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structions received from the Department of State, should be sent
back to that Department, and I had thought that upon the discussion
of the 30th this had been generally admitted. My motive for asking
that the person to whom I should deliver the Papers should be named
was, that many of them being original papers of great importance I
could not consistently with my sense of duty deliver them, but to a
person perfectly confidential; and I could not take upon myself to
decide whom the majority of the mission would consider as such.

I understood Mr. Clay to have said at the meeting of the 30th
ulto. that he would draw up such a requisition to me; but I expected
that the draft to be made by him would, like every other paper
hitherto drawn up by any one member of the Mission, be submitted
to the consideration of all the members, before it would be definitively
settled, and that I should have an opportunity of stating my objec-
tions to the whole or to any part of it. Your Letter contains a re-
quest totally different from that which T had understood Mr. Clay to
promise that he would draw up ; inasmuch as that was to specify both
the person to whom I should deliver the papers, and the papers to
be delivered, and this specifies neither the one nor the other: but



COEEESPONDENCE OF J. A. BAYAED^ 1815. 371

under the vague and general terms of " other persons " leaves me
doubtful whether it was your intention to include in your request all
the papers, without exception; or to leave me to the exercise of my
own discretion in making the exceptions.

You will perceive, Gentlemen, that I cannot consider the paper
signed by you, and presented to me by Mr. Clay, as the act of a
Majority of the Mission; since it was signed without consultation
with the whole mission upon its contents; although all the members
of the mission were here, and might have been consulted. I deem
this circumstance so important in point of principle, that I have
thought it my duty to answer your Letter in Writing. My objec-
tions to a compliance with your request itself, I propose to state at a
meeting of the members of the mission remaining here. In the mean
time, I pray y/)U to be assured, that with a full .sense of ^le deference
due from me to your opinions, and with an earnest desire to comply,
as far as the obligations of my duty will permit, with the wishes of
all, and of every one of you, I am, very respectfully, etc.

Harris to Bayard.

St. Petersburg, 23d Dec/It. Jany 1815.

My dear Sir: Your Esteemed favor of the 6 Dec. came to hand
by the last Post. The tidings it communicates are indeed most
happy. At length then we have a prospect of a close to this sad
contest — thanks to your skill and persevering labors. You cer-
tainly have encountered very trying privations, but the result will
I hope fully reward you. A result which will secure You unfading ,
honors. Such, certainly, were ever destined to attend you, but the
object now attained stamps your fame with a Celebrity that will live
long after Your Country shall cease to enjoy your invaluable services.

The Mail of the preceeding day brought London news of the 9th
Dec. And I saw a letter of that date from a Gentleman high in
public life, which left little doubt with me of the successful termina-
tion of the conferences at Ghent. It is too true, and most happily
so for us, that the British Ministry are at this moment placed in a
most awkward position — the turn which Affairs have taken on the
continent renders it pretty certain that its peace will not continue
long. With this apprehension at least, England cannot disarm. A
Coalition is said to have been prepared and will no doubt be cemented
between three great Sovereigns for the purpose of preventing any
other Nation meddling in the Affairs of Germany and the north.
In this State of things Our Enemy may think herself fortunate to
get rid of the American War.

I shall sa}'- nothing in relation to th^ contest as to the Advantage
it has been or may hereafter prove to our Country. There is one thing



372 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION.

however that strikes me with conviction, that in case we meddle
Again with the European powers there must be a radical change in
our Government. I would deplore an early change in our political
institutions, but it is most important to our national security anc]
consequence that in time of War the Executive should have Strength.

I am happy indeed in the thoughts of being able to return with you
in the Neptune^ and I trust Mr. Adams will be here in Season to
enable my reaching you at the intended port of your embarkation.

The Emperor is not yet returned and tis even thought that he Avill
not be here before the beginning of next month. Great Armaments
are still kept up and every thing assumes a Warlike aspect.

The predictions of a Great Statesman here, a mutual friend of
ours, are likely to be verified and Europe will see more times of trial
and dessolation.

I shall dine tomorrow with Our friend Krehmer, where you may
be assured your place is in reserve for you and I shall not fail to re-
new your Compliments in every Quarter where they are due.

