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The}^ who are most jealous cannot suppose it to be their wish to
ruin themselves as well as the Country. But such must be the conse-

1 John Payne Todd, son of Mrs. jSIadison by her first husband.


quence of the war [if it] be protracted when there are means of
terminating it on any fair grounds. I am employed to assist in set-
tling the differences between Great [Britain] and the U. S. These
differences we all wish to see settled, and how could I consistently,
refuse my aid in accomplishing so desireable an end ?

If the negociation should fail (the worst event which can happen)
the nation can sustain no injury from my having been a member of
the mission. / can only he called wpon to attest the true grounds
upon which the negociation may have terminated, and it certainly
will be important to the country to be informed of the truth upon
the subject.

I have ventured to flatter myself that it was possible that I might
do some good, and that it was next to impossible that I could do any
harm. Sensible that nothing has or can enter into my views upon tha
occasion unconnected with the honor, interest and welfare of our
Country, I cannot feel apprehensive of losing, while I am confident
that I shall never deserve to forfeit, the confidence of my political

Monroe to Bayard.

Department of State,

Afril 26, 1S13.

Sir : The cypher which I herewith forward to you, is the same as
that used by Mr. Adams. Such public documents as it is supposed
ma}^ be useful in the execution of your functions, have been put under
an unsealed cover to Mr. Harris, the Secretary of the Mission, and
will, of course, at all times be accessible to you. Blank paper for
passports, with the Seal of this Department and my signature, which
I now transmit,^ may be filled up in any form which Mr. Gallatin
and yourself may deem most proper. The printed forms, likewise
sent,^ will answer for servants. The passport for yourself, as you
will observe, is perfect.

I enclose a copy of the letter to the Bankers of the United "States
at London and Amsterdam, directing them to pay your drafts for
your salary, at the rate of 9,000$ per annum, and the contingencies
of the mission ; but if you find it more convenient, you may draw on
this Department. These different credits are given that you may
avail yourself of that which can be used to the most advantage.
The contingencies of the mission are understood to be postage, sta-
tionary, newspapers, couriers, and, if necessary, office rent, with the
usual presents to the Servants of the Court.

1 Note in original : " Sent by Mr. Todd."
* Note in original : " By Mr. Todd."

214 american histoeical association".

Monroe to Baring Brothers and Co., London, and to Willink
AND Van Staphorst, Amsterdam.


Department of State,

April 16, 1813.
Gentlemen: Albert Gallatin, John Quincy Adams, and James A.
Bayard, esquires, having been appointed Envoys Extraordinary and
Ministers Plenipotentiary of the United States, to repair to St.
Petersburg, Messrs Gallatin and Bayard have permission to draw
upon you for their Salaries, at the rate of nine thousand Dollars per
annum each. Messrs. Gallatin, Adams and Ba3'^ard, are also em-
powered to draw for the contingent expenses of the Mission; and I
have the honor to request you will pay their Bills accordingly.
Levitt Harris, esquire, is appointed Secretary to the Mission, and
is therefore authorised to draw upon you for his Salary, at the rate
of two Thousand Dollars per annum.

Monroe to Bayard.

Department of State,

April 26, 1813.

Sir: Presuming that it might be of advantage, to the young gentle-
men who may be attached to the Mission to St. Petersburg, to be
clothed with a military character, those who are to accompany Mr.
Gallatin^ have received letters of appointment in the army. With
the same view, I have now the honor to enclose a similar letter for
the young gentleman who is to accompany you on the Mission,^
whose christian name, if the appointment should be agreeable to him,
you will be pleased to insert.

P. S. — No emolument will be attached to this appointment.

Monroe to Gallatin, Adams, and Bayard.^

Department of State,

April 27th, 1813.

Gentlemen : Should Great Britain accept the mediation of Russia

and a negotiation ensue, you may perhaps find it advantageous to

bring to the view of her Ministers, the relation which the United

States bear to the Floridas, having a right to West Florida by cession

1 Gallatin's son, James, whose diary of the mission has been printed In Scribner's
Magazine, Sept. and Oct., 1914, and in a volume, "A Great Peace Maker : the Diary
of James Gallatin in Europe ", and George Mifflin Dallas, son of Alexander J. Dallas and
afterward vice-president of the United States.

