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instant. We did not send the letters etc. which we brought for you.
And we do not now because we thought the most certain if not the
most speedy delivery of them Avould be ensured by their remaining
here. We have the pleasure of informing you of the health of your
families when we left America your Ladies having been seen by one
or both of us just before we sailed.

Clay to Monroe.^

GoTTENBURG, 23 April ISllf..

Sir : I avail mj-self of the opportunity afforded by a Swedish ves-
sel bound to Boston to transmit to you the enclosed copy of a
despatch from Mr. Russell and myself. Since its date that Gentle-
man has proceeded to Stockholm where he will remain until he is
notified of the necessity of his Attendance here. A letter from Mr.
Gallatin to Capt. Jones of the Neptune which wintered here directs
that vessel to proceed to HarAvich in England where he and Mr. Bay-
ard had arrived on the 8th inst. I presume that they are there or at
London. Mr. G. heard of his appointment and I presume that I
shall in a few days have the satisfaction of being joined by him and
Mr. Bayard.

Of the wonderful events which have occurred in France you will
have been informed by a channel less circuitous than this. The Cap-

^ F. D. Changuion, envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary from the Nether-
lands, October, 1814-July, 1815.
2 From Bayard's letter-book.



288 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION-.

ture of Paris by the Allies on the 31 March appears to have been fol-
lowed by a declaration on the part of the Senate headed by Talley-
rand, that Bonaparte had forfeited the throne, and no doubt exists
of the acquiescence of France in this declaration. His power may
therefore be considered as at an end and Louis the 18th is I presume
at this moment quietly seated upon the throne. Indeed it is rumoured
here that Bonaparte has acceded to a proposition of the Allies to
retire to the Island of Elba upon an establishment suited to his fallen
condition. A new epoch has thus arisen the first effect of which will
be an European peace. It will doubtless lead to totally new relations
political as well as commercial. It remains for us to see if Great
Britain will insist upon retaining or surrender her conquests, and
admit other nations to a fair participation in the general commerce
of the world. Whilst the sole principle which actuated the Allies was
the reduction of french power there appears to have been a hearty
concurrence and cooperation between them. We shall see if senti-
ments of moderation and harmony will continue to guide their Coun-
cils when delicate and difficult arrangements are to be made among
themselves.

It will cost Sweden some trouble to possess herself of her new
acquisition.^ The people of Norway are said to be extremely
averse to the annexation, and countenanced as Sweden suspects by
Denmark are preparing to resist it. From the scanty resources of
Norway I should suppose however that the resistance must be en-
tirely ineffectual unless the aid now covertly given by Denmark if
given at all should lead to a War between the two countries, and
unless also that Great Britain in the new circumstances in which
she may find herself sees it her interest to support the Norwegians.

I rely upon your goodness for excusing the liberty I take in en-
closing the letters for my family to your care that they may be put
into the Post office at Washington.

Bayard to Rodney.

London, May 1, I8I4.
[See "Bulletin" N. Y. Pub. Lib., IV, 243-244; "Papers Del.
Hist. Soc", XXXI, 34-36.]

Clay to Russell.^

GoTTENBURG, 1 May ISI4.
My dear Sir: Mr. Milligan private Secretary of Mr. Bayard ar-
rived here last evening from London in the packet charged with a



1 Frederick VI had ceded Norway to Sweden by the treaty of Kiel, Jan. 14, 1814.
s From Bayard's letter-book ; see " Writings of Gallatin ", I, 606-608.



COBRESPONDENCE OF J. A. BAYAED, 1814. 289

dispatch from Him to us and with a private from Mr. Gallatin to
me of each of which I have the pleasure to enclose you a copy herein.
You will perceive from the perusal of them that they have for their
object mainly a change in the theatre of the proposed negociation
with Great Britain. On this delicate question I have regretted ex-
tremely that I could not have the benefit of yours and Mr. Adams
opinion and advice. The first enquiry is as to the power to take
the step, and the nature of our instructions. Our Commissions op-
pose no obstacle to it, not being at all limited as to place. I recollect
that before the Commissions were made out asking the President if
they would restrict us to this place and his observing that they had
been presented to him for his signature so prepared, but he had
ordered them to be changed which was accordingly done to their
present unrestricted form. Neither are we limited by the instructions
to Gottenburg, but they certainly contemplate Sweden as the scene
of negociation. The motiA^es which led to this selection undoubtedly
were the neutrality of the territory, the friendly dispositions of the
crown Prince^ towards us, and the facility of keeping up a corre-
spondence which might be deemed expedient thro yourself and Mr.
Adams with the Courts of Stockholm and St. Petersburg. All these
reasons would equally aj^ply to Holland, unless the removal of the
place of the negociation would create coolness on the part of the
Swedish Government.

