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- With Napoleon, who had now returned from Elba. Southey in 1819 told George
Ticknor " that in the spring of 1815 he was employed in writing an article for the Quar-
terly Review upon the life and achievements of Lord Wellington. He wrote in haste the
remarkable paper which has since been published more than once, and the number of the
Revieio containing it was urged through the press, so as to influence public opinion as
much as possible, and to encourage the hearts of men throughout the country for the
great contest. At the same time a number of the Edinhuryli was due. Sir James Mack-
intosh had written an able and elaborate article, to show that the war ought to have been
avoided, and that its consequences to England could only be unfortunate and inglorious.
The number was actually printed, stitched, and ready for distribution ; but it was thought
better to wait a little for fear of accidents, and especially for the purpose of using it
instantly after the first reverse should occur, and to give it the force of prophecy. The
battle of Waterloo came like a thunder-clap. The article was suppressed, and one on
' Gall and his Craniology ' was substituted for it. There it may still he found. I think
Mr. Southey said he had seen the repudiated article." " Life of George Ticknor ", I, 50.



380 AMEEICAN HISTOEICAL ASSOCIATION.

It appears from some New York papers that a messenger with
despatches for us sailed from that place on the loth March for
P^rance ; and I hope you may have received them 'ere this.

I have not 5^et been able to ascertain whether I can procure a pas-
sage from Liverpool for America. I expect a letter to day on that
subject. My anxiety to return is extremely great, and I fear par-
ticularly a long passage if I should not be able to take advantage
of the Easterly winds which are now beginning to prevail. But I
am far, my dear friend, from wishing that my solicitude to return
should at all influence your movements so as to endanger your health.

There is reason to fear that the British have succeeded in an attack
on Mobile.

Be pleased to make my respects to Milligan and Todd and believe
me.

Bayard to [Barnet?].

Mr. B. is extremely sensible of the honor done him by his fellow
Citizens at Paris by their invitation communicated by Mess. B. and
A.^ to a dinner to be given at Grignans on Monday next.^ Mr. B
is compelled by the state of his health to decline accepting the invi-
tation, which he does with encreased regret, understanding that the
dinner is given in honor of our Minister at this Court ^ about to
return to the U S. and whose talents and integrity in the opinion of
Mr. B. merit all the attention and distinction his fellow citizens can
pay him.

Paris, 23 Apl. 1815.

Clay to Bayard.

London, 28th Ap^il 1815.

My dear Bayard: I am still here as impatient as ever to be gone,
and regretting that the fine Eastwardly winds which have been so
long prevailing are not filling the sails of the vessel which may take
me to America. I have been disappoiated in getting a passage from
Liverpool.

In the mean time we have had at his request an interview with Lord
Castlereah, on the subjects of the firing upon the American prisoners
at Dartmoor,* of the transportation of them home, and of the Com-

^ Probably Isaac Cox Barnet, the consul at Paris, who presided, and Thomas Appleton,
the consul at Leghorn.

- See Adams, " Memoirs ", III, 185-186.

" Crawford.

* The Dartmoor prisoners, restless over their long detention, had on Apr. 6 refused
to obey orders and were fired upon. Ingersoll, " History of the Second War between the
United States of America and Great Britain ", second series, I, 63-69 ; Lossing, " Pic-
torial Field Book of the War of 1812 ", 946-947.



CORRESPONDENCE OF J. A. BAYARD, 1815. 381

mercial Treaty. On the first, he expressed much regret at the event,
and proposed that in order to investigate its causes thoroughly one
of us together with one of the British Commissioners who negotiated
the treaty of Ghent, should proceed to the spot and collect and report
the real facts of the case, promising that if the British officers had
acted improperly that they should be punished. We declined going,
it being inconvenient to both Mr. G. and myself, and indeed not
falling within our duties; but we advised Mr. Beasley to co-operate
in the joint investigation proposed, and recommended him to appoint
for that purpose C. King,^ an intelligent young man, son of Eufus
King, who happened to be here. Mr. King and a British agent are
new engaged in the service.

With regard to the transportation of the prisoners to America it
has been arranged, that it shall take place immediately at the joint
expence of the two governments, reserving the question (for there is
a difference of opinion on this subject) who ought to pay the whole
expence for future adjustment.

