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Commissioners of whose appointment or departure we have no other
information than that contained in the enclosed papers.

Bayard and Gallatin to Castlereagh.^


The undersigned two of the Ministers Plenepotentiary and Ex-
traordinary of the United States of America appointed in conjunc-
tion with Mr. Adams Minister of the United States at the Court of
St. Petersburg and with Mr. Clay and Mr. Russell lately arrived at
Gottenburg from the United States have the honor to transmit to
Lord Castlereagh copies of the Commissions whereby they are em-
powered to negociate and to conclude a treaty of peace, with such
persons as ma}^ be appointed for the same purpose by the Govern-
ment of his Britannic Majesty.

These appointments have [been] made in conformity with the over-
ture made by his Majesty's principal Secretary of State for foreign
affairs to the Secretary of State of the United States of the date of
November the 1, 1813,^ for a direct negociation for peace and acceded
to by the Government of the United States.

The undersigned avail themselves of the occasion to offer to Lord
Castlereagh the assurance of their highest consideration.

Albemarle St.

May IS, 1814.

Bathurst* to Bayard and Gallatin.*


The undersigned one of his Majesty's principal Secretaries of
State has the honor to aclaiowledge the receipt of the note addressed

^ The enclosures mentioned follow, pp. 30G-309.

2 From Bayard's letter-book.

» "Am. St. P., For. Rel.", Ill, 621.

* Henry Bathurst (1762-18;>4), secretary for war and the colonies 1812-1827.

* From Bayard's letter-book.


to Viscount Castlereagh on the 13 inst. by Messrs. Bayard and Galla-
tin announcing their appointment in conjunction with Mr. Adams,
Mr. Clay, and Mr. Russell to negociate and conclude on the part of
the Government of the United States a treaty of peace with such per-
sons as may be appointed for the same purpose by his Majesty and
enclosing also copies of the Commissions whereby these Gentlemen
are thereto empowered.

The undersigned has not delayed to lay Messrs. Bayard and Galla-
tin's communication before the Prince Eegent and is commanded to
acquaint them that his Eoyal Highness will forthwith appoint Com-
missioners on the part of his Majesty to meet the American Commis-
sioners at such place as may suit the convenience of both Parties and
to enter upon the negociation of a treaty for the happy restoration
of peace and friendship between the two Countries. The American
Commissioners must be aware with the undersigned that it was pro-
posed by this Government in November last and the proposal was
accepted by the President of the United States that the Commission-
ers should meet at Gottenburg in Sweden.

The Situation of affairs in Europe which led to this proposal have
since undergone many important changes and it appears to the
undersigned that other places on the continent might be named
which would offer as few objections as Gottenburg and may be more
eligible in point of ready communication and accommodation.

The undersigned is therefore commanded to suggest to the Ameri-
can Commissioners that instead of repairing to Gottenburg the nego-
ciations should be held at Ghent in the low Countries — an arrange-
ment which the undersigned hopes will be satisfactory to the Ameri-
can Government. If however the American Commissioners object to
any alteration of the place of negociation the Commissioners of the
Prince Eegent will have directions to repair to Gottenburg.

The undersigned request Messrs. Bayard and Gallatin to accept
the assurance of his high Consideration.

Foreign Office,

May 16, 18 H.

Bayard and Gallatin to Bathurst.^


The undersigned Ministers Plenepotentiary and Extraordinary of
the United States of America, had the honor to receive the note of
Lord Bathurst one of his Britannic Majesty's principal Secretaries
of State of the 16th in answer to thier note of the 13th inst. and
they hasten to express the satisfaction they derive from his Lordships

^ From Bayard's letter-book.


communication that his Royal Highness the Prince Regent would
forthwith appoint Commissioners on the part of his Majesty to meet
the American Commissioners at such place as might suit the con-
venience of both Parties to enter upon the negociation of a treaty for
the happy restoration of peace and friendship between the two

The undersigned are fully aware that the situation of affairs in
Europe is essentially changed since the time when it was proposed
by this Government and acceded to by the Government of the United
States that the Commissioners of the two Countries should meet at
Gottenburg in Sweden and they are entirely disposed to select any
other neutral place for the seat of the negociation more eligible in
point of communication and accommodation

The undersigned believing that they do not depart from the prin-
ciple which influenced their Government in agreeing to Gottenburg
have no hesitation in acceding to the proposal made by Lord
Bathurst for the substitution of Ghen[t] in the Low Countries.
They will accordingly lose no time in apprising their Colleagues at
Gottenburg of this change and in requesting them to repair imme-
diately to Ghent as the place of meeting of the Commissioners.^

The undersigned request Lord Bathurst to accept the assurance of
their distinguished consideration.