There are additional reasons indeed to recommend Holland. It
would be a complement to the new Government manifesting our con-
fidence in its friendship and merited by the step which it hastened
to take immediately after its establishment of sending a Minister to
America.

It would afford us more frequent opportunities direct and indirect
of communicating with our Government and giving also much greater
facility to the communications between the British Ministers and
theirs would thereby accelerate the termination of the Mission. Still
if the substitution of Holland cannot be made without dissatisfaction
to the Swedish Government I think we ought not to take the step.
Of this you are the best judge. I can hardly however suppose it
possible that this effect would be produced if it were understood that
the change was at the instance of England. I shall therefore say to
Messrs. Gallatin and Bayard by Mr. Milligan who returns on
Wednesday in the packet that they have my consent to go to Holland
if the arrangement can be so made that the responsibility of desiring
it, whatever it may be, shall be assumed by the British Ministry.
Of course I shall not because I cannot commit either yourself or Mr.
Adams on the occasion. I shall not consent to go to London.

^ Bernadotte.
62513°— VOL 2—15 19



290 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION.

American papers have been received in England, Mr. Milligan
informs me bringing information doAvn to the 12 March from Boston
and New York. He says that he understood from them that a flag
was to sail on the 15 April with despatches for us. That Granger ^
Avas removed from the office of Postmaster Generrd and (jovernor
Meigs- of Ohio appointed and that it Avas rumoured that Wilkin-
son was arrested.^ We took a trip on Monday last to Trolhatta *
and altho the Aveather Avas bad felt ourselves abundantly compensated
for the jaunt in a vieAv of the canal. I got into my rooms last even-
ing. Mr. Hughes Avill proceed to London Avith Mr. Milligan. I fear
my detention here Avill be much longer than I expected.

Clay to Bayard and Gallatin.^

GoTTENBURG, '2 May 1811}.

Gentlemen : Colo. Milligan arrived here the evening before last,
and delivered to me Mr. Bayard's letter of the 20th Ulto. to ]\Ir.
Russell and myself ® and that of Mr. Gallatin of the 22d to me alone.
I Avas much gratified in being relieved by them from the uncertainty
in which I was placed as to your movements and prospects. On your
part 3^ou Avill have been extricated prior to the receipt of this letter
from a more perplexing embarrassment (particularly in respect of
Mr. Gallatin) as to the new Commission by the despatch forwarded
by Capt. Jones in the Neptune.

It would have been highly satisfactory to me to have been assisted
by our colleagues Messrs. Adams and Russell in deliberating upon
the contents of your letters. But the latter Gentleman left this place
on the 21st of April for Stockholm, AA'here I am informed by a letter
this moment received from him he arrived on the 25th. The object
of his visit Avas to present his credentials and to establish those rela-
tions Avith the SAvedish GoA^ernment Avhich may be deemed expedient,
intending to return to this place the moment he should learn by your
arrival that his presence Avas necessary. Of Mr. Adams I have no
information except Avhat is contained in the folloAving paragraph of
Mr. Russell's letter " Mr. Speyer receiA^ed this morning (26 April)
a letter from Mr. Adams dated 11th of this month on which he
says^ he proposes to leave St. Petersberg about the 20 of this month

1 Gideon Granger (1767-1822), po-tmaster-general from 1801 till 1814, when he was
removed by Madison after his defiant appointment of Michael Leib to the office of post-
master of Philadelphia. Adams, '• History ", VII, 309-401.

2 Return Jonathan Meigs (1734-1823), governor of Ohio 1811-1814, was nomi-
nated by Madison Feb. 25 and confirmed by the Senate Mar. 17. Adams, " History ",

VII, 401.

3 Wilkinson had been summoned to a court of inquiry. Mar. 24. Adams, •'History",

VIII, 20.

^Trolhattan, some 45 miles north, up the river Gota and the Gota canal, which in 1814
was nearly finished.