Eeceive I pray you with my felic[it]ations on the Occasion of the
new year the renewed assurances of the great Consideration and
personal attachment with which I am ever dear Sir, faithfully Yours.

BOLLMAN TO BaYARD.

Vienna, January 9th^ 1815.

Dear Sir: I had the Pleasure of addressing you on the 20th of
December, which Letter I hope You have received.^

The News of the Peace reached this Place on the 1st of this month.
I rejoice heartilj^ at the Event. Should You be of Opinion that I
have been, in any small Degree, useful in bringing it about, have the
Goodness to say so, where it may be of Service.

The Intelligence came here extremely " a propos." Napoleon ob-
served some time ago to an English Gentleman, that his Government
ought to have maue Peace with America, immediately after the
Treaty of Paris, "pour pouvoir prendre au Congres a Vienne 1'
Assiette convenable" — and indeed the new Tone she (England) may
now take will contribute much to make Kussia and Prussia more
tractable. There is a great Conference to Day; probably the affair
of Saxony will be settled; and an arrangement may now be confi-
dently expected, which will, at least for the present^ prevent new Wars
on the Continent.

Permit me now to say a few Words respecting my own Concerns.
My Situation here has become particularly interesting. You Imow
that there is no money actually in Circulation in the Austrian Mon-

1 See pp. 360-364.



CORRESPONDENCE OF J. A. BAYARD, 1815. 373

archy except Government Notes, of which there are from 4 to 500
Millions of Florins — and which loose in Exchange for hard money
at the Rate of 270 for 100. The bad Effects of this— the unsettled
State of all Prices, the Destruction of all Credit, all Faith in Busi-
ness, all Security — it is necessary to have witnessed in Order to be
able to conceive it. This induced me to write an Essay on the Sub-
ject, in which first the true Principles concerning Money-Matters
are developed ; then, the bad Consequences shewn of the actual State
of Things, and finally the Steps are traced which it is necessary to
take in Order to remedy the Evil. Of these the Formation of an in-
dependent national Bank, to be subscribed for, in Part, in the de-
l^reciated Government Paper — this Paper to be funded, and the
Bank-Paper (exchangeable for Specie) gradually to take the Place
of the actual Currency, was the One considered as the most efficient,
and essential.^

The manuscript was intended to be printed (out of the Country)
but a Friend, who had the Perusal of it, sent it to the minister of
Finance. He, Count Stadion^^ was immediately struck with the
Idea, sent for me — in short, I have had frequent Interviews with
him, have constantly since been engaged on the Subject, have had
already Conferences at his request with all the principal Banking-
houses, to secure their Cooperation, and the Execution of the Plan in
its fullest Extent ivill he attempted^ if the Labours of the Congress
terminate in the manner wished for.

If the Plan is carried through, a totally new Era will begin in the
financial Concerns, as well as in the Commerce, and the Industry of
this rich Country, but whose prodigious Resources have been hitherto,
from want of Knowledge, sadly neglected.

My former financial Essays also, written in the English Lan-
guage,^ though hardly attended to in the United States, have been
read, and noticed here, and brought me in Contact with most of the
Characters whom the Concerns of the Congress have assembled at
this Place.

Under these Circumstances You will readily believe that there is a
strong Disposition to retain me here. Indeed Count Stadion has
told me that my Cooperation was indispensible in the Arrangements
contemplated.

On the other Hand I wish not to give up my Allegiance to the
United States, though a temporary residence here, with my Children,
would be extremely agreeable and useful.

1 For a further discussion of this subject see Varnhagen von Ense, " AusgewahUe Schrif-
ten", XVII, 227-230.

2 Johann Philipp Karl Joseph, Count von Stadion (1763-1824), who spent the last ten
years of his life in reorganizing the finances of Austria.

s " Paragraphs on Banks ", 2d ed., Philadelphia, 1811, is Bollman's best-known essay.



374 AMEEICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION.

It is also to be observed that V^enice, Fieume, Triest, are now Aus-
trian Ports, and that the commercial Relations between the United
States and Austria will unquestionably become important. Our
Cotton Wool, several Dyeing Drugs, West-India — South America —
East India Productions may be supplied from the United States.
Hungaria Wines (of which the Consumption will become great with
us when once they are known), linnen-Goods, Glassware— all Articles
in Short that used to be imported from Hamburg and Amsterdam,
can be to better advantage procured from Triest.

