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and " Writings of Monroe ", V, 255-259.

3 Daniel Brent, who became in 1817 chief clerk in the Department of State. Hunt,
" Department of State of the United States ", 200.

* xlrmstrong had ordered Jackson to dismiss his forces in February ; his order to
withdraw the troops from Amelia Island and Spanish territory was given Mar. 7 ; the
troops were withdrawn May 16. Adams, "History ", VII, 209-210.

s See Monroe to Gallatin, May 6, 1813, " Writings of Gallatin ", I, 543.


is known however that a considerable force is collecting at Bermuda,
and that an embarcation had been made at Cadiz of a strong rein-
forcement destined for this continent. Florida; may be the object,
tho' it is more probable, that its destination will be, either Canada,
or Some part of our Coast. You know the contingency on which a
power is vested in the President by law to take possession of this

West Florida will soon be taken possession of under an order from
the Secretary at War, in obedience to a law of the last Session,^ if
it has not already been done.

I transmit to you a copy of my answer to Mr. Daschkoff, com-
municating the acceptance, by the President, of the Mediation of
Russia.^ It was accidental that it was not forwarded, with Mr.
Daschkoff's letter announcing it.

P. S. — I enclose you also two letters from Governor Kindelan*
indicating a sperit of hostility towards the U States.

Sebastian Kindelan to Juan Ruiz de Apodaca.*

[Enclosure — Translation.]

St. Augustine, 9th Aiigt. 1812.

Most Exct. Sir: The Spanish Schooner Two Brothers., the prop-
erty of Don Manuel Lopes, an Inhabitant of this Garrison which
with Passengers and the official correspondence arrived at this place,
having left it on the 2d inst, was, on the 4th of the same month, at-
tacked and plundered near cape Canaveral by some American Pri-
vateers, one of them with English Flag, and the other with f rench,
and in consequence of this occurrence, and being left without pro-
visions, or any Instruments of Navigation, she returned here on the
6th inst.

This circumstance greatly increases my cares, more especially as I
am in almost total want of provisions, and on this account, I have
decided to have recourse, as a more immediate remedy, to the Captain
General of the Bahama Islands,^ the navigation of which I am
assured is more safe, because the Vessels, by getting well into the
Gulf the same night of their departure, ought to elude the vigilance
of the Enemy, who endeavor to obstruct the communication between
this place and your Capital. Not having heard from you in answer
to my despatches of the 23d of June and 3d July last, I fear they
have miscarried, since the succours which I demanded were of a

1 See p. 215, note 1.

2 "Am. St. P.. For. Rel.", Ill, 624-625.

3 Sebastian Kindelan, Spanish governor of Florida from 1812 to 1815. The letters
mentioned follow.

* Juan Ruiz de Apodaca was captain-general of Cuba from 1S12 to 1816.
^ William Vesey Munnings, governor of the Bahama Islands.


nature not to admit of delay. I have been by this means [re]duced
to the last extremity, and obliged to take the step I have mentioned
to you, more especially considering also, that Y[our] E[xcellency]
from an equal scarcity may be embarrassed in supplying me with
the promptitude demanded for the preservation of this place in the
distressed situation to which it is now reduced.

Although I do not doubt that the before mentioned Britannick
Chief will succour me as far as lays in his power; yet I should not
rely entirely upon him, I therefore apply again to Your Excellency,
reiterating my supplications, in order that in being impressed with
the difliculties under which I labour, you may be pleased to send me
immediately those articles I have demanded in .my former de-
spatches, adding that Meat and Flour are those which I stand most
in need of.

For greater security, I send this despatch by way of Providence,^
and I shall take other means of sending to you my despatches. May
you live etc.

Note of the Articles wanting in this Garrison for the


4,000 pounds of lead in bars.

4,000 flints. 2,000 for Soldiers Guns, and 2000 for Indians.

1,500 pounds of match rope.

12 Reams of Paper for Cartridges (musket).
100 Barrels of Tar.
2 Pieces of red Buntine.
2 do. of yellow.

For annual Presents to the Indians.

200 pounds leaf Tobacco.

14 Pieces of Indian Cloth.
800 Yards of fine cloth.

45 pieces of Sarage - of 28 yards each.