2 From Bayard's letter-book ; printed in " Writings of Gallatin "', I, 608-611.
» See pp. 285-287.



COEBESPONDENCE OF J. A. BAYAED, 1814. 291

and hopes to arrive somewhere in Sweden by the first of May prob-
ably at Stockhohii. His route he says will depend on the ther-
mometer of the next ten days ". Mr. Kussell adds that he shall
endeavour to be ready to accompany Mr. Adams should he pass by
Stockholm to Gottenburgh. Being thus without the benefit of con-
sulting with Mr. Adams or Mr. Russell I haA^e given to the subject
of your letters the best consideration in my power. With regard to
changing the place of negociation it appears to me to be a measure
attended with some difficulty and requiring on our part great delicacy.
Before Mr. Eussell left this place we learnt that the British charge
d'afi'aires at Stockholm had presented on the 9th of April a note to
the Swedish Government informing it of the contemplated negocia-
tion here and asking its sanction to the measure. It was an obvious
duty on the part of the Representative of our Government to solicit
also from Sweden the hospitalities requisite to our condition here
and altho Mr. Russell had no particular instruction to that effect he
intended Avith my advice to present a note on the occasion the moment
he was accredited. This I have no doubt he has done. The Swedish
Government, thus officially informed by both Pai'ties of the intended
negociation here, must see with surprize if no other emotion another
place so quickly substituted for Gottenburgh. I need not inform you
that our Government counts much on the friendship of the northern
Powers particularly Russia and Sweden. And altho I have no doubt
that the crown Prince has lost in the scale of European affairs much
of his Aveight b}^ the great events which he has himself contributed to
produce ^ we ought not lightly to jeopardize his friendship. But it
is highly probable that the President had he foreseen what has oc-
curred since the date of our instructions would have deemed Holland
equally eligible with this place, if not more so. And I am prepared
in this instance and in all others to give our instructions a liberal in-
terpretation Avith a vieAv to the Avonderful revolutions which have
recently occured.

If therefore any place in Holland can be substituted for Gotten-
burg in such manner as that the change shall be imderstood to be at
the instance of Great Britain, you liaAe my consent to make it.
Being thus brought about, such explanations may be made to
Sweden as Avill not only retain to us her friendship but cast upon the
other Party all the unfriendly consequences should there be any
groAving out of the measure.

I enclose herein an extract from a letter I forAvarded this morn-
ing to Mr. Russell to put him in possession of the proposed change
and my views of it.^

1 1, e., by the fall of Napoleon. 2 Ser pp. 288-290.



292 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION.

With regard to going to London with great deference for the
opinion of Mr. Gallatin I really cannot concur in that measure.
If there be a doubt as to what our Government has done to restore
peace it cannot be on the side of its having done too little. A Power
of less pretensions than the United States might with equal pro-
priety after the rejection of the Russian Mediation have demanded
that its own seat of Government should be the theatre for discussing
propositions of peace.

Having waived this and acceded to one of the alternatives offered
by the other Party I do not think we ought to submit to further con-
descensions, especially when we have yet to see the example in
British history of that haughty people having been conciliated by the
condescension of their enemy. I am deeply sensible of the magni-
tude of the present crisis, which I have endeavoured to view in all its
consequences immediate and remote, and the result of my reflections
is that we shall best promote the objects of our mission and acquit
ourselves of our duty by preserving a firm and undismayed counte-
nance. We have the chances in our favor of the continental negocia-
tions which are now or will shortly be going on.^ It is impossible
that Europe, liberated as it is from the despotism of Bonaparte,
should be indifferent to the enormous power and enormous preten-
sions of Great Britain on the Ocean. It will assuredly, I presume,
impose some limits on her. If she is wise she will readily acquiesce
in them. The sympathy which she derived from the world generally
under the supposition that she was contending for her existence and
struggling for their liberties has ceased. If intoxicated by her
present prosperity she reject the Councils of moderation and pru-
dence that which Bonaparte attempted by compulsion will be ac-
complished 'by the voluntary consent of Europe. But I forbear.
Indeed I ought to apologize for touching at all on a subject on which
you are so much more competent to judge.