2 George B. Milligan ; John Payne Todd also accompanied the ministers.
8 Printed with Gallatin's answer, in " Writings of Gallatin ", I, 539-540.


from France, and a claim to East Florida as an indemnity for spolia-
tions. The Town of Mobile, the only part of West Florida remaining
in the possession of Spain, will it is expected have been taken pos-
session of by the Troops of the United States, before you commence
your negotiation, a Law authorising it having passed Congress at
the last Session.^ And as the Law authoris[ing] the President to
take possession of East Florida, in case an attempt should be made
by any foreign power to occupy it, is still m force, it will be proper
for you to have the object of that law in your recollection in your

Monroe to Gallatin, Adams, and Bayard.

Department of State,

April 27, 1813.

Gentlemen : The President presuming that the mediation of the
Emperor of Russia may ait'ord a favorable opportunity for improv-
ing our relations with Russia herself, is disposed to avail himself of
it, so far as it may be done, to the mutual advantage of both Coun-
tries. With this view, he has thought it proper to authorise you to
enter into a Treaty of Amity and Commerce with that power.

In regulating our Commerce with Russia a reciprocation of the
right of the most favored Nation, will as it is presumed be the most
suitable ground on which to place it. The President is desirous to.
adopt it as the basis of the Treaty. Should special stipulations by
Treaty be useful, to remove any impediments to our Commerce or
Navigation in the Ports of Russia, and her Government be disposed
to remove them in that mode, you will avail yourselves of it. Should
the mode of Treaty be objected to, you will endeavour to obtain the
beneficial effect by changes in the existing laws and regulations of
the Emperor.

A good intelligence between the United States and Russia respect-
ing neutral rights, is an object of the highest importance. It is be-
lieved that it would produce the most beneficial effect on the interests
of both Countries, and indeed of all other commercial Nations. The
present mediation is considered peculiarly auspicious to such an event.
A violation of our neutral rights was among the principal causes of
the War with England. In promoting peace those rights will come
into view, in each of which the Government of Russia will form and
probably express an opinion. It is not doubted that the opinion thus
expressed will be such as might be expected from the Emperor, cor-

1 Act of Feb. 12, 1813. "Annals ", 12 Cong., 2 sess., 124, 127 ; Wilkinson, " Mem-
oirs ", III, 339-340.


rect and sound in itself, and such as ought to be satisfactory to every
other power.

Whatever stipulations you may enter into with Russia, on the sub-
ject of neutral rights, you will be careful not to commit the United
States, in any way, to maintain and enforce those rights on other
powers, or to prolong the present War with Great Britain.

MoNKOE TO Gallatin, Adams, and Bayard.

Department or State,

27th April 1813.

Gentlemen : On the presumption that you may be able to conclude
a Treaty of peace, the President has thought it expedient to authorize
you to enter likewise into a Treaty of Commerce with Great Britain.
For this purpose you are furnished with a separate commission.

It will be unnecessary for me, to enter into any detail or illustration
of this subject, with you, who have had so much experience in the
important concerns of the United States. You will endeavour to
open to our commerce, every part of the British dominions, on a foot-
ing of reciprocity and equality with each. In pursuing this object,
you will avail yoursellvjes of the light shed on the subject by the
Treaty of 1794, and its effect on the general commerce of the Country ;
by the instructions from this department to Mr. Monroe and Mr.
Pinkney of the iTth of May 1806 ^ by the project of a Treaty signed
by them with the British Commissioners on the 31st of Deer, of the
same year, and by the remarks and instructions from this Depart-
ment respecting that project.

In regulating the trade between the United States and Great
Britain you are authorized to adopt the 5th Article - of the project
above recited. Should the British Government be unwilling to regu-
late the commerce generally between the two countries, in a satisfac-
tory manner, you may apply to it the rule of the most favored na-
tion, and should the non importation act not b,e terminated by the
Treaty of peace, you may provide for it in the proposed Treaty of

Monroe to Bayard.

lA2)ril 27, 1S13.]

To all to uiJiom these 'presents shall come, Greeting :

I Certify that the Bearer hereof James A. Bayard Esquire, a Citi-
zen of the United States of America, is proceeding with his Suite to

1 "Am. St. p., For. Rel.", Ill, 119-122.

2 Ibid., 148.


St. Petersburg in Russia, in the Character of EnA^oy Extraordinary
and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States of America :
These are therefore to request all whom it may concern to act towards
him according to the law and courtesy of Nations in such cases; giv-
ing him on all occasions every necessary aid, succour and protection,
as these United States would do under similar circumstances.

