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on the American coast in August last ; Two of the four, were in con-
sequence immediately restored to their ordinary State of Prisoners,
and two are still held for John Stephens.

The fifth, was the confinement of two Masters of British vessels,
Barss and Woodward, as hostages for the safety of Capt. Wm.
Nicholls late Commr. of the private armed vessel Decatur^ whose
case is fully detailed in my letter to Coll. Barclay of Octr 5th - now
sent you. They are still held.

The Sixth, was the designation of 101 British maritime Prisoners
in retaliation for an equal number of Americans, who had, on vari-
ous pretexts, been sent from Halifax to England for trial. On ex-
planation however from Coll. Barclay, it appears, that no Specific
charge had been made against 83 of these 101 Americans. Conse-
quently, a like number will be held only in confinement, but are not
to be considered as exchangeable, until our 83 men are brought back
to the British Depot of Prisoners in America, from whence they
ought never to have been sent; and the designation of six officers of
Privateers and Merchant vessels, and of ten petty officers and Sea-
men belonging to Public Ships, confined in retaliation for the like
number of American prisoners, of similar grade and service, severely
and ignominiously confined at Halifax, as described in my letters
of Septr 22d and Novr 23d to Coll Barclay,^ copies of which are
now sent 3'ou. These were at first placed in the same kind of confine-
ment, as that used in Halifax, but are now, on a similar relaxation
having taken place there, held in ordinary confinement.

The seventh was the designation of 59 British soldiers as hostages,
for that number of American Soldiers, who were sent from Halifax
to England, in August last, to be tried as British subjects. They are
still held.

The eight[h], was the designating and confining a masters mate,
in the British Navy, as an hostage for the safety of Joshua Penny,*
a non combattant, who was seized at night, in his house on Long
Island, and has been carried to Halifax. He is still held.

The ninth, was the confinement of a mate in the British Merchant
Service, in retaliation for the detention by the Enemy of J. Swan-

1 "Am. St. P., For. Rel.", Ill, 646-652.

2 Ibid., 650. Col. Thomas Barclay, British commissary for prisoners. See his " Life
and Correspondence" (N. Y., 1894), by George L. Rives.

3 "Am. St. P., For. Rol.", Ill, 653, 660.
« Ibid., 669.



COEEESPONDEKCE OF J. A. BAYAED, 1814. 251

ton/ a Captain of Marines in a private armed vessel, and sending
him to Englund for trial as a British subject. He is still held to an-
swer for J. Swanton's safety, as explained in my letter of the 2d
Instant.

The tenth was the designation and confinement of 46 British of-
ficers, in retaliation for that number of American officers and non-
commissioned officers confined at Quebec, in counter-retaliation for
the 23 men designated by General Dearborn, as before stated.

The eleventh has been the designation of a British Seaman, cap-
tured on Lake Ontario, to be held as an hostage for an American sea-
man detained by Commodore Yeo,- to be tried as a British subject.

The twelfth has been the designation and confinement of T. A.
Clarke, Indian Interpreter in the Service of the Enemy, as an hos-
tage for the safety of Captn Maggs^ of Detroit, who has been de-
tained in Canada by the British Authorities.

Gallatin and Bayard to Capt. Jones.

26 Decr./17 Janry. 18U.

Sir, As soon as you may find it safe and convenient after the receipt
of this letter, we desire that you will make sail for some port in Hol-
land where we shall in a short time endeavour to join you. Upon your
arrival you will make known the place to Messrs. Wilhelm and Jan
Willink and N. I. and E. Van Staphorst the Bankers of the United
States at Amsterdam.

It is our intention to leave St. Petersburg in the course of a fort-
night and to proceed to that city where we shall expect intelligence
from you.

You will recollect that according to the tenor of the passport
granted by the British Government to the Neptune^ the port in Hol-
land where you will go must be one not in the possession or under the
authority of the French.

Monroe to Beasley.

Depar[t]ment of State,

January 8th, 1811^.
Sir, The Bramble, a British flag, which lately arrived at Annapolis,
with a letter from Lord Castlereagh to me, concerning the mediation
of Russia for an accommodation of differences between the United
States and Great Britain, will immediately return to England with
my answer. The interesting nature of the subject to which this

1 "Am. St. p., For. Rel.", Ill, 670.

2 Sir James Lucas Yeo (1782-1818), commander-iii-chief of the British naval forces
on the Lakes, 1813.

s Capt. Whitmore Knaggs. "Am. St. P., For. Rel.", Ill, 672.