As to the Commercial Treaty, Lord Castlereah said he wished,
before he answered our note at Ghent communicating our power to
negotiate on that topic, to ascertain by a conversation between us
and the British Commissioners, together with the Vice President of
the Board of Trade,^ who would be associated with them, if it were
likely that some general principles could be fixed upon to form the
basis of such a Treaty. We informed him that we had no objection
to such a conversation, provided that the same persons should be
invested with powers to treat with us, in the event of the conver-
sation being likely to lead to any practical result, which he said was
certainly his intention. This we thought necessary to place the
parties to the conversation upon a footing of equality. We have
been now waiting some days for this interview, which is to take
place when the other side is ready. I think we shall have it to-
morrow or next day. I am very much disposed to think that nothing
can be effected, judging from past experience.

The probability of renewed War in Europe places the subject of
a Commercial treaty on more important ground ; as in that event all
the questions which have hitherto arisen between the two Countries
may come up again.

The interview may have the effect of enabling us to ascertain the
views and intentions of the British Govt, on those questions in the
event of War, and in that way may not be without its use.

1 Charles King (1789-1867). Francis Seymour Larpent was appointed on the part
of Great Britain.

2 Frederic John Robinson, afterward Viscount Goderich and Earl of Ripon (1782-
1859). He tooli the place of Lord Gambier in the negotiations for the commercial treaty.



382 AMEEICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION.

War with France I have no doubt continues to be the intention of
this Govt, if the union and co-operation between the Allies which
have been hitherto manifested can be secured for the purpose.

We have nothing from America later than the 16th March.

Clay to Bayard,

London, 13th May 1815.

My dear Bayard: I presume this letter will reach Plymouth
about the same time that you do,^ and I hope it will find your health
re-established.

We expected, and indeed had determined, to leave this City on
yesterday. But after waiting upwards of three weeks for the in-
official conversation, to which we had been invited by Lord Castle-
reah, and for which we understood they would be prepared in four
or five days, we received on tuesday last a note requesting us to call
at the office for Trade on the following thursday. Accordingly we
attended and found Mr. Robinson, the Vice President of the Board
of Trade, and Mess. Goulburn and Dr. Adams waiting to receive
us. I will not detail the whole conversation, which would swell
this letter to an unreasonable length; but we brought forward all
the questions likely to disturb the harmony between the two
Countries.

Nothing transpired on their part which authorizes an expectation
that any thing can be done, except to abolish the discriminating
duties on tonnage and importations, and that we should be let in
to the India Trade as heretofore. The interview terminated by a
promise on their part to report to the Ministers what had passed,
and by a pledge that they would do all in their power to facilitate
an early answer, which we urged upon them on account of our situa-
tion, your's, and our expectation of the Ship being at Plymouth
in a few days. Mr. Goulburn promised to write us a note stat-
ing when we might expect an answer, which however we have not
yet received.

This interview, you will have learnt from my former letter, was
requested by Lord Castlereah to ascertain, before he answered our
note from Ghent, if it were likely that we could come to some agree-
ment as to the general bases on which a treaty of Commerce could
be formed. What course this Governmt. may now take can only be
matter of conjecture. Considering the verj'^ few points on which it
seems probable we could meet, I should doubt if they do not decline
any Commercial treaty, and content themselves with some general
assurance of a determ[in]ation on their part to favor our commerce
by liberal regulations.

1 Bayard left Paris May 6.



COEEESPONDENCE OP J. A. BAYAED, 1815. 383

We chiefly pressed and that with all the force we could the neces-
sity of arranging the subject of Impressment; but I have not the
most distant expectation that any thing can be effected.

We are determined not to wait longer than a few days. Indeed
I hope that Mr. Adams' arrival, which has not yet taken place, but
which I should suppose can iiot be much longer delayed, will liberate
us, by shewing that the subject which has detained us is turned
over to him. It is most strange that our Government has trans-
mitted to us no instruction whatever.

I trust that the few days which it is likely we may be instru-
mental in detaining you at Plymouth, will subject you to no incon-
venience; and that they may be beneficially employed in recovering
from the fatigues of crossing the Channel, and preparing for the
new voyage.

If it should turn out, contrary to my expectation, that we can do
any thing here I hope that your strength will admit of your coming
and giving us the benefit of your assistance. If any thing occurs to
render it probable that we shall be able to do any thing I will apprize
you.

My respects to Milligan and Todd.