From the letter of Mr, Bayard I remark that it is thought by you
proper that we should make some official communication to the
British Government of our arrival here. The embarrassment which
even if Mr. Eussel had been here a minority of the mission might
have felt on this subject is greatly encreased by my standing alone.
It seems to me in the first place that having been invited here by
the British Government, that Government ought by the prompti-
tude of its own measures to have rendered unnecessary such a notifi-
cation on our part. Waiving however this point of Etiquette (and
I certainly am not going during this negociation to give consequence
to any affair of mere etiquette) what could I alone, one of the five

1 At the Congress of Vienna.



COREESPONDENCE OP J. A, BAYARD, 1814. 293

who compose the Commission, say to accelerate the movements of the
other Party? It has therefore appeared to me more adviseable to
transmit to you, which T now do, copies of the new Commissions^
and of the new instructions which our Government has issued and
to submit to you the making of such communication as may be
adapted to the occasion, and I authorize if you deem it at all neces-
sary any use whatever of my name in relation to it.

The packages and letters which we brought for you from America
are sent by Col. Milligan and Mr.- Hughes the Secretary of the Mis-
sion who accompanies him.

I regret now very much that they weio not sent by Capt. Jones,
but they were kept for reasons contained in the letter which he bore
for you.

The fine qualities of Mr. Hughes cannot fail to interest you as they
have done me very highly.

Bayard and Gallatin to Monroe.

May 6, 1811
[See Adams, " Writings of Gallatin ", I, 611.]

George B. Milligan to Bayard.

Harwich, 10th May I8I4.
My dear Sir : I had only time to write you a few lines this morng.
accounting for my detention here. I have to regret it was not in my
power to proceed immediately to London with the dispatches from
Gottenbourg. Mr. Hughes's passport allowing him that liberty ; and
knowing you were anxious for the receipt of letters I was charged
with, led me to advise him to proceed without delay, that you might
receive the earliest information. I have to regret more particularly
my being absent from you, as I had the pleasure of bringing on let-
ters from Wilmington, which must have afforded you late and inter-
esting news of home, and probably given some account of my friends
there, from whom I have but a short and single letter. I reached
Gottenbourg one week precisely after my leaving London. Your
recommendations to Mr. Clay procured the most friendly reception.
I remained there three days, and sailed on my return, with the first
packet. Mr. C. expressed great surprise at your having visited Eng-
land, and was expecting you every day when I arrived in Gotten-
bourg. He even hesitated as to the propriety of my returning, being
under the unpression that the letters he and Mr. R. wrote you on their

1 See pp. 254-257, 263-265.



294 AMERICAN HISTOEICAL ASSOCIATION.

arrival, and which you must have received after my leaving England,
would hurry you on to join them. With respect to the change pro-
posed/ he saw many difficulties, and I think consented reluctantly
to your proposition. The fact is, his Excellency is very commodiously
and handsomely established, and either dislikes the idea of moving,
or thinks it will occasion delay in commencing the negotiation. He is
far from believing we stand in as much need of peace, as I think,
your much better judgment is impressed with; and should Mr. R.
coincide with his opinions, joined to the known violent sentiments of
Mr. A, I should fear but little good will be produced by an immedi-
ate meeting. He disregards the threats of New England, and thinks
that no danger is to be apprehended from the[i]r violence. I sin-
cerely hope so, but am afraid he is too sanguine in his calculations.
The late papers I have seen from that part of the country, breath
their usual intemperance. J write you now, that in case you should
have determined to proceed to Gottenbourg, you may think of mak-
ing some arrangements as to your accomodations. Mr. Hughes says
that there is sufficient room in the appartments Mr. Clay has taken
to accomodate you, and that that Gentleman is anxious you should
share them with him. I mention tljis, least application may be mjide
from another quarter. Hughes will satisfy you, if you mention the
subject to him. I am in hopes I shall be able to join you soon after the
receipt of this, as I take it for granted Mr. Beasly will forward me
the proper permission. It is impossible for me, my dear Sir, to ex-
press to you the obligations I must always consider myself under to
you, for the many kind attentions I have received, and I shall never
be so happy as when I have it in my power to convince you how sen-
sible I am of your friendship.

P. S. — I saw Capt. Jones on board of the Neptune this morng. The
treatment he has reed, here, has not been the most flattering. I think
the orders for weighing his anchor, will be received with joy. He
desires to be most respectfully presented to you.

Bayard and Gallatin to Gastlereagh.

May 13, 18U.
[See p. 30C).]

Bathurst to Bayard and Gallatin.

May 16, 181 J^.
[See pp. 306-307.]