66 do. of Platillas.='
100 do. of woollen binding.

24 do. Cloaks.

22 pounds of Vermillion in powder.
350 Eazors.

1 New Providence in tlie Bahamas. ,

2 Serge.
8 Silesia.


3,000 Needles (sewing).
3 Gross of thimbles.
700 Common looking Glasses.
20 pounds of Colored thread.
1 Piece table carpeting of hemp (coloured).
St. Augustine in Florida,
9th Aiigt. 1812.

Sebastian Kindelan to William Vesey Munnings.

St. Augustine, 9th Augt. 1812.

[Enclosure — Translation.]

Most Ex't Sir: The close and intimate alliance which happily
unites Spain with Great Britain, animates me, amidst the afflictions
to which this place is reduced, to have recourse for speedy remedy to
Y[our] E[xcellency] beseeching you to afford me assistance in pro-
visions and other articles which are included in the two annexed
Notes, for although with sufficient anticipation I asked it from the
Havana, I infer from the delay that obstacles have presented them-
selves to the receiving it, so that this place under my command is
reduced to the last extremity, already worn out with the almost entire
want of previsions. The Bearer will inform you verbal^ of our
present critical situation, so much the more painful as it may facili-
tate to the Enemy the completion of their plans which would be con-
tinually frustrated should we not be in want of such provisions as are
necessary to our existence.

After a variety of measures and stratagems, I have at last suc-
ceeded in breaJcing down the barriers with which the Band of High-
way Eobbers in front of me had obstructed our Communication
with the Indians, and having won them over to our cause they have
already commenced hostilities ; in four or five days I expect a greater
number and the consumption of our short supply Avill consequently
be accelerated. Y. E. knows the inconstancy of these forest warriors,
and how necessary it is in order to derive some advantage from their
service to gratify them continually in their repeated and impertinent
petitions ; for the least want of attention to these is sufficient to cause
their sudden disappearance, and, them to change their side, circum-
stances which augmenting my cares force me as I have already said
to make Y. E. this respectful reclamation.

The Royal Coffers here being empty I have to represent to your
Exy. that for the amount of what you send me I will draw on the
Havana where you will certainly be religiously paid ; and I also pray

62513°— VOL 2—15 15


your Exy. that in case you accede to this supplication, to send a suffi-
cient force with the convoy to secure its arrival.

This motive Most Ex't Sir, although disagreeable to me in some
respects ceases to be so in a measure by its affording me an oppor-
tunity of tendering to you mj high Respects, etc. etc. etc.

[Enclosure — No. l.i

400 Barrels of salted Beef.
150 do. of salted Pork.
500 do. of Flour.
30 do. Lard.
50 Kegs of Rice.
100 Bushels Salt.
1,000 do. of shelled Corn.

30 Boxes of tallow Candles 4 to a pound.
80 do. 5 to a pound.
1 Pipe of red Catalonia Wine.
1 do. White Spanish Wine.
St. Augustine, 9th Augt., 1812.

Bayaed to Rodney.*

Neptune off Capes of Delaware.

May 11, 1813
My Dear Rodney : AVe have passed the enemj'^'s squadron and are
just entering the Atlantic. The rules of the Flag, forbid m.y com-
municating to you the number or description of the British Fleet.
The pilot is about to leave us and I have only time to add
May God bless and preserve you always.

Monroe to Gallatin and Bayard.

Department of State,

June 9M, 1813.
Gentlemen : An opportunity offering by one of Mr Daschkoff's
Secretaries, I avail myself of it to explain more fully the view of
the President on certain subjects already treated on in your instruc-
tions, and to communicate his centiments on some others not adverted
in them.

