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tion. T regret however that I had not laiown the opinions of Messrs.
G. and B. in season to have shaped my communications here ac-
cordingly. Something like a retrograde movement will now be neces-
sary, and it may require some address to reconcile this government
to the new arrangement. I hope it may be in our power to throw
the responsibility on the British Government etc. " I am placed
rather in an awkward predicament by your communication, as the
uncertainty in which it leaves our ultimate location disqualifies me
from adapting my movements here to either alternative."

The last like the former instructions display great solicitude on the
part of the President to hasten the result of our mission, be it what
it may.

* Bill reported by the committee of ways and means, but not passed.

2The Massachusetts vote for governor had been: Strong (Fed.), 45,374, Dexter (Dem.),
45,359. The New Hampshire vote: Oilman (Fed.), 19,842, Plumer (Dem.), 19,195.
" Niles' Register ", June 4, and July 9, 1814.

s Henry Carroll was Clay's secretary.

* James, first Baron Gambler (1756-1833), admiral. His appointment, and that of
Goulburn and Adams (see p. 299) were gazetted July 3.



In a letter, dated at N. York, 9th April, addressed to Messrs.
Gallatin and Clay by Abraham Barker and Co. they say : " Jacob
Barker, (who was at Washington City) requests us to say, Govern-
ment have received a letter from Sir Geo. Prevost on 5th instant,
dated in Canada, March 22nd proposing an armistice and offering to
appoint a Commissioner to meet one they may appoint to negotiate
the terms. The Governt. believing from the tenor of the letter that
the proposition was made with an honest desire to effect the object
proposed with a view to peace, determined yesterday 6th Inst, in a
Cabinet Council to open a negotiation with Sir Geo. provided he
was authorized to conclude an armistice hy sea, as well as by land.
They wrote on the 7th inst. enquiring on that point, and as Sir
George proposed it without saying a word about Sea or land, it is
to be presumed that he has full authority, in which case we shall have
an armistice in a very short time." ^

Batard and Gallatin to AoAars, Clay, and Russell,

May 17, 18U.
[See Adams, " Writings of Gallatin ", I, 617.]

Bayard and Gallatin to Bathurst.

May 17, ISU.
[See p. 307.]

R. Bond 2 to Mrs. Bayard.'

London, May 22nd, ISII,..
My dear Mrs. Bayard: It gave me great pleasure to see Mr.
Bayard in England, the pleasure would have been increased if you
had accompanied him. He asked me to call and look at some dresses
he had bespoken for you, I find them very fashionable and made by
a firstclass dressmaker. As I did not think either of them youthful
enough for your daughter, I took the liberty to ask Mr. Bayard to
let me order one of my own dressmaker such as I thought would suit
her first coming out and I hope she will exhibit it at the first Ball
she appears at as a Young Lady. I hope neither you or Miss Bayard

1 Prevost had entered into negotiations for an armistice with General Winder,
an American prisoner, who transmitted the proposal to Washington. In response to
this overture the United States sent Col. Ninian Pinkney and Prevost sent Adj. -Gen.
Baynes to a conference at Champlain May 1. The conference, however, came to nothing.
Kingsford, " History of Canada ", VIII, 529-531 ; " Report on Canadian Archives ", 1896,
" State Papers, Lower Canada ", pp. 24-28.

" Probably the same family to which Milligan refers in his letter of Sept. 30, 1814,
see p. 342.

* From the papers of Mr. Thomas P. Bayard.


will object to my quaker taste. It was made on my niece Miss Travis
I had it made long as I think she promised to be tall — for yon must
recollect that very short 'petticoats are worn particularly for dancing.
When the dress is dirty if Avell done up it will last a long time.

I have asked Mr. Milligan a great deal about his Aunt and Sisters.
Remember me most kindly to them. My Brother and niece join me
in this request as also to yourself and family.