Albemarle Street

17 May 18U.

Gallatin to Castlereagh.'


The undersigned one of the Ministers of the United States to treat
of peace with Great Britain has the honor to inform Lord Castle-
reagh that Mr. Clay left Gottenburg on the 2d day of this month on
his way to Ghent, that Messrs. Adams and Russell were expected to
follow immediately after and that Mr. Bayard and himself being
ready at any moment to repair to the last mentioned place he wishes
before his departure to be informed of the time when the British
Commissioners may be expected there.

The undersigned requests Lord Castlereagh to accept the assur-
ance of his high consideration.

June 9, 1814-

9 Orchard Street

PoRTMAN Square.

1 This was done In a letter written the same day, May 17. " Writings of Gallatin ",
I, 017.

* From Bayard's letter-book.

correspondence of j, a. bayard, 1814. 309

William R. Hamilton to Mr. Irving.^


Mr. Hamilton presents his compliments to Mr. Irving and has the
honor to inform him in reference to Mr. Gallatins note to Lord Cas-
tlereagh that the British Commissioners will leave London for Ghent
on or about the first day of July where it is presumed they will find
the American Commissioners assembled.

Foreign Office.

June 15, ISlJf.

Bayard to Capt. Jones.*

GhejsT, 19 July 18U.

Hotel des Pays Bas.
Dear Sir : We have great occasion here for my books on board the

They are contained in a large pine chest bound round with cords.
I had them in St. Petersberg and they were sent down to the ship
shortly before she sailed from Cronstadt.

The chest is very heavy, but I have learnt upon enquiry that it can
be forwarded by the Diligence. I will thank you to send it to me,
taking what care you may deem necessary for its safety. Please to
inform me by the Post, by what conveyance it is sent and how di-

Beasley to Bayard.

London, July 20th, 1811^.
■ My Dear Sir : I have to beg your pardon for having delayed so long
to acknowledge the receipt of your favor of the 14th. Ultimo. Con-
sidering my situation I am sure you will be indulgent. I observe
you have paid into the hands of my Bankers 81.19 too much, for
which sum I subjoin a Dft. on them.^ Here is a copy of your state-
ment :

1/4 10 Post horses from Boulogue to Paris 28 1/4 Post 425. 15=105. 19

1/2 Post horses friii. Calais to Boulogne 43. " = 21.10

1/4 Expenses on the road 202.16= 50.14

Searching Baggage 30. "= 7.10

Passage Money ". "= ".19

1/2 Carriage Expenses 100. "

286. 12
1/4 Contingencies 53.12 13.8

f 300.

1 Prom Bayard's letter-book. Possibly George W. Erving.

2 Hist. Soc. of Penn., Dreer Collection, American Statesmen, vol. I. This letter is
directed to Antwerp care of " Mr. Ozly, Austrian Consul ", and is endorsed as having
been received and answered on the 20th.

3 The order enclosed is to Messrs. Mallet Fr6res and Co., and requests them to pay
J. A. Bayard or order 81 livres and 19 sous. The editor declines responsibility for the
figuring of either correspondent.

} t 218. 1


The errors are: The 19 francs placed under the head of sous, and
the 100 carriage Expenses with which you can have nothing to do, I
must have paid them at any rate ; your having accepted a seat in the
carriage not having added in the least to the Expense. The account
will therefore stand thus :

. 105.19
19 "

I have paid into the hands of your Bankers Messrs. Baring Broth-
ers and Co. £25 for which I became your debtor at Dover.

The Gentlemen appointed by this Govt, to meet you do not appear
in a hurry to leave this Country. I am still of opinion that they
will not be with j^ou before the 1st of next Month. It is some times
reported that they are not going at all, at others, that they are wait-
ing until intelligence is received from the U. States. For my part
I believe none of them, not but I think it would be very agreeable to
them not to meet you before their Army has succeeded in striking
a blow. So far the odds have been greatly against them. We have
received to day accounts from Boston to the 22 Ultimo. There had
been great rejoicings at the downfall of Napoleon. And every body
seems to have been full of the idea of Peace: this I am fearful will
do us no good; it may carry languor and indecision into all our
measures while the Enemy is putting into activity all his means.