The British Government having repealed the orders in Council,^
and the blockade of May 1805, and all other illegal blockades, and
IiaA'ing declared that it would institute no blockade which would not

1 From the papers of Mr. Thomas F. Bayard.

2 The Orders in Council were suspended iu June, 1812. Adams, " History ", VI, 285-


be supported by an adequate force it was thought better to leave
that question on that ground than to continue the war to obtain a
more precise definition of blockade after the other cause of the war,
that of impressment, should be removed. But when it is considered
that a stipulated definition of blockade will cost G B. nothing after
having thus recognized the principle and that such definition is cal-
culated to give additional confidence in the future security of our
commerce it is expected that she will agree to it. It is true this cause
of war being removed, the United States are under no obligation
to continue it for the want of such stipulated definition more espe-
cially as they retain in their hands, the remedy against any new
violation of their rights when ever made, the same remark is ap-
plicable to the case of impressment for if the British Government
had issued to its cruisers not to impress seamen from our vessels and
notified the same to this Government that cause of war would also
have been removed, in making peace it is better for both nations that
the controversy respecting blockade be arranged by Treaty as well
as that respecting impressment, the omission to arrange it may be
productive of injury. Without a precise definition of blockade im-
proper pretensions might be set up on each side respecting their
rights which might possibly hazard the future good understanding
between the two Countries.

Our combined land and naval forces have taken York,^ the British
port on the North side of Lake Ontario, and the forts George and
Erie, on the Straight of Niagara, and driven the British forces from
that Straight. Our recruiting service succeeds well, and our ofi&cers
have improved in a knowledge of their duty, so that our force has
already become very imposing there is a fair prospect of our obtain-
ing possession in the course of the Campai[g]n of all Upper Canada.
The War too is becoming more popular and taking a more steady
and consistent character throughout ever}^ part of the United States,
the pres[s]ure on our coast and the menace of our towns have accom-
plished no important objects to G. B. The neighboring militia have
rallied in defence of New York, Lewistown,^ Baltimore, Norfolk
and other places to the South and more recently to New London to
the North in a manner to acquire to themselves and to their Country
the highest honor. These successes ought to have a salutary influence
on your negociations and to &tren[g]then the general expectations of
the U S. From it they will render any accommodation which falls
short of their expectations the less acceptable to the Nation. These

1 Or Toronto, captured by Gen. Dearborn, Apr. 27, 1813. The destruction of the as-
sembly houses here was alleged as a reason for the burning of the capitol at Washington.
Fort George was captured in May. The advantage to the Americans proved to be much
less than was at first hoped. Adams, " History ", VII, 154-159.

2 Lewes, Delaware.


instructions are formed on a presumption that the British Govern-
ment will make the restitution of Canada sine qui non in any treaty
you may make although it may happen that it may have no equivalent
restitution to make to the U S. Should this be the case it is not in-
tended to carry on the War rather than yield to that unequal condi-
tion but it may justly be expected that G B. will be the more liberal
on other points to be adjusted and although Governments and nations
are apt on such occasions to consult rather the pride of dominion
than their true interest it may be worth while to bring to view the
advantages to both Countries which is promised by a transfer of the
upper parts and even the whole of Canada to the U S. In time of
peace G. B. would derive the same advantage from it in their hands
as a source of supplies as if it were her own, the U S. being precluded
by policy as well as by the Constitution from taxing exports, in war
she would derive as little advantage from it whether in her hands or
in those of the U S. as her commerce with it in either case would be
much interrupted. The possession of it by England must hereafter
prove a fruitful source of controversy which its transfer to the U S.
would remove, it would also relieve from the burden of supporting it
which must be considerable in peace or war especially in war. That
these provinces will be severed from G B. at no distant day by their
own career may fairly be presumed even against the strongest efforts
to retain them. These considerations shew that her interest well
understood is in favor of a separation at the present time, it may be
hoped therefore that the view which you may give of the subject
may produce a salutary effect and induce the British Government to
adopt such an arrangement as may be equally advantageous to both
nations. In the case of a cession you may stipulate the same advan-
tages in trade to G B for a certain term of years that were secured
to France by the treaty of Louisiana.^ It is not presumable that
the British Government will indulge a vindictive spirit after peace
against any of the inhabitants of Canada who may take part with
us in the war, it will be proper however for you to use your best ex-
ertions to secure a right to those who may be disposecT to sell their
effects and remove into the U S. and an amnesty for those who may
prefer to remain in Canada. Should a restitution of ter[r]itory be
agreed on it will be proper for you to make a provision for settling
the boundary between the U S. and G B. on the St. Lawrence and the
Lakes from the point at which the line between them strikes the St.
Lawrence to the North Western corner of the Lake of the Woods
according to the principles of the treaty of Peace. The settlement
of this boundary is important from the circumstance that there are
several Islands in the river and Lakes of some extent and great value.