Clay to Bayard.

London, 17th May 1815.

My dear Bayard: I am greatly distressed to learn from Col. Mil-
ligan that your indisposition continues, and that you have suffered
much from the voyage. We had expected to have been with you
before now, but have thought it advisable to remain a little longer,
in consequence of what has passed between us and this Government.

We had yesterday an interview with Mess. Eobinson, Goulburn
and Adams, and find this Govt, disposed to enter into a treaty plac-
ing our Trade with their European dominions upon the footing of
the most favored Nation, and abolishing all discriminating duties;
allowing us to trade with their India possessions, without the restric-
tion imposed upon the outward voyage by the unratified treaty of
1806 ; ^ and regulating the trade with Canada, without the inter-
course with our Indians. They profess themselves ready also to dis-
cuss the subjects of Impressment, Blockades, and Carrying Trade, on
which however they do not flatter us with much prospect of coming
to an arrangement. We have thought it advisable to proceed, under
these circumstances, in the negotiation, reserving however to our-
selves the right to leave it to Mr. Adams to finish it, if it is likely to
be protracted. The above gentlemen are immediately to be commis-

* The treaty negotiated by Monroe and Pinkney,



384 AMERICAN HISTOEICAL ASSOCIATION.

sioned, and assure us of the most prompt attention to the subject.
So that I think we shall be able to accomplish the business in about
ten days. That time, if your strength will not admit of your joining
us, you will probabl}^ find necessary to recruit yourself.

Mr. Adams has not arriA'ed, but is expected on tomorrow. Mr.
Crawford is here.

Wishing you a speedy and entire recovery of your health I am
most sincerely.^

1 Bayard, with Crawford, sailed for home June 18, on the Neptune, leaving Galla-
tin, Adams, and Clay to complete the treaty of commerce, which was signed July 2. We
have no account of the voyage as Bayard was doubtless too ill to do any writing what-
ever. He died one weeli after the arrival of the Neptune in the Delaware. In the
Federal Republican of Georgetown, D. C, issue of Aug. 7, 1815, appears the following :
"Wilmington, D., Aug. 1, Arrived in the Delaware off this place last evening the United
States ship Neptune forty-three days from Plymouth, having on board Messrs. Bayard
and Crawford. The news of this arrival produced the most affecting spectacle. The last
accounts from Europe respecting the health of Mr. Bayard had caused great anxiety more
especially in the minds of those who were acquainted with him as a private citizen. At
the same moment were seen rushing to the wharves the inhabitants of the borough and
members from the vicinity who had previously noticed the Neptune ascending the Dela-
ware. The boat that had gone to the Neptune now arrived at the wharf. An awful
silence ensued. As soon as it was known that. Mr. Bayard was on board the Neptune,
though very ill, the assemblage burst into loud huzzas in consequence of the return of
that distinguished statesman and esteemed fellow citizen. In the evening he was brought
from the Neptune to his house having been confined to his bed seventy days. Messrs.
Clay and Gallatin are in London forming a commercinl treaty."

In the same paper, issue of Friday, Aug. 11, 1815, appears the following : " From the
Federal Gazette [date not given]. Obituary (communicated). " Illustrious Bayard, a vic-
tim of love of country, is no more amoug men. The following is from a private letter
from a lady in Wilmington. — Eighth month 7, 1815, Bayard is gone ! Last evening about
8 o'clock he was released from suffering ' such ' he said ' as no mortal could imagine '
and which I feel a hope has not been in vain (a religious reflection which the writer
knew would best be understood by those to whom the deceased was familiarly known).
The Neptune cast anchor in our river ^ast second day. The town was immediately all
bustle. The arrival of President Madison would have caused no such agitation ; demo-
cratic as we are there is no man in this place so popular as James A. Bayard. He was
not landed until after dark ; was then carried by twelve sailors. He was surrounded by
friends and townsmen who wished to carry him ; but the sailors claimed it as their privi-
lege ; and the kind hearted creatures would not quit the house until they had offered
together a prayer for Bayard. From his first arrival he said that he could not recover ;
was thankful for the privilege of reaching his family and appeared resigned. The gather-
ing in his breast broke yesterday and he had not strength to cast up the load of matter.
Our physicians are unanimous in the opinion that the death of this great man is owing
immediately to the ignorance or mismanagement of his case in Europe. The bell now
rings for the town council who are assembling amidst the universal gloom to offer soma
poor honor to the memory of our deceased fellow citizen."



