 10 cents a year extra. All remittances by
check draft, except on New York or Boston, must include 10 cents
additional for cost of collection. Extracted reprints, if ordered in
advance, will be furnished authors at cost.

Volume I, six numbers, $2.00; Volumes II and III, four num-
bers each, $1.00 apiece; The set of three volumes $8 60 Single
back numbers 30 cents each. Note: Volume I, number 3, cannot
be supplied except with complete volume.

Matter for publication should be addressed toR. C. Benedict,
2303 Newkirk Avenue, Brooklyn. N. Y.

Subscriptions, orders for back numbers, and other business
communications should be addressed to E. J. WinsW)w, Auburn-
dale, Mass.

L. S. Hopkins .... Kent, Ohio.

A regular loan department is maintained in connection with
the Society herbarium. Members may borrow specimens from it
at any time, the borrower paying all postal or express charges.
The pages of the Journal are also open to members who wish to ar-
range exchanges; a membership list is published each year to fur-
ther assist those interested in obtaining specimens from different

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American Fkrn Jouknal. Vol. 4. No. 4.

Plate 1. — A Scene in Brazos Canyon.

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Am^riran 3nn Scmnnl


The Ferns of Brazos Canyon, New Mexico *

By Paul C. Standley

Brazos Canyon is located in northern Rio Arriba
County, New Mexico, eight miles east and north of the
county seat, Tierra Amarilla. It is perhaps 30 miles
south of the Colorado line, about half way across the
State, the nearest railroad station being Chama, twenty-
two miles to the north. In 1911 the writer spent ten
days at Chama, for the purpose of collecting plants, and
in August and September, 1914, in company with Mr.
H. C. Bollman, he camped for four weeks along the
Brazos River, near the mouth of the canyon proper.
Although the camping expedition was primarily a vaca-
tion trip, a large collection of plants was secured, several
of which were not known previously from the State.
The most interesting group in the region is the ferns.
During recent years large collections of plants have
been made in many parts of New Mexico, and since
most collectors pay particular attention to ferns a large
number are known to occur in the State. Consequently,
the writer was much surprised to find two additions to
the fern flora.

The Rio Brazos is a good-sized mountain stream of
clear, cold water, which dashes down over great boulders,

* Published by permission of the Secretary of the Smithsonian

[No. 2 of the Journal (4: 41-76) was issued June 9. 1914.1


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110 American Fern Journal

forming here and there deep, dark green pools, and
finally reaching the valley of the Chama River, where
it becomes slower and shallow. For most of its course
it traverses a high plateau, through which it has cut a
deep, narrow gorge, in some places not more than a
hundred yards wide, bounded by vertical cliffs from two
to three thousand feet high. Viewed from a short dis-
tance the cliffs appear nearly bare of vegetation, aside
from the scattered spruces that have gained a precarious
footing in earth-filled crevices, but a closer inspection
shows them covered with small lichens, whose colors
take on intenser hues in wet weather and produce a
conspicuous change in the coloration of the rocks.
Narrow crevices in these rocks are a favorite habitat
of several ferns. The summits of the cliffs and their
basal slopes, where the canyon widens, support a heavy
plant growth which can be readily divided into two
Ufe zones. The **box'' of the canyon proper, the higher
slopes of the mountains, as well as their northern slopes
at lower levels, and the banks of the streams, are densely
covered with vegetation characteristic of the Canadian
Zone. The trees here are the Rocky Mountain white
pine (Pinus flexilis) J Colorado blue spruce {Picea Parry-
ana) j Douglas spruce (Pseudotsuga mucronata), white
fir {Abies concolor), and aspen (Populus aurea). The
plant Ufe of the lower slopes and of the great rock slides
at the base of the cliffs is typical of the Transition Zone.
The only tree is the Rocky Mountain yellow pine {Pinus
brachyptera) J except along the streams, whose banks are
fringed with the mountain cottonwood {Populus angusti-
folia) . Beneath the pines there is usually a thick shrubby
undergrowth, composed chiefly of deciduous scrub-oaks,
with a preponderance locally of choke-cherry {Padus
melanocarpa) and service-berry {Amelanchier sp.).

In this restricted region the writer collected the twelve
species of ferns and fern aUies which are enumerated

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