1 See Art. VII of the treaty of 1803.


the dominion over which is claimed by both parties. It may be an
advisable course to appoint Commissioners, on each side with full
powers to adjust on fair and equitable considerations this boundary.
To enable you to adopt a suitable provision for the purpose it will be
proper for you to recur to the instructions heretofore given on the
subject published in the documents in your possession.

Bayard to Andrew Bayard.

No. 79. Copenhagen, "27 Jims 1813.^

My dear Cousin : You find me in the capital of the ancient King-
dom of Denmark, We have stopt here to obtain information as to
the state of things on the Continent. The military events which
have occurred and the armistice which exists and the proposition for
a Congress to be held at Prague, will have been communicated to
you long before this letter reaches you, thro the medium of the
English papers. In fact we have learnt little here but what came
from England by the way of Gottenburg. This channel of com-
munication is now stopt, as all intercourse is cut oflf between the
Danes and Swedes. These two nations appear to be on the eve of
war, and that event would appear inevitable if the armistice should
not be followed by a peace.^ I saw to day a Gentleman high in
office and near the Kings person who expressed the opinion that
there would be no congress. And that appears to be here the general
opinion. The battles which have been fought have been very san-
guinary but indecisive. The armies occupj'^ an exhausted Country
and it is impossible that they should be able to retain their possitions
till anything could result from the proceedings of a general con-

My return to America is altogether contingent in point of time.
If the Mediation of the Emperor should be refused, there will be
nothing to detain me in Russia. If it should be accepted, there will
be little prospect of my seeing the U States before the next year.
The rumour here is that the mediation will not be accepted but I
do not consider it entitled to any credit.

We have been obliged to wait here a day or two, for a wind to
carry us into the Baltic. The moment the pilot will agree to make
sail we shall go on board. The average passage to St. Petersburg is
ten days. Our passage out was much more rough and boisterous,
than anticipated. We encountered a gale of wind as soon as we
got into the gulf stream, and we had not three days of pleasant
weather, till we arrived at Gottenbiirg which was at the end of six
weeks from the time of our embarkation.

1 This letter Is endorsed: " Received 9th May 1814 ".

2 The armistice was to extend from June 4 to July 20 ; it was prolonged till Aug. 10.
Sweden was determined upon the acquisition of Norway, which object she achieved the
following year by the treaty of Kiel.


We stopt at G. one day for information and we stopt also at Elsi-
nuer on account of the Sound duties. I availed myself of this last
stoppage to visit the castle at the entrance of the Sound and the
garden of Hamlet immortalized by the pen of Shakespeare. This
was worth half the voyage tempestuous as we found it.

I have seen the King and Queen ^ and Princess Royal. The royal
Pair have no male issue. Prince Christian,- who is heir Presump-
tive, is at present in Norway where he is gone to protect or console
a miserable people who are literally dying of hunger. Norway does
not produce grain sufficient for its sustenance and the supplies from
Zealand and Holstein on which it depended are intercepted by the
British cruisers.

I do assure you my dear Andrew that all the novelties I meet with
do not half indemnify me for the loss of home.

I look forward to no moment with pleasure but that of my return.

If we should not leave St. Petersburg by the 1st of October we
shall probably winter in Russia.

I have written from this place to my wife and I also wrote to her
from Gottenburg and from off the Banks of Newfoundland by a
Beston -Letter of Marque. This I will thank you to mention if the
letters should not have been received. The Letters I have Avritten
from this place I shall direct to be forwarded by different routes to
multiply the chances of some one arriving.

I beg you to present my sincere affection to your family.

Bayard to Rodney.

Copenhagen, June 27, 1813.
[See "Bulletin" N. Y. Pub. Lib., IV, 241; "Papers Del. Hist.
Soc", XXXI, 29-31.]

Commissioners to Romanzoff.^

[ Translation. ]

[July 18/30, 1813.]