You will have heard that the loan 10,000,000 $ had been taken.^
Com. Lewis ^ had an engagement near New London and killed a
considerable number of men. Com. Burny ^ has had an engage-
ment in the Chasapeake and succeeded in sinking a Schooner of 18
Guns and did otherwise much damage. Sir J. Yeo had returned to
Kingston and Chauncey* had come out and appeared off that port.
The Independence ^ 74 was launched at Charleston. Congress was
laid up ® [torn] . Crew sent to the Lakes. The Guerriere ^ was
nearly rea[dy] for sea. The Peacock^ was again at sea. Our

1 Adams, " History ", VIII, 17-18.

* Commodore J. Lewis, with a force of ketches and gunboats, off New London, May 25,
1814, engaged H. B. H. frigate Maidstone, Capt. G. Burdett.

' On .Tune 8-10 Commodore Joshua Barney engaged the Loire frigate and accompanying
British barges and boats in St. Leonard's Creek, the Patuxent River, and Chesapeake Bay.

* Isaac Chauncey (1772-1840) had been since early spring in Sackett's Harbor.

s Three 74's had been under construction : the Washington, at Portsmouth navy-yard,
the Independence, at Charleston, Mass., the Franklin, at Philadelphia.

* The^CongresSj 36, had not gone out on any cruise after its return to Boston Dec. 14,
1813, but had been taken to Portsmouth to refit.

' The Chierriere, 44, was under construction at Philadelphia.

* The Peacock, Captain Warrington, had captured the Epervier on Apr. 29, had sailed
into anchorage at Savannah on May 4, and had left Savannah in June, on her second


Privateers had been very successful. I shall endeavor to send you
some newspapers by Mr. Irving ^ who will leave this on Friday next
for Ghent on his way to Paris.

Levett Harris to Bayard.

St. Petersburg, %! [Juhjl/^ Aug. ISI4.

Dear Sir : I wrote you immediately preceeding my departure from
England - by Mr. Plughes and sent you by him the Pamphlet which,
through inadvertance of my own and an error of my servant, was
improperly kept in my possession after you left London.

As soon as His Imperial Majesty assured me that it was his inten-
tion to return direct to his Capital I hastened my departure and
had the happiness to bring to this Imperial residence the first tidings
of his near approach to St. Petersburg. I however preceeded him
several clays and before his arrival went through the forms of
presentation and Ceremonious Visits which I well recollect you
thought not the least irksome part of your public duties.

The preparations for the Reception of the Emperor here were
very magnificent ; but H. M. previous to his entry, which was intirely
private, ordered the whole of these preparations laid aside. So that
no outward Shew of triumph was exhibited on this important occa-
sion. But this could not be supposed to interfere with the feeling
of exultation strongly marked and Expressed in private circles and
parties on the events which the greatness of Alexander has succeeded
in giving birth to. Ever since my arrival not a Day has passed
without a great dinner or a Ball Supper and illuminations and since
two weeks, that I am here, I have not been in bed before 3 or 4
oClock in the morning. Of political news I refer you to some limited
observations and remarks made since my Return to Mr. Adams and
by this post to Mr. Gallatin — a recapitulation here will hence be
superfluous. Tomorrow morg. I proceed to Peterhoff. The Corps
Diplomatique are invited to dine with the Court, to sup and to at-
tend a Bal masque, which at this court is you know nothing more
than to wear over your uniforme a Venetian or a Domino. There
will be Splendid illuminations and fire works. This fete is given,
you know, by the Emperor in honor of the Empress mother on her
names day, and is generally and justly thought to be the Most Splen-
did fete in Europe ; and on the present occasion there is reason to sup-
pose it will be unusually so.

I much fear from the delay and diificulty which are apparent in
the approach of the British Commissioners to the present Seat of

^ Possibly George W. Erving.

* Harris had left St. Petersburg soon after tlie departure of Adams and Bayard, hoping
to return to America.


negotiation that nothing favorable is to be augured as to the result
of your arduous efforts. I am anxious that the thing be settled soon,
for I look for the return of Mr. Adams when I shall pursue the
favorite project with which I followed you last winter from hence
and make a new trial to pay a Visit to my native Country.