We have been much longer absent than we expected but I hope
our friends will not forget us. I sincerely hope Peace will soon
enable us to return. We have seen a great deal but have still a great
deal more to see.

Bayard and Gallatin to Monroe.

May £3, 18U.
[See Adams, " Writings of Gallatin ", I, 618.]

Clay lo Russell and Adams.^

GoTTENBURG, 31 May I8I4.

Gentlemen: I had the satisfaction to learn from Mr. Russell's
letter of the 25 inst. received this morning that Mr. Adams reached
Stockholm on the 24th.

A packet arriving this morning from England I have also had the
pleasure to receive despatches from our Colleagues there which I
have deemed of a nature sufficiently important to justify sending
Mr. Connel as a special messenger with them to you. Besides the
casualties incidental to a conveyance by the mail he will anticipate
its arrival in Stockholm two or three days.

You will see from these despatches the negociation is transferred
to Ghent. I have ordered Capt. Angus to be in readiness with the
John Adains to transport you to such port as you may think proper
to direct, the moment you may arrive here. The officers inform me
that she could sail this CA^ening if it were necessary so that if you
choose to go in her you will probably be subjected to no detention
here. I shall myself proceed by land — will set out tomorrow and
expect to get to Ghent before you.

If 5^ou do not choose to employ on this service the Corvette, you
will have the goodness to inform Capt. Angus accordingly and direct
him to proceed to the port the most convenient to Ghent, which I
presume will be Antwerp or Ostend. He may in that case require
some documentary protection. Such packages and letters (and there
are a number) brought from America for Mr. Adams as Mr. Connel

^ From Bayard's letter-book ; printed in " Writings of Gallatin ", I, 617-618.


could not conveniently take Charge of I shall place with some of Mr.
Russell's goods and Chattels under the care of our excellent ac-
quaintance Mr. Hall^ to whom if yoa do not come here you will
give the needful directions. Most of my baggage I shall put on
board the John Adams.

1 have engaged with Mr. Connel that his expences to Stockholm
and back again shall be borne by the Government. As they cannot
now be ascertained if you will advance the amount it will be reim-
bursed upon our meeting at Ghent. We may expect from America at
this place other despatches. A liag was it is alleged to sail in twenty
days after the Chauncey. I have directed the Consul here in the
event of one arriving to detain it until you get liere. It will I pre-
sume be necessary for j^ou to leave some general order with him for
the future.

[P. S.] — I send you a second set of Commissions for the Joint Mis-
sion to guard against any accident which may attend me, which were
brought by the Chauncey.

Admiral Gambler Mr. Golsby^ and Mr. Adams" are the British
Commissioners appointed to treat with us. Mr. Bayard left London
on the 23 of May for Ghent via Paris. Mr. Gallatin remained there
on the 24th.

Lafayette to Alexander I.



Apres la phrase d'introduction, il dit,

Voicfi une Note que j'ai demandee a Mr. Crawford digne Ministre
des Etats Unis. il S'est adresse a Mr. le Cte. de Neselrode pour
etre presente a I'Empereur, et n'a pas eu de reponse. j'ai voulu
qu'il put au moins faire comme simple Citoyen, le peu qui depend de

Sa Note etablit I'etat de lat question jugee d'ailleurs par le refus
qu'ont fait les Anglais de la Mediation de leur Auguste allie tandis
que les Etats Unis s'etaient empresses de lui envoyer des Negociateurs
choisis dans les deux partis Nationaux.

^ American consul at Gottenburg.

2 Henry Gonlburn (1784-1856), at this time under-secretary for war and tlie colonies.
2 William Adams, LL. D. (1772-1851), an eminent admiralty lawyer, chosen because

of his knowledge of maritime law.