EuEOPEAN Diary.
1813.1

Sunday^ May 9. — Took leave of my family, proceeded to New
Castle with Mr. G.- and embarked on board the Neptune Capt. Lloyd
Jones for St. Petersburg, accompanied by Mr. Rodney and Mr. Mc-
Lane the Collector who parted with iis at 8 in the evening, went on
board the revenue Cutter, and returned to Wilmington. About this
time the ship came to an anchor off Liston's high woods,^ the Capt.
not considering it prudent knowing the enemy to be in the bay to
hazzard the falling in with them in the night.

Monday 10. — Was called up this morning about 4 oclock by the
Capt. who announced the return of the Cutter and of the Collector,
with letters. The letters were supposed to be of a public nature, but
they were private from my family. We expected to learn the details
of the capture of York^ in upper Canady but were disappointed in
not receiving any news additional to the reports which had reached
Wilmn. the day before our departure. Got under way at 5 oclock and
stood down the bay with a light breeze from N. West. The wind
being light and in the afternoon heading us, after the ebb tide was
spent, in the evening we came to anchor off the Brandywine shoal.

Tuesday 11 May. — The ship got under way this morning with a
moderate breeze from the West, about half past five. Both capes of
the Delaware in view and a British ship of war at anchor between
them. The wind being light made little way. At nine there Was no
wind and we drifted with the ebb tide, till we came abreast of the
British ship of war.

At ten oclock a boat was sent aboard of us with a Lieutenant and
from him we learnt that the ship was his Britannic Majesty's ship the
Spartan of 38 guns, Capt. Brinton.^ The Capt. sent an invitation to
Mr. G. and myself to come on board his ship, which was declined,
and upon the return of the boat Capt. Jones went on board the
frigate with his commission and other ships papers.

1 Brief accounts of the voyage will be found in Adams, " Life of Gallatin ", and in "A
Great Peace Maker : the Dairy of James Gallatin ", 1-4.

2 In addition to Bayard and Gallatin, the party consisted of George M. Dallas, George
B. Milligan, John Payne Todd, and James Gallatin, the secretaries. Adams, " Life of
Gallatin", 493.

2 Gallatin says that they anchored for the night near Bombay Hook. Ibid., 493.

* Toronto. See p. 227, note 1.

^ The Spaitan had been commanded by "Captain, afterward Vice Admiral, Sir Jahleel
Brenton, and now was commanded by his younger brother Captain Edward Pelham Bren-
ton. Both were Americans (Rhode Islanders) by origin.

62513°— VOL 2— 15 25 385



386 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION.

He was accompanied by the two Secretaries Mr. Dallas and Mr.
Milligan. They were at first received coldly by Capt. Brinton who
suppos[in]g our ship to be a private Merchant ship stated that it
would be necessary to examine the ship to ascertain if any merchan-
dize was aboard. But on Capt. Jones producing a public commission
and satisfying him that the ship belonged to the U. States, his man-
ners were changed and he behaved with marked civility. Our Capt.
and the Secretaries returned in the frigates boat about noon and Capt.
Brinton politely offered to put our pilot a shore at Lewes Town.
About one oclock the pilot was taken off and having no wind the ship
was allowed to drift to sea with the tide. About three oclock the
flood tide commencing and it continuing calm, the ship was brought
to anchor on the edge of the shoal called the overfalls. "\^'Tiile at
anchor we were passed by a ship which excited much interest. She
was supposed to be the American ship Penrose with a cargo of great
value from Canton, and apprehending that she had not heard of the
war, we supposed of course, that she was insensible of her danger as
she was then steering for the Delaware and in an hour or two would
be within the power of the British frigate. Imagining that the
American colours which were flying at our masthead might deceive
her, the Capt. ordered them to be struck and immediately sent off his
boat to enquire v\diat ship it was, and to apprize her of the war. The
boat went along side of the strange sail and brought intelligence
that it was the Fail' Trader^ a licenced vessel from Lisbon. That she
had been captured and had a prize master on board. The Fair Trader
stood up the bay and was shortly after brought too by the Spartan
and we observed her to anchor under the stern of the frigate. In the
evening upon the ebb tide making our anchor was hoisted and a
breeze springing up we put out to sea. Before bedtime the wind
encrcased to a gale and we were obliged to take in most of our sails.
Tho the ship had much motion and this was the first voyage of most
of us yet it was remarkable that none of us were seasick. The even-
ing was passed pleasantly and we retired about 11 o'clock.