Do me the favor to drop me a line and say whether you like Ghent
equal to St. Pg.^ London., etc. I have many things to say to you
from persons here near whom you have secured the highest Opinions
of respect. Believe me, Dear Sir, there are none who would tender
the Assurance with more cordiality and who feels more truly that it
is due to you than he who subscribes himself at the same time, [etc.].

Bayard to Rodney.

Ghent, Aug. 5, ISllf..
[See " Bulletin " N. Y. Pub. Lib., IV., 244-247; " Papers Del. Hist.
Soc", XXXI, 36-42.]

Bayard to Andrew Bayard.^

Ghent, 6 August 18H.

My dear Andrew: Since my arrival in this place which was on
the 27th of June I have had the pleasure to receive your letter of the
22d of March. You rightly remark than when one is far removed
from home, that nothing is more grateful than communications from
our friends. During the Six months that I remained at St. Peters-
berg the only letters I received from the U States were one from
you and one from my son Richard and they were written shortly
after I had left the Country. In fact more than a year had elapsed
before I received a line from my wife, tho I did not doubt what I
have since found to be true that she had written to me frequently.
I wrote to you from .Amsterdam, since which time I have visited
London and Paris.

I arrived in London for an American at a very inauspicious
moment.^ The allies were at Paris and they had just received the
news of the abdication of Bonaparte.

The whole nation were delirious with joy which was not indulged
without bitter invectives against their remaining enemies the Ameri-
cans. The time of declaring the war had stung them more than the
act itself. They considered it as an aid given to their great enemy
at a moment when his power was most gigantic and most seriously
threatened the subjugation of the continent as well as of themselves.
They thirst for a great revenge and the nation will not be satisfied

1 Printed in the American Historical Review, XX, 113-114 (1914).
■Bayard and Gallatin had reached London Apr. 9.


without it. They know little of our Parties. It was America that
fell upon them at the crisis of their struggle and it is America now
that is to be made to feel the weight of their undivided power.
Such is the public voice but what the British Cabinet may think wise
or prudent to be done, I can as yet collect only from distant and
doubtful inferences.

Nothing favorable can be augured from the delay in sending their
Commissioners to the rendezvous agreed to at their instance as the
seat of the negociation. Our Commissioners have all been here more
than a month and we have not yet heard that theirs are even pre-
paring to quit London. We expect them daily, but so we have done
for twenty days past, and so we shall do till they arrive, or till we
learn that they do not mean to come at all.

I assure you between ourselves, my hopes of peace are very slen-
der. The government of England affect to despise us, but they know
that we are a growing and dangerous rival. If they could crush us
at the present moment they would not fail to do it. And I am in-
clined to think that they will not make peace, till they have tried
the effect of all their force against us. An united firm and cour-
agious resistance upon our part alone in my opinion can furnish
hopes of a safe and honorable peace to the United States.

I wish I could present you with different views but what does it
avail to deceive ourselves? By shutting our eyes upon danger we
may cease to see it, while in fact we are encreasing it. Wliat I doubt
is that if the olive branch be presented to us by one hand, a cup of
humiliation and disgrace will be held out in the other and altho I
should rejoice to carry the former to the U States, yet I shall never'
consent to be the Bearer of the latter.^

Farewell my dear Andrew. I wish you and your family all man-
ner of prosperity and happiness and I beg you will all accept the
assurance of my best and warmest friendship.

P. S. — August 20.~—T\\e. British Commissioners have been here
since the 6th inst. and we have had several conferences.

At the last such terms were prescribed as put an end to all hopes of
peace. Nothing has been said about Maritime rights nor in fact has
any former point of dispute been brought into question.

The sovereignty of the lakes and large cessions of territory etc.
are the price demanded for peace. If the terms proposed are not
acceded to, the negociation is to end. The terms will certainly be
rejected and the negociation will terminate in a few days.

^ With this gloomy view of the prospects of success before the commissioners compare
Adams's expression in a letter of July 18, 1814. Am. Hist. Review, XV, 573-574,

* This postscript is found among the Bayard Papers detached from the letter to which It
belongs, but is believed to belong to the letter of Aug. 6 to Andrew Bayard.

314 american historical association.

Crawford to Bayard.^

Paris, 7th August 1811^.