It was therefore natural to mention that if they (the Govern-
ment) wished to have my Occasional Services here, it could be best
accomplished by expressing a wish to that of the United States —
with whom important commercial Relations were about to take
Place — that they would appoint a Person of the requisite Qualifica-
tions near them, and to intimate that the Choice of myself would
be particularly agreable — this would also, with regard to themselves,
keep me in the desirable State of Independence. This Idea has been
at Once approved of particularly by Prince Metternich and will be
executed as soon as the Congress breaks up. I shall probably myself
render the Papers.

In the meanwhile I have begun Avith the practical Part, as it were,
of the Situation mentioned and looked for. The Independence of
South America, even of Mexico, seem now certain. You know the
prodigious Consumption of Quicksilver in these Countries, in the
Business of Amalgamation. Old Spain used to supply it, but, not
having enough herself, received from the Austrian Government
24,000 Quintals annually, at a stipulated Price. For the only Quick-
silver-mines of any note in the Old World, besides those in Spain,
are the mines of Idria^ an Austrian Province, and they are solely
worked for Government account.

I have, therefore, immediately availed myself of the favourable
personal Relations I have established with the Ministers here, in
Order to propose to them a Contract with me, for 3 or 4 Houses in
Philada. and Baltimore (who themselves, or their Partners happen
to be in Europe) — guaranteed by Barings in London — to supply,
through their Agency, Spanish- America with the Quicksilver wanted,
on certain Terms.

I KNOW that my Proposition will be agreed to, and I shall thus have
snatched from the merchants of England, Holland, or Hamburg, and
secured to Ours, a Business, which will amount to many Millions in
the course of the year, and become still more of Consequence from the
Circumstance that those, who bring the Quicksilver to the Consumers
in America, will naturally have the principal Share of the Business
of supplying their other wants, and transactmg their Concerns with
Europe.



CORRESPONDENCE OF J. A. BAYARD, 1815. 375

I have also discovered that Napoleon^ while in Possession of
Venice, had caused 6 Ninety Gun Ships to be built there, by Engi-
neers of the french marine, which were finished in a masterly man-
ner; and fully equipped. After the Treaty of Paris they became
Austrian Property, and the Government wished to sell them. I am
now procuring an Inventory of them, a minute Description, Terms
etc. I believe they could be had for about 400,000 $ each. That is
for One third of what they would cost when built in the United
States. Stock would pay for them. Cotton and other Produce, fetch
back the Stock. This may deserve Eeflexion, at least in the Case
that the Formation of a Marine should hence forward become an
Object with Our Government.

If all these should appear to You Matters of some Importance;
and if You should conceive me entitled to some Credit for my Exer-
tions, You will of course act in the Sense to promote my Views, ac-
cording to Tour own hest Judgment.

I wish You would, for the present, keep the Contents of this Letter
entirely to Yourself, unless indeed. You should think expedient to
communicate them to Mr, Gallatin, which is left to Your Discretion.

Perhaps an Intimation on Your Part to Our Government, not to
make any immediate Appointment of Consuls at Triest, Venice, etc.,
since they would shortly receive an important Communication from
Vienna respecting the Probable commercial Relations with this
Country would be useful.

I request You also to have the Goodness to inform me of Your
intended movements, and of the probable Time of Your Departure
for America. If it should take Place sooner than I can return
myself, I wish exceedingly to have the Pleasure of seeing you and
of conversing with You, previously to Your Departure. I should
not mind coming to Paris for that sole Purpose, if early enough
informed.

The inclosed Letters I take again the Liberty of recommending
to Your Care.

Please send Your answer to " Madame la Baronne de Peinhard — a
1' Hotel des affaires etrangeres, rue du Bac, fauxbourg st. Germain."
This Lady and myself are acquainted since 20 Years, and her Husband
expedites all Messengers of the french Government to Talleyrand
here.

If You write pr. Post it is indispensible to make the Direction in
french, and to say, " Vienne, en Autriche^ There is a Vienna in
the South of France, to which Place One of Your Letters to me
miscarried, and thence came here. If you make a Cover over your
Letter, directed to Messrs. Geymiiller and Co., Bankers, it is still
more sure to arrive safe, and unopened.