< On the entrance of the Allies into Paris Gallatin had written to Crawford that
the emperor Alexander might now he able to exert some influence on the British
ministry which would forward the cause of peace. Crawford, having tried in vain to
reach the emperor through Nesselrode, requested Lafayette's help in approaching Alex-
ander. Tn May Lafayette asked Crawford for a statement of the causes of complaint
and this statement the emperor received. In addition to this Lafayette, on May 25,
had a long conversation with the emperor on the subject at the house of Madame de
Stael. Adams, " Writings of Gallatin ", I, C02-624, passim.


On y voit, 1. que les Americains sont restes en arriere de ce que
Catherine Seconde et les autres puissances avaient cru necessaires a
I'independance de tous les P'euples.

2. Que le Sisteme des Blocus imaginaire n'etait pas Soutenable, et
que les Anglais ont rapporte depuis la declaration de guerre leurs
vexatoires Ordres du Conseil.

3. Que la Presse des Matelots sur des Batiments Neutres au gre du
premier officier Anglais, etait d'autant plus intolerable que tandis
que tout Matelot Etranger se trouve naturalise, malgre lui, en Angle-
terre par deux ans de Navigation, il faut pour etre naturalise en
Amerique cinq annees de residence a terre. les Americains ont meme
offert de nouvelles precautions pour prevenir les Contraventions a
cette Loi.

Mais ce qu'on y voit de plus important pour le moment actuel,
c'est que la Paix Europeenne met fin a Texercice de ces deux preten-
tions Britanniques, les Blocus Extensifs, et la presse des Matelots
en pleine Mer.

Les Americains ont pris plus de terrein qu'ils n'en ont perdu; ils
rentreront volontiers dans les limites respectives. II serait non seule-
ment ridicule mais coupable de leur demander plus: car ce ne pour-
rait etre qu'avec le projet d' entretenir I'humeur guerriere des Sau-
vages et de contrarier les mesures adoptees pour leur Civilisation.

II parait que d'anciens Souvenirs d'une Lutte favorable a laLiberte
du nouveau Monde des blessures d'amour propre dans les Combats
Maritimes de la guerre presente, quelques interets de Monopole ou
de Captures qui ne sont pas les vrais interets de I'Angieterre y ont
fomente une disposition contraire a cette Paix si facile, puisquetoutes
les causes de Litige se trouvent aneanties par le fait.

L'Empereur Alexandre pent et parconsequent doit completer en
cette occasion Sa noble fonction de Pacificateur, celui qui, ramenant
la gloire a sa vraie Source et la Puissance a Son Legitime usage, ne
S'est place a la Tete du genre humain que pour en recherclier les
Droits et le bonheur, ne mettra pas hors de Sa bienfaisante influence,
un Peuple le plus Libre et le plus heureux de la Terre, dont les interets
sont communs avec ceux de la Russie et dont le voeu unanime ^ ete
de S'abandonner a Sa Mediation.

Clay to Bayard and Gallatin.*


Gentlemen: I had the satisfaction yesterday to receive your let-
ter of the 17 ult. addressed to Mr. Adams, Mr. Eussell and myself.

1 From Bayard's letter-book.


These Gentlemen being in Stockholm which place Mr. Adams reached
on the 24 ult. I sent off last evening a special messenger with your
communication to them who will anticipate the arrival of the mail
at Stockholm several days. I have directed the Corvette John
Adams to be in readiness (and she will be so accordingly) to take
them to Antwerp or any other port convenient to Ghent, the moment
they arrive here, if they choose to go by sea. I shall proceed to-
morrow by the way of Copenhagen and Bremen to Ghent and I hope
to get there in three weeks at farthest. I should imagine by the
solicitude manifested by Mr. Russell to open the negociation with
which the Joint Mission is charged he will lose no time in hastening
to Ghent in company I presume with Mr. Adams.

Other Commissions having been sent out for the Mission by the
Ghmincey to guard against the loss of the John Adams I have placed
them at the disposal of Mr. Adams and Mr. Russell to provide for any
contingency happening to me.