In Faith whereof, I James Monroe, Secretary for the Department
of State of the United States, have signed these presents, and caused

the Seal of my office to be affixed thereto, at the City of Wash -
SEAL ington the Twenty Seventh day of x\pril in the year of our

Lord 1813; and in' the Thirty Seventh year of the Independ-
ence of the said United States.

Bayard to Monroe.

29 Apt 11813].

Sir; I have been absent some days from Wiln. having had occa-
sion to go to the city of Philad., principally with a view to some
minor arrangements which I thought it might be material to make
with Mr. Gallatin previouslj'' to our leaving the Country. Upon my
return I had the honor to receive your letter of the 24 inst.

While in the city Mr. G. shewed me the paper relative to the uni-
form of which you have pleased had the goodness to send me a Du-
plicate. It was a matter of gratification to both of us, for the reasons
which you suggested. We were both extremely satisfied, that the
Government had fixed a uniform for their foreign Ministers.

Upon the points left to our taste we decided for the embroidery in
favor of gold and of White as to colour for the undercloaths. The
time which' we understand to be limited for our departure does not
allow us to have the coats embroidered in this Country. They will
be finished in other respects according to the instructions.^

Mr. Tod has not yet arrived. It would have been desireable that
the instructions should have been in my hands a sufficient time to
have enabled me fully to consider them, in order that if anything was
doubtful as to the intention of the Government, and Mr. Gallatin and
myself should differ in our constructions, we might have an oppor-

1 The following memorandum, found among the Bayard Papers, explains what points
were left to the taste of Bayard and Gallatin : " The uniform of the American Min-

" The coat to be of blue Cloth, lined with Silk, either white or buff, standing Collar
and Single breasted. The collar, cuffs, button-holes and Pocket flaps embroidered, either
with gold or silver, and the button to correspond, (if by rule a correspondence is neces-
sary) if not, to be either white or yellow according to the decision of Mr. Gallatin and
Mr. Bayard.

" The under cloaths to be either white or buff as Mr. Gallatin and Mr. Bayard may
prefer. The style of Embroidery to be determined by them." See also Moore, " Inter-
national Law Digest ", IV, 761.


tunity of receiving your explanations. This object should it be
thought of importance, still remains in your power.

Gallatin to Bayard.

Philada., 29th April 1813.

Dear Sir : Mr. Todd arrived here last night, and put this morning
in my hands a trunk containing both your and my dispatches. I
would send your's by mail, but apprehend you may leave Wilming-
ton to morrow. It is at all events necessary that you should come, as
an unexpected defect in Admiral Warren's ^ passport renders it nec-
essary that we should consult on the best means to get over the diffi-
culty. The passport is for the ship Neptune from New York? How
the mistake happened I do not. know, and how it escaped notice in
the Dept. of State I cannot conceive. I would feel more reluctance
in requesting you to come, did I not know that you must be here in
order to convert your draft into money or bills.

P. S. — Mr. Svertchcoff^ has just arrived. I have not seen him
but understand that he has a letter from Dashcoff to Beresf ord * on
the subject. I think that in the mean while it will be best not to men-
tion the circumstance of the defect in the passport.

Stephen Pleasonton ^ to Bayard.

Department or State,

April W, 1813.

Dear Sir: Since the joint passport, with the instructions and
other papers of the Mission, was forwarded, it was thought that Mr.
Gallatin and yourself might possibly be separated before you reached
St Petersburg, in which case separate passports would be necessary.
To provide for such an event, I have made out, and have now the
honor to inclose, a passport for you and your suite singly, and shall
forward at the same time, a similar one to Mr. Gallatin. The joint
passport may, therefore, be either returned or destroyed.

Permit me on this occasion to express a hope that your etl'orts for
peace, may be attended with success, and that state of things be re-
stored which alone suits our condition, — a free trade and intercourse
with all the world. I indulge the hope with more confidence, as the
Government has now taken the ground, upon the chief point of dif-
ference, which all parties will unite in maintaining, that of excluding

» Sir John Borlase Warren (1753-1822), who was British naval commander-in-chief
on the North American Station.

- Bayard and Gallatin were to sail, and did sail, from the Delaware.

" Presumably an attache of the Russian legation.

* Sir John P. Beresford (1766-1S44), admiral, senior officer on the JJorth American
Station 1812-1814.