252 AMERICAN HISTOEICAL ASSOCIATION".

correspondence relates, has not permitted this government to with-
hold from the public an early knowledge of its intentions; and I
now forward to you a printed copy of a Message from the President
to both Houses of Congress, including my reply to his Lordship, and
the documents to which it has reference.^

You will also receive, by this conveyance, some packets of nQ,ws-
papers, which recite the principal events that have occurred in this
quarter.

The Ship Fair American, Captain Jacob Adams, will sail, in a
few days, as a cartel, from New York for a port in Great Britain.
The Captain has been instructed to transmit the papers of the vessel,
as soon as he arrives, directly to you. Mr. Strong- will embark
in this ship, and to him will be confided, a triplicate of a letter to
our Ministers at St Petersburg. It is possible they may have left
that City, and proceeded to Gothenburg, or Stockholm, on their
route there. Wherever they may be Mr, Strong is instructed to
find and deliver the dispatches to them. The original of the letter
to our Ministers at St Petersburg will be conveyed also by the Fair
America?! under the auspices of the Russian Minister here, who
incloses it to his colleague at London with a request to forward it
to them without delay. A duplicate, it is expected, will be sent
under the same protection by the Bramble.

[P. S.] — Should the Bramble arrive in England, before the Fair
American, you are requested, in availing yourself of the friendly
offices of the Russian Ambassador, to facilitate the transmission of
the duplicate letter to our Ministers by all the other means within
your power, without however employing a special Messenger, Mr.
Strong being the only person intended to proceed in that character.

Adams and Bayard to Romanzoff.

Jan. 12, 181!^.
[See pp. 258-259.]

Romanzoff to Adams and Bayard.

Jan. 17, 18U.
[See pp. 259-260.]

Le\^tt Harris to Bayard.'

Sir : — In pursuance of your request made to me on the 31 ulto./12
inst. I waited upon the Chancellor the same evening and informed

1 The papers included Castlereagh's letter of Nov. 4, 1813, and a note of Cathcart
to Nessolrode, dated Sept. 1, 1813. Ibid., 621-623, 701.

" Nathaniel W. Strong, consul at Gottenburg, nominated Jan. 11, 1814. " Sen. Ex.
Journ.", 1805-1816, 450.

* From the papers of Thomas F. Bayard.



CORRESPONDENCE OF J. A. BAYARD, 1814. 253

him of your great anxiety to receive some answer from him to the
Note which you and Mr. Adams addressed to him, that day/ which
might serve you as a justification near your Government for the
course which now seemed the only one left you to pursue. I also
made fully known to the Count the unpleasant feeling you were
under at witnessing the delay of the Emperor in making the reply
which was thought due to you, and dwelt upon this point with the
interest which the occasion required. The Chancellor observed that
he had not yet seen the Note I alluded to; that as he was very un-
well he had given orders to be private the whole day. He requested
me to inform him of its contents, which I did, and I added that it
was still hoped such an answer would be given to it as would
enable you to judge how far a longer stay here would be justifiable,
that otherwise it was your design to leave this residence very shortly.
He replied that the answer to be given to the Note could not be
such as you were naturally solicitous to receive; that he should
transmit your letter to the Emperor and await His Majesty's order
for any ulterior official answer that it would be proper to make to
it; that he had obtained no answer from the Emperor to the com-
munication already made him of the dispatches received from Count
Lieven respecting the renewed offer of the mediation to the British
Government, and he now almost dispaired of receiving any ; that the
chagrin and mortification he felt on this occasion equalled the solici-
tude testified by the Mission, and lie lamented beyond measure his
inability to comply with the request I made him in your name. I
shortl.y after took my leave. On Saturday the 15 inst. I received a
note from the Count requesting me to call upon him the next day,
Sunday. I waited upon him, as you know, agreeably to his invita-
tion. The Chancellor observed upon my entering his Cabinet that
he desired to see me and converse [d] confidentially with me on the
subject of my last visit to him; that he had since received the Note
of Mr. Adams and Mr. Bayard ; he had considered it attentively and
had also reflected upon what had passed between us on the occasion ;
that he saw the course which was to be taken by you, and had nothing
to say against it; that being still without instructions from the
Emperor he was unable to meet your wishes officially, but he could
not disguise that he plainly perceived an indisposition in the British
Government to a negotiation at St. Petersburg; that he was grieved
at it for on this occasion he was life and soul American, qu'il etait
pour I'Amerique coeur et ame was his expression; that he felt a
most lively desire to see good understanding restored between two
Belligerents. But he could not, however withhold from me his
opinion that we had shewn rather too much ardour in pursuing

» See pp. 258-259.