The undersigned Envoys Extraordinary, and Ministers Plenipo-
tentiary of the United States of America have the honor to make
known to his Excellency the Count Romanzoff chancellor of the
Empire, that the President of the United States having accepted
the mediation ofl'ered by his Imperial Majesty the Emperor of all
the Russias to the United States and Great 'Britain, has invested

1 Frederick VI and Elizabeth Christina, daughter of the Duke of Brunswick-Bevern.

~ Prince Christian, later Christian VII, had been sent to Norway in May to strengthen
the bond between Norway and Denmark. He was in 1814 elected King of Norway, but
was soon defeated by Swedish forces, surrendered his crown, and returned to Copenhagen.
He did not ascend the Danish throne until 1839.

8 Archives of the Department of State, volume lettered "American Commissioners, Ghent,
etc., 1813-1816 " ; also in the collections of the New York Public Library.


the undersigned with full powers to enter upon the negotiation and
conclude a peace under the mediation of his Imperial Majesty.

The President being animated with a sincere desire for the restora-
tion of peace, and reposing a just confidence in the personal qualities
and high character of his Imperial Majesty, has not hesitated in
accepting the good offices proffered by his Imperial Majesty for the
settlement of the differences which have produced the present war
between the United States and Great Britain.

In the expectation that the known impartiality of his Imperial
Majesty and his friendly relations with both nations would inspire
the British Government with a like disposition and desirous to avoid
the delay which must necessarih^ have arisen from the distance of
the United States from the theatre of the proposed negotiation, and
to manifest his high respect for the Emperor personally, the Presi-
dent has not allowed himself to wait for the formal acceptance of
the proffered mediation on the part of the British Government but
has proceeded immediately to do all which belonged to the United
States to accomplish the views of his Imperial Majesty, by dispatch-
ing for that end an Extraordinary Mission.

The undersigned are happy in having it in their power to assure
his Excellency the Chancellor that their instructions are founded on
principles so just and moderate that they cannot but flatter them-
selves, that a negotiation opened under the auspices of his Imperial
Majesty, would not fail of a favorable issue, and in establishing a
lasting peace on the basis of the common interest and etjual honor of
both the belligerents.

The undersigned, presuming that the measures necessary to give
effect to the mediation of his Imperial Majesty have been taken in
relation to the Government of Great Britain hope to receive from
his Excellency Count Eomanzoff' information of the dispositions
manifested by that Government on the subject.

The undersigned are chai-ged by the President to make known
the high sense he entertains of the distinguished proofs uniformly
given by his Imperial Majesty of friendly dispositions towards the
United States and they avail themselves of this occasion to pray his
Excellency the Count Romanzoff' to accept the assurance of their
highest consideration.

Conversation between Eomanzoff and Bayard and Gallatin.^

Sunday 1 Aiigt. [^1813^.
The Count Romanzoff having granted a conference to Messrs.
G. and B. and appointed this morning between 11 and one for the

1 From the papers of Mr. Thomas F. Bayard. Count Nicolas de Romanzoff (1754-
182G), Russian minister of foreign affairs. This conversation is briefly summarized in
the letter of the commissioners to Monroe of Aug. 29, printed in " Writings of Gallatin ",
I, 5G0-574.



time, we proceeded to his Chateau a short distance on the Peterhofl
road, which he directed for the place of the interview.
The objects upon our part were :

1. To state the strong impression of our Govn. in immediately
accepting the mediation of the Emperor, and sending to this Court a
Special Mission ; that G. B. influenced by a consideration of the rela-
tions subsisting between Her and Russia and the personal respect
due to his imperial Majesty would not hesitate in acceding to the
mediation. That in this conviction, no provision was made by our
Govn. for a different state of things. That our Powers were confined
to a Russian Mediation, without which we could proceed to no nego-
ciation. That it was extremely material for us to be informed as
early as practicable of the intention of the British Government,
especially if it was, or could be unequivocally ascertained, that G. B.
would not act under the Mediation. That in such event our Govt, and
Country would expect that we should immediately return to the U.
States and not protract a jjublic residence in Russia from which no
beneficial result could be expected and which might embarrass opera-
tions at home.

2. To ask leave to present to the County [court] the Young Gentle-
men composing the suit.

3. To enquire as to the propriety of visiting the different officers
of the Government before the formal presentation to the Empresses.

As soon as we were seated, the conversation was opened on the part

Online LibraryAmerican Historical AssociationAnnual report of the American Historical Association (Volume 1913, v.2) → online text (page 26 of 64)