The passport with which the Chauncey was furnished by the
British Admiral off the American coast is limited in its terms to the
outward voyage. It was an unintentional omission to which our
attention is called by Mr. Monroe who requests us to obtain from
the British Commissioners presumed to be here the requisite protec-
tion for her return. Not being able to make application to them
and there being no commander off this station within my knowle[d]ge
who would be likely to grant the proper document you will see the
propriety of procuring it at London. Some of the Passengers in
that vessel have endeavoured to make the impression here that she
violated her flag during the voyage. And as it is more than prob-
able that the imputation may reach the British Government, the
agent of the owner has put into my hands to refute it the enclosed
extract from the log book which discloses the whole transaction in
which the violation is alleged to have occurred.^

Du Pont de Nemours to [Batakd?] *


La premiere question a faire aux Negociateurs Anglais et a leur
Gouvernement est celle-ci.

*The enclosure was not copied into the letter-book.

2 This is endorsed, "Reed. June 8, 1814", at which time Bayard was in Paris.
It is at least not improbable that the memorandum is the work of the well-known
economist Pierre Samuel Du Pont de Nemours, who had returned to France from this
country in 1802, and who was, in 1814, secretary of the provisional government in
Paris. On Napoleon's return from Elba he returned to America where he died in Wil-
mington, Del., Aug. 6, 1817.


" Voulez vous rendre nationale en Amerique votre guerre avec les
Etats-unis ?

"Si vous le voulez, la maniere est tres simple; employez y une
grande force, envoyez y vos troupes disciplinees en Espagne, rem-
portez des victoires, emparez vous d'une partie du Pays.

"Alors vous transformerez la guerre actuelle, qui n'est encore que
de point d'honneur et de parti, en une Guerre qui interessera tons
les citoyens americains; car jls ne renonceront certainement pas a etre
une Republique independante et une Puissance respectable.

" Vous avez contribue en aidant les Espagnols et les Portugais a
montrer au monde ce que c'est f[\\U7ie guerre nationale.

" Vous ne voulez pas, et vous ne pourriez pas, exterminer les
Americans. lis sera impossible de les soumettre par la force. Si
vous envoyez centre eux soixante mille hommes tons les ans, vous
leur ferez un mal horrible, qui envenimera leur animosite, et vous y
perdrez tons les ans vos soixante mille hommes.

"■ Vous y perdrez de plus chaque annee un commerce de trente trois
millions de livres sterling.

" Cette guerre pourrait durer quatre ou cinq ans sans aucun succes
definitif. Mais votre bon sens, et les lumieres sur vos veritables in-
terets et votre veritable gloire, dont vous donnez actuellement de belles
preuves a I'Europe, vous y feront beaucoup plutot renoncer.

" C'est pour cela que vous nommez des Plenipotentiaires.

" La guerre a deux causes. Tune ostensible, I'autre plus secrette.

" Vous avez voulu presser les matelots americains sur leurs vais-

" lis ont dit que cela etait aussi contraire a leurs droits que si vous
les pressiez a New-York ou a Philadelphie.

" Vous avez replique que les matelots anglais desertaient, et serva-
ient ensuite sur les Navires des Etats-Unis.

" lis ont offert de ne laisser monter abord aucun matelot, ni marin,
ne Anglais, Ecossais ou Irlandais. — Le Gouvernement des Etats-Unis
est tres fidele aux engagemens qu'il a contractes.

'* La querelle sur ce point est done finie.

" Voici I'autre objet de la guerre.

" Vous avez pousse une chaine de Forts ou Fortius, depuis les
Lacs jusqu'au Mississipi. Vous cernez ainsi les Etats-Unis a I'Ouest.
Vous leur otez la naturelle extension de leur territoire, la principale
ressource de leurs Finances.

" C'est ce que les Frangais avaient voulu f aire contre vous quand
les Etats., aujourd'hui unisy etaient une de vos colonies.

" Vous ne I'avez pas souffert, et celle a ete la principale cause de la
guerre de 1756.