254 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION.

peace; that he was sure peace was to be obtained for the United
States on terms highly honorable and advantageous to them, and He
thought it probable even that after the news of the departure of the
Mission from Petersburg reached England, Propositions would be
made to it by the British Government and that they might be in-
duced to meet us even on our own ground. I repeated to the Chan-
cellor how satisfactory it would be to you to perceive in the reply
which was to be made to your last note, the expression of his opinion
relative of this disposition of the British Government as to a nego-
tiation at St. Petersburg. It was unnecessary, he said, further to
convince me that such at this moment was impracticable. I ac-
quainted him that I would immediately report this conversation to
Mr Bayard who would perhaps consider it conclusive as to the
propriety of limiting his stay here; and that if any official advices
should be received from the Emperor regarding this mission, they
would of course be communicated to Mr. Adams, and might yet reach
Mr. Bayard before he left the continent. It is necessary perhaps to
say but little additional on the subject of the extreme pain and em-
barrassment felt and expressed by the Chancellor at his receiving no
information from the Emperor capable of guiding him in the final
answer which he thought due to the Mission. He was indeed greatly
affected by the view of his declining credit, and closed the conversa-
tion by candidly assuring me, that after having since the Month of
May last seen that he was no longer of any use in the councilb of his
Sovereign, he had repeatedly asked his Majesty's permission to
resign; that not having obtained it he had determined no longer to
administer the higher duties of Chancellor. He had consequently
removed frcm the Plotel of Foreign affairs and would continue now
to reside in his own house; and until the desired dispositions were
made by the Emperor in relation to him, he would confine himself
to the mere ordinary and indispensable parts of his ministry.
Saint Petersburg, 5/T7 January 181 Jf.,

Credentials or the Four Commissioners.*

January 18, 1811^.

JAMES MADISON PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

To all whom these Presents shall concern Greeting :

Reposing especial trust and confidence in the integrity prudence
and ability of John Quincy Adams, at present the Minister plenepo-
tentiary of the United States at the Court of His Imperial Majesty

1 From Bayard's ofBoial lotter-book, in the possession of Mr. R. H. Bayard. Gallatin had
not yet been appointed on the commission. See p. 263, note 3.



COREESPONDENCE OF J. A. BAYAED, 1814. 255

the Emperor of all the Riissias, James A. Bayard, late a Senator of
the United States, Henry Clay, Speaker of the House of Eepresenta-
tives of the United States, and Jonathan Russel, one of their dis-
tinguished citizens, I have nominated, and by and with the advice
and consent of the Senate appointed them jointly and severally
Ministers Plenei3otentiary and Extraordinary of the United States
with authority to meet a Minister or Ministers having like authority
from the Government [of Great Britain] and with him or them to
negociate and conclude a settlement of the subsisting dilTerences and
a lasting peace and friendship between the United States and that
Power ; transmitting the treaty or convention so to be concluded for
the ratification of the President of the United States by and with
the advice and consent of the Senate of the United States.

In testimony whereof I have caused the Seal of the United States
to be hereunto affixed. Given under my hand at the city of Wash-
ington the 18th day of January A. D., 1814, and of the Independence
of the United States the 38th.

(Signed) James Madison.

[Counter signed] By the President.

James Monroe,
Secretary of State.

Credentials of the Four Coimmissioners.^

{January IS, /-^^^.J

JAMES MADISON PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

To all whom these Presents shall concern Greeting :

Know ye that, for the purpose of confirming between the United
States and His Britannic Majesty perfect harmony and good corre-
spondence and of removing all grounds of dissatisfaction and re-
posing special trust and confidence in the integrity prudence and
abilities of John Quincy Adams, Minister Plenepotentiary of the
United States at the Court of his Majesty the Emperor of all the
Eussias, James A. Bayard, late a Senator of the United States,
Henry Clay, Speaker of the House of Representatives of the United
States, and Jonathan Russel, one of their distinguished citizens. I
have nominated and by and with the advice and consent of the Sen-
ate appointed them jointly and severally Ministers Plenepoten'y and
Extraordinary of the United States, with full power and all manner
of power and authority for and in the name of the United States to
meet and confer with a Minister or Ministers of his said Britannic