1 The change from Gottenburg to Ghent.



CORRESPONDENCE OF J. A. BAYARD, 1814. 295

Clay to Bayard and Gallatin.^

GOTTENBURG, 16th Maij ISllf..

Gent,: On the 12th Inst, the Cartel Chauncey arrived here from
N. York, whence she sailed on the 10th Ulto. charged with despatches
for the joint mission and for our foreign ministers. She was orig-
inally engaged by Government to guard against any casualty which
miglii have attended the John Adams, but before her departure a
messenger arriving with despatches from Mr. Crawford, she was
detained to afford an opportunity of transmitting an answer to them,
and any comments, which they might authorize, to us. She brings
Washington dates to the 7th, N. York to the 9th Ulto. The date of
the last Despatch to us is the 4th of April. I should transmit you
Copies of the despatches, which she has brought, if it were not for
the uncertainty of this Letter finding you in London. But they are
not very material, making no essential change in our former instruc-
tions.

The intelligence which she brings is, however, highly important.
It appears that the President had on the 31st March, recommended to
Congress a repeal of the Embargo and Non Importation System,^
that very shortly after the Committee of foreign affairs made a
report to the H. of Representatives, in favor of it.* Mr. Munroe
says it is highly probable that it will pass. A private letter ad-
dressed to me states its actual passage through that House by 115 to
37.* I transmit to you a Copy of the Presidents Message, and news
papers containing the report of the Committee, and the Speech of
their Chairman,*^ from which you will be able to collect the motives
which dictated this interesting measure. I would have forw\arded to
you a complete file of the N. Intellr.*' from about the period of the
sailing of the John Adams to the 5th of April, with Avh. I have been
furnished, but for the reason assigned in relation to the dispatches,
and that I hourly expect Mr. Adams, who counted upon reaching
this place on the 10th instant.

A Bill has passed Congress to quiet the Yazoo claims upon the
basis of the compromise formerly recommended.'' A proposition to

' A copy of this letter was enclosed in a letter of Huglies to Bayard dated " London,
Blenheim St., May 24th ", in which Hughes says : " I am instructed by Mr. Gallatin to
forward to you the enclosed copy of a dispatch received from Mr. Clay, by this days
mail: it bears date 'the 16th May, Gottenburg." Mr. Gallatin has received no other
communication from Mr. Clay, and, of course, we are ignorant if there be any private
letters for any of us, brought by the Chauncey, from our friends."

2 Richardson, " Messages ", I, 542.

2 13 Cong., 2 sess.. Doc. No. 95. " Report [by Calhoun] on the Message of the Presi-
dent recommending the Repeal of the Embargo."

* " House Journals ", Apr. 7.

^ Calhoun spolce on the repeal Apr. 4 and Apr. 6. "Annals ", 13 Cong., 2 sess., pt. II.,
1962-1965, 1976-1978.

" National Intelligencer.

'Act of Mar. 31, 1814.



296 AMERICAN HISTOEICAL ASSOCIATION.

establish a National Bank was pending before Congress, and ap-
peared to have gathered much strength.^ The elections in Massa-
chusetts and N. Hampshire,- though they eventuated in favor of
the Federalists, demonstrate that that party has lost ground in
N. England.

The engagement of the Government with the owner of the Chaun-
cey terminates here, unless we choose to take her again, which of
course I shall not do. A vessel being ready to sail for Amsterdam
the moment the wind will admit of her getting out, I shall send Mr.
CarrolP to Paris with the despatches for Mr. Crawford. On this,
as on other occasions, I should have been highly gratified to have
had it in my power to confer with some of my colleagues. Denied
that advantage, it appeared to me eligible to send a special messenger
with these despatches.

When the Chauncey sailed from America information had been
received there of the advance of the allies within 60 miles of Paris.
Opposite views, the result probably of opposite wishes, appeared to
be taken of their further progress. The expectation however seem'd
general of a general peace by the fall or by the consent of Bonaparte.

Having been without any packet from Harwich for more than a
fortnight, one arrived yesterday, which I hoped would bring some-
thing to throw a cheerful light around me. I was disappointed in
not receiving a line from any body on any subject. A vague report,
traceable to no authentic source, circulates that Ad. Gambler and
somebody else are appointed to treat with us.*

Mr. Russell, in a letter from Stockholm dated the 8th inst. ex-
presses his concurrence and writes " The apprehension of any serious
evil from this quarter occasioned thereby, is I trust without founda-



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