" les Etats imis ne doivent done pas le souffrir.

" Vous avez des Establissemens a la Cote Guest de I'Ameriqiie, et
il n'est pas impossible que vous les etendiez par la suite jusq'aux

" Prenez les Rocky-Hills pour f rontieres de ce cote entre les Estab-
lissemens a faire pas lesuJeux nations.

" Tirons une ligne du dernier point de frontiere con venue au haut
des lacs, a la source de la riviei'e la plus au nord affluente au Mis-

" Les Etats Unis ne disputeront a I'Angleterre aucun des terreins
au nord de cette ligne.

" ne leur disputez aucun de ceux qui seront au Sud.

" Ce sont de part et d'autre des deserts. II faudra deux mille ans
pour les mettre en valeur. Cela ne vaut pas la peine de tuer aucun
des Hommes qui vivent ou vivront dans le dixneuvieme siecle.

Gallatin to Castlereagh.

June 9, 181 If.
[See p. 308.]

William R. Hamilton to Irving.^

June 15^ 1811^.
[See p. 309.]

MiLLiGAN TO Bayard.

Ghent^ Monday morng., 27 [June].
My dear Sir : I returned last evening from Lille - and was dis-
appointed in not finding you here. Messrs. Adams and Eussel
reached this place on Fridaj'^ last. They saw Mr. Clay at x\mster-
dam. He intended leaving there on Saturda}^ — of course will be
here to day. The garrison in this place are now under arms, in wait-
ing for the Emperor of Russia who is to pass thro sometime during
the morning on his way from Ostend to the Hague. Mr. Gallatin
will probably be here in a day or two, as he must have heard of the
arrival of the John Adams at Amsterdam on the 20th several [dajys

1 Possibly George W. Erving.

2 Milligan had reached Ghent June 22, had engaged lodgings for Bayard, and had then
gone to Lille. Adams, "Memoirs ", II, 653.



Monsieur: M. De meulemeester ^ parait croire que V. E, amis; que
MM. vos collegues de I'Ambassade, ne verraient pas sans interet une
institution commencee depuis peu d'annees, et peutetre jusqu'a ce
jour, unique sur le Continent. «

La flore d'amerique, surtout de cette partie de I'amerique qui est
heureuse sous votre gouvernement, fournit le plus a la beaute du
salon des fleurs; elle est la patrie des Kalmies, des magnoliers et de
plusiers rosages; peutetre reverrez vous avec plaisir des Arbres in-
digenes a vos climats, transclimates parmi nous, et souvent honores
de nos prix annuels.

Si V. E. juge que cette institution merite les encouragemens que
lui donnent les premiers magistrats de la ville, et des etrangers, les
uns illustres dans la science de la botanique, les autfes par la haute
consideration dont ils jouissent, vous ne refuserez pas a M. Demeule-
meester la f aveur de vous presenter comme membres honoraires d'une
societe qui doit la grande partie de ses richesses a I'amerique sep-

Vos loisirs ^ en ce moment vous permeteront d'honorer I'exposition
publique de votre presence.


30 juin 1814

Bayard to N. Cornelissen.

Sir: I am very sensible of the kindness of Mr. Meulemeester and
of your civility in procuring for myself and colleagues an oppor-
tunity of visiting the agricultural and botanical Society of Ghent.

1 N. Cornelissen, secretary of the Academy of Design at Ghent, was an interested
memher of the Society d'Agriculture et, de Botanique. Among the Bayard Papers is a
copy of a pamphlet of 1816 hy him entitled " Bouquet offert aux Bienfaiteurs " of that
society consisting of a report presented hy him to its council and adopted by the
society. Attached to it are : a letter to Mrs. Bayard, in which the writer speaks of Mr.
Bayard in terms of great affection ; a copy of the portrait of Bayard engraved hy St.
M6min ; and a small but well-executed pencil portrait of him by Van Huffel, president
of the Academy of Design. (See the introduction to this collection.)