1 From Bayard's letter-book.



256 AMERICAN HISTOEICAL ASSOCIATION.

Majesty being furnished with the like powers and authority and
with him or them to agree, treat, consult and negociate of and con-
cerning the general commerce between the United States and Great
Britain and its dominions or dependencies and of all matters and
subjects connected therewith which may be interesting to the two
nations, And to conclude and sign a treaty or treaties, convention or
conventions touching the premises; transmitting the same to the
President of the United States for his final ratification by and with
the advice and consent of the Senate of the United States.
In testimony, etc.^

Commission of Christopher Hughes.^

[Fehruarij 3, 18U.]
James Madison President of the United States of America

To Christopher Hughes Junr Greeting:

Reposing special trust and confidence in your integrity prudence
and Ability I have nominated and by and with the advice and con-
sent of the Senate have appointed you the said Christopher Hughes
Junr. Secretary of the Mission extraordinary of the United States
for entering into negociations with Great Britain of and concerning
a treaty of peace and commerce.

In testimony, etc.

Monroe to the Four Commissioners.'

Department of State.
Gentlemen : Mr. William Shaler * it is believed possesses qualities
which may be very useful in the course of the negociation with Great
Britain as the Bearer of Avritten and verbal communications to our
Ministers at the diiferent Courts of Europe which circumstances may
render necessary and with this view he is attached to the Mission.
He is to be allovv ed a compensation at the rate of 2000 Dls. a year from
the time of his leaving the United States and you will accordingly on
your arrival at Gottenburg draw on the Bankers at Amsterdam at
this rate from time to time as it may be due him as a contingency of
the Mission.

1 Note in the letter-book : " There are separate Commissions of the same tenor and
effect to Albert Gallatin, late Secretary of the Treasury, to act jointly and severally, etc.
Dated 9th February 1814."

2 From Bayard's letter-book. Christopher Hughes (1786-1849) of Baltimore, son-
in-law of Gen. Samuel Smith, was commissioned secretary to the United States legation
at London Feb. 3, 1814. It was he who brought the treaty signed at Ghent to this
country.

3 From Bayard's letter-book.

* William Shaler, afterward U. S. consul-general at Algiers and at Havana.



cokeespondence of j. a. bayaed, 1814. 257

Adams and Bayard to Romanzoff.

Jan. 19, ISlIt.
[See pp. 260-262.]

KOMANZOFF TO AdAMS AND BayAKD.

Jan. 22, 1811^.
[See p. 262.]

W. H. Lyttelton ^ TO Bayard.

Mr. Lyttelton presents his Compts. to Mr. Bayard and begs him
to accept his very sincere Thanks for the kind and polite offer he has
had the goodness to make him. Mr. L. will so far avail himself of it,
as to trouble Mr. B. with one or two Letters, which he will be so
good as to put into the Post immediately on his arrival in England.
With Mr. Bayard's permission, Mr, Lyttelton will add a Letter of
Introduction for Mr. B. to Mr. Tierney,^ a Gentlemian fully capable
of giving the soundest political Information to Mr. B. and of making
him acquainted with the Persons best qualified to discuss with him
the Affairs of Great Britain and the United States. Mr. L. prefers
offering Mr. B. a Letter to Mr. Ticrney to giving him one to Lord
Spencer,* because Lord S. has less exclusively devoted himself, of
late, to public Business than Mr. T. has, and Mr. T. is so much Mr.
L.'s friend, that he flatters himself he will pay as much attention to
a recommendation from him as could be expected to be bestowed
upon it even by his Father-in-Law.

Lady Sarah Lyttelton* desires Mr. Bayard will accept her best
Thanks for his civility to her, and regrets that she has not had the
opportunity of becoming acquainted with him.

Sunday, J any. 23.

Adams and Bayard to Monroe.

21i. January, IS 11}.
Sir: We have the honor to enclose copies and translations of
two Notes,^ recently addressed by us, to the Chancellor, Count

1 William Henry Lyttelton, afterward third Baron Lyttelton (1782-1837), a member
of the Whig party in Parliament 1807-1820.

2 George Tierney (1761-1830), the opponent of Pitt's financial policy, who had served
as treasurer of the navy, and president of the hoard of control.