Wednesday 12th. — This morning I rose about half past 4 and for
the first time saw the sun rise upon the ocean. Some clouds obscured
his splendour and the scene had not that magnificent appearance
which I had frequently heard described. The sea was rough, but
the wind not high and the rollipg of the ship became very unpleasant.
AVe were now about 50 miles from land and I congratulated myself
in still being exempt from seasickness which I had expected to experi-
ence as soon as I felt the rocking of the ocean. The wind was un-
favorable and the day passed without any material occurrence. A
sail was seen at a great distance which did not approach us.



DIAEY, MAY, 1813. 387

Thursday IS. — Eose at 5 oclock. Found a fresh breeze at E. S. E.
which caused the ship to pitch much but still felt no siclaiess. No
material occurrence.

Friday 11^. — Rose at 6 oclock. The sky clear and a fresh breeze.
Wind at E, N. E. Long. 71. The wind encreased during the day to
gale and created a very rough sea. Most of the Passengers were
extremely sick. The Doctor/ Mr. Todd, and myself only escaped.
The novelty of the situation, the narrow birth, and the different mo-
tions of the ship, denied me sleep for the night, and I waited for the
coming day with extreme impatience.

Saturday 15. — The gale raged with great fury this morning. The
sky v,"as dark, the waves ran mountain high, the wind roared thro
the ropes of the ship and the scene to one not accustomed to the sight
was awful and sublime. We were now in the gulf stream and the
wind heading the current created a high short and irregular vv^ave.
We expected the wind to abate as the sun declined ; on the contrary it
continued to rise and before midnight blew a storm. The Capt. had
prudently in the course of the day taken in all sail not necessary to
keep the ship under steerage way, and every sail allowed to stand
was close reefed. The top gallant yards were all sent down on deck.
This was an unpleasant night for a Landsman, but my confidence in
the Capt. and the ship, put me much at my ease. I went to bed with-
out the expectation of sleeping and rose without being disappointed.

Sunday 16. — Upon rising I found the wind considerably abated,
but the horison overcast, dark and threatening. The wind had
hauled to the North, which enabled us to lay our course, which was
about East. The sea presented us with the picture of the mountain
wave. At one moment the head of the ship was rising to the skies,
and again plunging towards the bottom of the ocean. When the
dread of first impressions was removed the scene was grand and inter-
esting. I passed the day chiefly on deck, but most of my fellow
Passengers were sick in their births. The wind became light before
night, but the ship was much agitated from the high swell of the sea.
This night found myself a little accustomed to my birth and enjoyed
some hours of refreshing sleep.

Monday 17.- — -The wind in the morning was at N. W. and scarcely
blew with sufTicient strength to keep the sails full and to enable the
helmsman to steer the ship. The motion of the vessel was extremely
disagreeable from her rolling with the swell of the sea. Our com-
pany this morning are chiefly on deck and appeared in a great de-
gree recovered from their sickness. Since we have been out we have
seen but two sails and those at a great distance, neither attempted
to approach us. At 12 oclock our Long was 64. 26. Lat. 37. 5. In

1 In a memorandum in one of Bayard's small note books he names the passengers on
board the Neptune, including a Dr. B. Lawton ; Gallatin refers to this man as Dr. Layton.



388, AMEEICAN HISTOEICAL ASSOCIATION-.

the afternoon the wind came round to S. W. and blew a fresh breeze
and passed ns thro the water at the rate of 6 and 7 notts an hour.
In the evening we discovered a brig close on the wind in chase of us.
Her apparent distance was about 8 miles. We kept our course and
going free before the wind and night shortly after setting in we
lost sight of the chase and did not see her again. We had a fair
and fine breeze during the night at S. W. but the ship rolled so ex-
cessively, that few of us got any sleep.

Tuesday. IS. — The wind continues at S. W. occasionally dying
entirely away and then blowing in Squalls. The weather mild and
the day fine, Long. 61. 46. Lat. 37. 31. The morning spent in reading
on deck. A quick and pleasant breeze in the afternoon.

Wednesday 19. — The weather mild and fine and the wind light



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