=■ Stephen Pleasonton was one of the three clerks in the Department of State who at
the capture of Washington saved the records. National Intelligencer, June 10. 1867.


British seamen altogether from our service. Further than this no
party I am sure will go, and if the object of the British Govt, be
really the recovery of their men, as is avowed, they must meet, and
adjust the matter with us, upon that ground, or manifest to the world
that their object is not a legitimate one.

Wishing you a safe passage out and home, etc.

Monroe to Gallatin, Adams, and Bayard.

Dept. or State, April 30th, 1813.

Gentlemen : It appears that the note promised in my Letter of
the 15th relative to certain claims to indemnity which were supposed
to stand on peculiarly strong ground, being under the special pledge
of the british Government, in each case, was not included among the
papers forwarded to you by Mr. Todd. I have now the honor to
transmit it to you.

Seizures within our jurisdiction form a class which merits at least
the same distinction, and is therefore added to them.


1. Blockade of Guadaloupe and Martinique. See printed Docu-
ments : Letter from Mr. Merry ^ to Mr. Madison of the 12th of April

2. Blockade of Curragoa. See the same : Mr. Merry to Mr. Madi-
son; same date.^

3. Colonial Trade — relative to continuity of voyage — as explained
by lord Hawkesbury's * letter to Mr. King of the 11th of April 1801.
See inclosure.

4. Cases where the territorial jurisdiction of the United States
has been violated. See printed Documents: Instructions to Messrs.
Monroe and Pinkney of the 17th of May 1806.^

5. Retrospective effects of the order of June 1803, as to return
from contraband voyages; and of the orders of January 7, 1807.
See printed Documents.*^

Monroe to Gallatin, Adams, and Bayard.

Dept. or State, May 3d, 1813.
Gentlemen : I have the honor to enclose to you a letter from Ad-
miral Warren to Com : Beresf ord, containing an order, as it is under-

1 Anthony Merry, minister from Great Britain, 1803-1806.

2 "Am. St. P., For. Rel.", Ill, 265-260.
" Ibid., 266.

'Charles Jenkinson, first Baron Hawljesbury and first Earl of Liverpool (1727-1S08).
For the documents referred to, see "Am. St. P., For. Rol.", II, 491.
6 "Am. St. P., For. Rel.", Ill, 119-124.
"Orders in Council. See ibid.. Ill, 267,


stood, to permit the Neptune to sail from the Delaware with yon
and your families for Eussia. A new passport to that effect would
have been more satisfactory. The omission to send one, has induced
an application to Mr. Daschkoff for a document, shewing that you
had suchi an authority^ from Admiral Warren, the British com-
mander off our coast. Should I receive it in time for the mail it
shall be forwarded. I send you papers relating to the subject,
which it may be proper for you to possess.

[P. S.] — Mr. Dashkoff informs me that his passport states that
you are to sail from the Delaware, which makes the document desired
of him unnecessary.

Andre Daschkoff to Monroe.

Washington, le 3 May.

Monsieur: Dans cet instant ]e viens de regevoir la reponse de
i'Admiral Warren a ma derniere qui m'a ete apportee de votre De-
partement : Je m'empresse de vous transmettre I'incluse par le Com-
modore Beresford qui renferme les Ordres de I'Admiral Warren
relativement a la sortie du batiment Neptune de la Delaware. L'Ad-
miral me marque son etonnement, et je ne sais pourquoi puisqu'il a
ete prevenu par Mr. Sverschkoff, qu'on eut choisi le navire dans un
port bloque.

Agreez Monsieur je vous prie les assurances de ma haute estime et
des sentimens les plus distingues avec lesquels j'ai Fhonneur d'etre,

Monroe to Daschkoff.

Mr. Monroe presents his compliments to Mr. Daschkoff and has
the honor to aclmowledge the receipt of his letter of this morning,
with one addressed from Admiral Warren, to Commodore Berres-
ford, which he will forw^ard by the mail of this Evening to Mr.
Gallatin and Mr. Bayard at Philadelphia.

It was desirable that Admiral Warren should have granted another
passport authorizing our Ministers to sail from Philadelphia instead
of New York. Hi* letter will enable them to leave the Delaware,
but in case the ship should be stopped by a British Cruiser on her
voyage, it will appear by her papers that she sailed from a port not
authorized by the passport. It is possible that this might subject
them to some inconvenience, or at least, remarks to which they ought
not to be exposed. I have therefore to request that you will have the
goodness to grant them, some document, to shew the fact, that they
had an authority from the Commander of the British Squadron on
our coast to sail from the Delaware.