My dear Sir: On Friday last I sent to the joint commission one set
of despatches from the Department of State, by the hands of Mr.
Myers. Tomorrow the duplicates will be forwarded by Messrs. More-
ton and Eussel. These gentlemen will be able to give you more of the
ephemeral news of this capital than I can,^ The law for repressing
the abuses of the liberty of the Press which has been sent to the
Corps Legislative is now under discussion.^ It excites a stronger
sensation that I had anticipated. I presume however that the min-
ister of the Interior * will succeed upon the question of registration.
The law will certainly undergo some alterations but no alteration
can secure anything like the liberty of the Press, which established
the previous censure. The first essay of the Minister of Finance^
has not been more happy than that of the minister of the Interior.
Malice most generally defeats itself. The disposition to exaggerate
the evils to which France has been subjected by the mistakes or
intentional misconduct of the late government is so manifest that it
is discoverable throughout the report of this Minister. The general
expose is subject to the same charge.

Great exertions are making here to induce this government to order
the armed vessels of the United States with their prizes out of the
ports of France within twenty four hours after they enter. I learned
the fact very accidently and in a few days afterwards I presented
a note explanatory of the conduct of the United States when neutral.
I understand the British Minister has presented three Notes upon
this subject and like myself remains unanswered. I neither desired,
or expected an answer shortly. I am willing to wait the close of the
Congress at Vienna or at least the occupancy of the restored colonies
by French troops for an answer to my note. A member of the Brit-
ish Parliament by the name of Marryat® has been nearly a month
in Paris aiding the British Minister in this loiotty business. He is
the agent of the insurance offices in* London. The Admiralty has
issued orders to detain all neutral vessels sailing from France hav-
ing British merchandise on board, upon the presumption that it
might be the proceeds of the American prizes brought into France.
The same order has been issued in relation to the captured vessels.

1 Among the papers of Mr. Thomas F. Bayard.

2 The government of this date was of course that of Louis XVIII, in the interval,
.^.prll, 1814, to March, 1815, between the first Restoration and the return of Napoleon
from Elba.

» See p. 326.

*■ Abb^ PranQols-Xavier-Marc-Antoine Montesquiou,

s Baron Louis.

" Joseph Marryat.


The vessels and cargoes if retaken altho they have been condemned
and sold are to be restored to the original owners. How much
farther they mean to proceed is as yet unknown. The speech of the
Speaker of the House of Commons to the Prince Eegent is ominous
of the result of your labor.^ The establishment of their claims will
be the annihilation of our rights.

I greatly fear that the reinforcements which have been sent over
will find us unprepared to meet them with equal numbers,^ even of
raw troops. On the 6th of July there was no collection of troops in
the neighborhood of New York and the forts not fully manned.

I understand the British Ministers are now preparing to set out
from London. If they come in the spirit of the Speaker's speech,
the negociation must necessarily be short. I am preparing my dis-
patches for the Government, as it is probable that the John Adams
will sail shortly after their arrival.

Present my respects to your Colleagues and accept for yourself
the assurance of my sincere regard.

The Commissioners to Monroe.

Ghent, Aug. 12, 1811^.
[See "Am. St. P., For. Eel.", Ill, 705-707.]

Bayard to Crawford.'

Ghent, 16 August 1811^.

My dear Sir : I had the pleasure a few days since to receive your
favor of the 7 Inst. The despatches you refer to as well as the
duplicates have come safely to hand and arrived at a critical season.
You will have heard before this letter reaches you that the British
Commissioners are at Ghent. They have not excused nor in any
manner explained the tardiness of their arrival at the appointed
rendesvouz. In truth I doubt whether they were made acquainted
with the causes of their detention.

These are secrets in the breast of their Master, which probably they
are left to conjecture as well as ourselves. Upon my remarking to
Dr. Adams in conversation that I had been a long time waiting at

1 The Speaker had on July 22, 1813, said, " In our Contest with America, it must
always be remembered, that We have not been the Aggressors. Slow to take up Arms
against those who should have been naturally our Friends, by original ties of kindred, a
common Language, and (as might have beeu hoped) by a joint zeal in the cause of Na-
tional Liberty, We must nevertheless now put forth our whole Strength, and maintain, with
our ancient Superiority upon the Ocean, those Maritime Rights which we have resolved

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