376 AMEEICAN HISTOEICAL ASSOCIATION.

January 10th.

[P. S.] -Nothing respecting Saxony has been decided yet, in the

Conference of the Plenipotentiaries of yesterday. It is thought that

they more and more approach, but nothing as yet has been settled.

Even the Question respecting Poland is not yet ultimately decided.

A. J. Foster^ to Bayard.

London, Jany. 27, 1815.
Mt dear Bayard: I did not laiow where my Letter might find
you or I should have written to you immediately on the Conclusion
of the Peace to congratulate you on that happy Event which I
consider as concluded although it wants the Ratification of the
President, for I think you will agree with me in the persuasion that
he will not be displeased with the Result of your Labours. Baker
gave me news of you and I was very glad to hear you were well and
going to Paris where I conclude you now are. You may be more
amused in that Capital than this because they understand the art
of amusing better — and that it requires some time in this Country
for a Man's Talents and good Qualities to be Imown. But aft I hear
you are coming here again I hope you will like us better on a second
Visit than on your first, which for many reasons must have been
unpleasant to you. I wish you may be named Minister here. I
much fear there may be useless blood shed at Sea, as I hear the
American frigates are out again. I think Peace gave general satis-
faction here — for my part I think it equally honorable to both. I
wish I could hope to see you at my House at Copenhagen where you
should drink some of my American Madeira and a number of other
good Juices — here I have nothing to offer. I remember always Avith
great pleasure our little parties de Chasses and petits diners, but I
think one good will have been attained by the War if your Govt.
should find themselves obliged to quit Washington for ever. Pray
remember me to Mr Clay.

Bayard to Richard H. Bayard.

Paris, 28 Feby. 1815.

My Dear Son : I had the satisfaction some short time since to
receive your letter of the 2d of December.

I am quite content with your determination to study the law. It
was never my intention to controle your inclination in the choice of
a profession. It is ii terrible thing to be forced to travel a road all
ones life time, which presents no objects, but those of aversion. All

^Augustus J. Foster (17S0-1848), whose ministry in the United States had ended In
1812, and who was now British minister to Denmark.



COEEESPONDBNCE OF J. A, BAYARD, 1815. 377

I ask of you is that you will resolve to succeed in the profession you
have chosen. An eminent Lawyer is among the most respectable
men in the Community — a Pettifogger among the most contemptible.

The interruption of your studies caused by the War, was unavoid-
able. You could not expect or wish to be exempt from a portion of
Military duty. Your country was in danger and it would have been
against duty and honor to have endeavoured to avoid sharing in the
perils and sufferings to which others exposed themselves in its de-
fence. Your good mother acted very Judiciously in procuring for you
the place in which you were to act. I am satisfied therefore in all
respects with the course which has been folloAved in respect to you,
and the war being now over (as I presume the treaty has been rati-
fied ^ tho we have not heard of it) you will have nothing to do but
to set down to the sober and patient pursuit of your studies. The
law must be the principal, and it seems to me that the substantial
part of the building must be erected before we can well judge how it
ought to be ornamented. Upon the whole subject we will talk freely
upon my return and you will always have the benefit of the best ad-
vice your father can give you.

I shall leave Paris in the course of two or three days for London
where I shall probably remain till the period of our embarking for
the United States.

I do not like Europe as well as America, but without coming
abroad, I should not in the same manner have been sensible of my
partiality for my own Country.

We expect to commence our voyage from England in the beginning
of April, and count upon a passage of about forty days. And so with
Gods blessing I hope once more to see and embrace niy wife and
children in little more than two years from the time I left them.

Adieu my son and be assured of the affection of your father.

Bayard to Andrew Bayard.

Paris, 28 Fely 1815.

My dear Andrew : Our business being ended at Ghent and my col-
leagues not being disposed to return home in the winter, I deter-
mined to spend part of the time which would intervene before our
embarkation in this city. I accordingly came to Paris about the 8th
of Jany and have remained here since that time. The public ob-
jects of curiosity have chiefly engaged my attention and employed-
my time.

I have not sought to enter into society knowing I shoidd not
remain here long eno' to make friends or even acquaintances.

» The treaty was ratified Feb. 17.



378 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION.