Adams in October, 1814, says that he, Gallatin, and Bayard had been made honorary
membeii-s of the Society of Fine Arts and of Letters, while Clay. Russell, and Hughes,
were members of the Society of Agriculture and Botany. The division caused con-
siderable feeling among the commissioners and it is evident that all five of them were later
admitted to the second society. The album or " Livre d'Or " of the society still bears
the signatures of Adams, Bayard, Clay, and Gallatin on a page blazoned with the em-
blems of the United States and dated Jan. 2, 1815. The pamphlet mentioned in the
preceding paragraph has much to say of their relations to the society. Gallatin sent
them many American plants. At their next winter exhibition, the catalogue of which is
among the Bayard Papers, they were represented by various American plants, while at
that of February, 1816, a cypress was exhibited in memory of Bayard.

2 Mr. De Meulemeester Van Aken, a banker and member of the society, was the owner
of an important botanical collection at Maltebrugghe.

3 Four of the American commissioners were in Ghent, Adams and Russell had arrived
June 24, Bayard June 27, Clay June 28. Gallatin arrived on July 6. But the British
commissioners did not join them till Aug. 6.


Institutions of this nature are of great value and impo[rJtance in
every country and deserving of the support of all who interest them-
selves in establisliinents designed to improve the condition of human

My Colleagues and myself cannot fail to appreciate the honor done
us by the proposal thro Mr. M to present us as honorary Members
of the Society.

Admiral Cockburn to Monroe.

[See p. 343.]
Monroe to Castlereagh.

[See p. 344.]
Commissioners to Monroe.^

July 8, ISlJf.

July lU 18 U.

Number one.

• Ghent, 11 July ISI4.

Sir: x\t the time of the arrival of Mr. Clay and Mr. Russell at
Gottenburg Mr. Bayard and Mr. Gallatin were in London. They
had reason to believe that no appointment of Commissioners on the
part of Great Britain for the negociation of peace with the United
States would be made until that Government should receive an
official communication of the appointment of the Ministers for that
purpose on the part of the United States. They had also received
indirect intimations that from the change of circumstances in Europe
since the proposal on the part of Great Britain of Gottenburg as the
seat of negociation some place where the British Commissioners
would be nearer to their Government and might have speedier and
more frequent communication with them would be more convenient
and acceptable to them.^

The suggestion was of some place in Holland. Col. Milligan was
therefore despatched by Mr. Bayard and Mr. Gallatin to Gotten-
burg to apprize Mr. Clay and Mr. Russel of the necessity of making
the official communication to the British Government and to ascer-
tain whether a change of the place of negociation was within the
powers of the mission and the opinions of Mr. Clay and Mr. Russel
with regard to its expediency. On the return of Col. Milligan to
London Mr. Bayard and Mr. Gallatin were enabled to make the
official communication to the British Government Avhich they did
by a note addressed to Lord Castlereagh a copy of which marked 1

1 From Bayard's letter-book. ^ See p. 286, note 2.

62513°— VOL 2—15 20


is herewith enclosed.^ They also ascertained that the removal of
the seat of negociation was within the competency of the mission
and were authorized to consent to such a removal should it be pro-
posed on the part of the British Government, On the 16th of May
they received from Lord Bathurst a note and on the 17th returned
to it an answer of which the enclosed papers marked 2 and 3 are

On the 9th of June Mr. Gallatin addressed to Lord Castlereagh a
note of which a copy is enclosed marked 4 and on the 15th Mr.
Irving received from the Under Secretary of State Mr. Hamilton
a paper the enclosed copy of which is marked 5.

Mr. Adams and Mr. Eusssll arrived here on the 21th, Mr. Bayard
on the 27, and Mr. Clay on the 28th June and Mr. Gallatin on the
6th instant. We are now waiting for the arrival of the British

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