Mr. Monroe requests Mr. Daschkoff to accept the assurance of his
high consideration.

Department of State,
Maij 3d, 1813.

Bayard to Joseph Haslett.*

Wilmington, 3 May 1813.

Sir: Having been appointed by the Government of the U. S. a
Minister etc. to the Court of St. Petersburgh and having accepted
the office, I avail myself of the first moment after receiving my
commission to perform the duty of making known to you the fact,
as the acceptance of the appointment is on my part an implied and
virtual resignation of my seat in the Senate of the U States.

You will of consequence Sir accordingly communicate this resig-
nation to the Legislature, at their ensuing Session.^

Bayard to Monroe.

Wilmn., 5 May 1813.

Sir: At the date of the last letter which I had the honor to write
to you INIr. Todd had passed thro W. w ith his despatches, but with-
out my knowle[d]ge. In consequence of a letter from Mr. G. I
proceeded to Philad and reed, from him the packets directed to my
address. The instructions prepared for the Mission^ I have read
with as much attention as time would admit. There is nothing in
them of doubtful construction nor anything which I cannot very
cordially promote.

Whether the chief point of difficulty be placed upon practicable
ground you will permit me to doubt when I assure you that it is
placed upon a ground on which I am fully disposed to use every
exertion to maintain it.

I never doubted as to the point of right, but a nation without
jdelding may occasionally find an interest in temporizing W'ith re-
gard to its rights.*

liecent occurrences have releived G. B. from much of the pres-
sure of the War in Europe and w^e shall probably find Her even less
disposed than heretofore to concede anything with a view to con-
ciliation. I beg ho-svever that the government will have full con-
fidence, that nothing which is with [in] my means shall be wanting
on my part to accomplish the objects of the mission.

1 Jospph Haslett (d. 1823), governor of Delaware in 1811-1814, and 1S22-1S23.
- WilMam H. Wells completed Bayard's term in the Senate.
'^ "Am. St. P., For. Rel.", Ill, 695-700.

* Bayard had expressed a similar sentiment to Gallatin, a fact which Gallatin had
mentioned to Monroe. See " Writings of Gallatin ", I, 540.

222 amebic an historical association.

Monroe to Bayard.^

Washington, May 6, 1813.

Sir: I had the honor to receive yours of the -5th to day, acknowl-
edging the receit of the despatches that were forwarded to you by Mr.
Todd. I had indulged the hope that he would have found it con-
venient to deliver them to you, as he passed thro' Wilmington, for
which purpose they were addressed to j^ou in a separate packet.

It is very satisfactory to the President to hear that there is noth-
ing in your instructions which you cannot cordially promote. Of
this no doubt was before entertained, but it is particularl}^ gratify-
ing to know it from yourself. That you will use your best exertions
to support the rights and honor of your country, and to promote
its interest, he has the most perfect confidence.

It is believed that the ground taken in your instructions is the
only safe ground for the U States to rest on. An informal under-
standing only, would be considered by G Britain as a complete vic-
tory in her favor, the fatal effects of which, would soon be felt, on
all the most important interests of the nation. Her government
would conclude, that in accepting such an accom[m]odation, v/e
had resolved to give up the cause rather than maintain it by a
prosecution of the war. As G Britain will be completely secur[e]d,
against the 'injury of which she has complain'd, by the arrange-
ments you may enter into, and must lose in many respects by the
war, it is hoped that she will avail herself of the opportunity pre-
sented of giving to it, an honorable and advantageous termination."

I beg you to accept my best wishes for your success, and the
assurance of the great consideration and esteem etc.

Monroe to Gallatin and Bayard.

Department or State, May^ 1813.
Gentlemen: I have the honor to transmit to you by Mr. Brent'
a copy of the order by the Secretary of war for the evacuation of E.
Florida.'* It is proper to state to you that information has been
received, every way entitled to credit, that the Eegency at Cadiz
have sold both the Floridas to Great Britain.^ Whether, if this
be true, she will attempt to take possession of it, we know not. It

1 Printed in " Writings of Monroe ", V, 254-255.

2 For Monroe's letter to Gallatin on this subject see " Writings of Gallatin ", I, 542,

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