I leave the place in the course of a day or two for London, where
I shall remain till the time fixed for our sailing which is in the
beginning of April. We had intended to embark at Brest, but Mr.
Clay wishing to see England, and some political reasons concur-
ring, we have ordered the ship to Plymouth.

The affairs of this continent are likely to be peaceably arranged
by the Congress at Vienna.

Saxony cedes about 700,000 of her population to Prussia and re-
tains her sovereignty. Austria and Prussia will be gratified with
parts of Poland but Russia secures the bulk of the Kingdom.

Lord Castlereagh has left the Congress and is now in Paris on his
way to England.

The best understanding subsists between this Court and that of St.
James. The two Courts acted in concert in the Congress at Vienna.

We have not yet heard of the ratification of the treaty of peace
by our Government. It is now daily and by great numbers anxiously
expected.^

The British nation are not satisfied with the course of the nego-
tiation nor with the manner in which the war ended, but their
animosity against us has greatly subsided, and I believe hereafter
they will prefer living in peace with us to a state of hostility.

I can repeat to you upon better authority than I made the sug-
gestion in a former part of this letter that the affairs of the con-
tinent are settled by the congress at Vienna and that Europe has the
prospect of enjoying a general and permanent peace. To this effect
was the information of Lord Castlereagh in a conversation I had
with him a few minutes ago. He is on his way to England and has
stopt a day or two here to pay his respects to the King and royal
family. We lodge in the same Hotel. Prospects were different when
our peace was made, and fortunately enough perhaps for us.

I have found nothing abroad to wean me from the U States and
my desire to return home encreases every day. With an affectionate
rememberance to Mrs. B and your children.

Clay to Bayard.

London, 3cl Apl. 1S15.
My Dr Sir: I am rejoiced to hear that you are much better and
even able to ride out.^ I hope this letter will find you completely



1 On March 18 Adams speaks of seeing in a newspaper that the ratification of the
treaty had been received. Adams, " Memoirs ", III, 171.

=Adams writes on Mar. 7, " I called to see Mr. Bayard at the H6tel de I'Emplre, and
found him very ill, with a severe cough and some fever ; his throat is much ulcerated."
On the 13th Bayard was not able to see him, on the 18th he was better, and on April 5
Adams writes, " I . . . called upon Mr. Bayard, whom I found much better than when
I saw him last Saturday. He considers himself, and his physicians and surgeons now
consider him, out of all danger, but he said he had had a very narrcv,' escape with hla
life." Adams, " Memoirs ", III, 1G5, 1G9, 171, 183.



CORRESPONDENCE OF J. A. BAYARD, 1815. 379

re-established in your health. I left Paris with serious apprehensions
for you.

I offer you my congratulations upon your appointment as Minister
to St. Petersburg.^ Mr. Gallatin being also appointed Minister to
France, I am extremely anxious to know what effect these events will
have upon the determinations of both of you to return home. My
solicitude to get back is so great that if I do not hear of the Neptune
coming to Plymouth in the course of ten days I believe I shall go to
Liverpool and take a passage in the Milo.^ a fine vessel that sails for
America in the course of ten days. I am tired, tired out with my
absence.

I must request then that you will do me the favor to write me
immediately and inform me what are your intentions on this sub-
ject, and those of Mr. G. also, if you can ascertain them.

I do not think that this Govt, has yet decided on War,^ and the
Ministry is said to be divided on it.

Clay to Bayard.

London, 15th April 1S15.

I was extremely glad, my dear Bayard, to learn from under your
own hand, that you were much better, and in a state of convalescence.
I pray to God that your recovery may be rapid and complete.

I have seen and conversed with Lord Castlereah twice, but I have
not been able yet to learn what are the intentions of this Government
in regard to the Commercial Treaty. It has indeed been so occupied
with the weightier concerns of Europe, that I believe its attention
has been not yet particularly turned to that subject.

We received the day before yesterday a file of the N[ational] Intel-
ligencer up to the 20th Feb. and a parcel of documents sent by our
Government, in a vessel lately arrived at Liverpool ; but not one syl-
lable of instruction.

1 This nomination, as well as that of Gallatin to France and Adams to England, was
made Feb. 27. " Sen. Ex. Journ.", 1805-1816, 623-624.



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