3 George John Spencer, second Earl Spencer (1758—18.34), famous as first lord of
the admiralty 1794-1801. had held no public office since 1807.

* Mr. Lyttelton had on Mar. 4, 1813, married Lady Sarah Spencer, eldest daughter
of the second Earl Spencer.
^ The notes referred to follow.

62513°— VOL 2—15 17



258 AMEEICAlSr HISTOEICAL ASSOCIATION.

Romanzoff; together with copies of the answers to them, received
from him. Our Notes will disclose to you the motives upon which Mr.
Bayard has concluded to depart, without waiting any longer for the
communication Avhich we have been expecting from this Govern-
ment.

Adams and Bayard to Romanzoff.

31 Dec./12 Jan. 18H.

{Enclosure — Translation.^

The undersigned, Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipo-
tentiary of the United States of America, have the honor to address
themselves to his Excellency the Count Romanzoff, Chancellor of
the Empire, to request of him a communication of the information
received by the Government of his Imperial Majesty upon the subject
of the course taken by the British Government relative to the offer
of the mediation of his Imperial Majesty to effectuate peace between
the United States and England.

More than four months have elapsed since his Excellency the
Chancellor of the Empire informed the undersigned that the Am-
bassador of his Imperial Majesty near the Court of London would'
receive instructions to renew to that Court the overture of the media-
tion of his Imperial Majesty; and they have since waited with pa-
tience and solicitude the result of these instructions. Knowing the
sincere disposition of their Government and of their Country to
treat of peace with Great Britain under the proferred mediation of
his Imperial Majesty, they have imposed upon themselves the duty
of exhausting every reasonable expectation of its success rather than
yield to the persuasion that the offer would be fruitless. But his Ex-
cellency the Chancellor of the Empire will be sensible that there is
another duty not less imperious equally imposed upon them — it is not
to leave their Government in the uncertainty of vain expectation,
which may have the effect of diverting them from the pursuit of
measures which in the actual state of things may be required by the
interests of their nation.

If the offer of the mediation of his Imperial Majesty has not been
accepted by the British Government, the continuance of the Extra-
ordinary Mission of the United States becomes useless and the pro-
traction of the residence here of one of the undersigned, without an
object. But the, United States will not be the less grateful for the
friendly intentions of his Imperial Majesty and for the effort which
he has made in order to reestablish peace between them and England.



CeKRESPONDEN^CE OF J. A. BAYARD, 1814. 259

[The Additional Paragraph.] »

In the first official Communication which the undersigned had the
honour of addressing to His Excellency the Chancellor of the Em-
pire, on the subject of their Mission, they exposed to him the motives
upon which they were desirous of receiving from the Government of
His Imperial Majesty the information of the decision of the British
Government, which they could regularly receive from no other source.
They have been six months waiting for a result, of which they
might make to their own Government an authentic Report, and
which might serve as a Justification for the steps which in either
alternative it would remain for them to take. They would still wait
with the same Patience, for a Communication so important to the
Commission with which they are charged, if they could flatter them-
selves that by protracting the term of their Mission they could con-
tribute to the accomplishment of the just and beneficient Views,
which induced the offer of His Imperial Majesty's Mediation. But
if from the unavoidable delays which may result from the absence
of His Imperial Majesty, and the multiplied and momentous occupa-
tions which engage his attention. His Excellency the Chancellor
should not now be enabled to make to the Undersigned the Communi-
cation which they invite, one of them proposes in the course of a few
days to ask of His ^Excellency the Chancellor, His Passports to re-
turn to his Country, leaving to the other the care of receiving and
transmitting to their Government the Answer which shall officially
notify to them the Resolution of the British Government, with re-
gard to the Proposal of His Imperial Majesty's Mediation.

RoMANzorr to Adams and Bayard.

[Enclosure.]

Le Chancelier de I'Empire a eu I'honneur de recevoir la Note que
Messieurs les Envoyes extraordinaires et Ministres plenipotentiaires
des Etats Unis d'Amerique lui ont adressee, pour demander de sa
part la communication des renseignemens que le Gouvernement de
Sa Majeste Imperiale pent avoir regus au sujet du parti pris par le
Gouvernement Britannique sur I'offre cie la mediation de Sa Majeste
Imperiale pour effectuer la paix entre les Etats Unis et I'Angleterre.

Le soussigne, fidele a ses habitudes, et se faisant un plaisir de con-
server cette maniere franche et simple qu'il a etablie dans ses rela-



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