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spinage to which a lobster was added. We renewed our walk in
the evening thro the Town accompanied by Mr. Dickson and a Mr.
Fostick who in fact we found to be acting as Amn Counsel under
the appointmt of the Ameri[ca]ns residing in the place. We had
some difficulty in procuring lodgings for the whole company and
those we got were very indifferent.

Tuesday 22. — The companj^ were served with separate breakfasts
in their chambers, excepting Mr. G. and myself who breakfasted
together.

This Inorning we wrote letters to the U. S. A joint letter to
the Secy, of State announcing our arrival at Got.^ and separate
letters to our families and friends, which were given in charge to
the Counsel to be forwarded. Having received all the information
attainable, which however was very loose and inauthentic, we pre-
pared to return to our ship. A newspaper of any kind was not to
be obtained. Our Capt. had some difficulty in settling his Bill. He
had directed all expences to be furnished in one Bill. One Bill was
delivered, then a second and then a third. It was explained that
parts of the company had been accommodated in three different
stories of the House, and each story was occupied by a distinct fam-
ily. For the dinner, lodgings and breakfast of 10 persons we had
326 banco dollars to pay. At 2 oclock we embarked in a boat on the
Gotha which was prepared for us by the Consul, and proceeded to
our ship accompanied by the Consul and several Amn. Gentlemen
who dined with us while the ship was getting under way. We began
to move once more on board the Neptune about 6 o'clock and passed
out to sea by a channel different from the one by which we entered.

The passage between the rocks was in some places not more than
60 yards, but the water was bold. Before we got to sea we had to
take in a second pilot, the pilots being limited to Districts and no
one going out of his own. We were clear of all rocks and upon
the open ocean, long before dark.

These pilots and the people who came alongside with fish, were
sure to ask for snaps, in english a dram, and were seldom satisfied
with a single one. In Gottg. they have a pilotage office and the
pilotage, belongs to the governmt. the pilot being allowed a certain
proportion.

The Duke of Brunswick ^ had left Gottg a few days before our
arrival, having been at the head Quarters of the Prussian army in

^ Gottenburg.

2 Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick — " Brunswick's fated chieftain ", killed at
Quatre Bras.



398 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION.

expectation of receiving a command. But he could obtain nothing
equal as he thought to his rank and he returned to England. He
has the reputation of courage, but of no other quality of an officer
of superior command.

Wednesday 23. — This day has been spent in navigating the Cat-
tigat, with light variable winds often ahead. We shall be obliged
to stop at Elsineur to pay the sound duties. The distance from
Gottg is 96 miles. Yesterday and to day I have been quite unwell.
I felt no indisposition before I went on shore, and was astonished
to find my head and feet apparently more affected by the motion of
the ship on the land than in the vessel, even in a gale of wind.

Thursday ^^,— By my request tho not well I was called up by the
Capt. upon entering the sound. It was about 4 oclock. The sun had
been up some time, but it was uncomfortably cold, tho I was* dressed
in the winter clothing of the U. S. Vegetation however was far ad-
vanced and the foliage of the trees and the verdure of the fields were
extremely refreshing to eye of persons who had been long at sea.
We soon came in sight of Elsineur distant from the Cattegat about
^ miles, on the coast of Denmark and of Elsenberg ^ on the coast
of Sweden. At the same time many small villages presented them-
selves to view. The sound is here about two miles and a half wide.
The castle of Kroneberg which on the Danish coast defends the sound
presents as j^ou approach it a majestic and venerable appearance. It
was built by Christian^ in century, and has

been standing 260 years. It is a square Building with a front
of about 250 feet. It is covered with copper and the walls on their
mossy faces bear the marks of its antiquity. It was formerly sup-
posed to command the Town, but since the passage of Lord Nelson
in * many vessels have since passed in defiance of it. I was

inforrned by Mr. Ellah a respectable merchant of Elsineur that in the
course of the i^resent year two hundred merchant vessels under con-
voy passed without injury tho the batteries kept up a constant fire
upon them. Its former reputation secured to the crown of Denmark
a sound duty of $450,000 which it is probable hereafter foreign na-
tions will refuse to pay as their vessels can pass without their permis-
sion.^ We came to anchor in the Elsineur roads and about 10 o'clock
went on shore. We had been boarded by two revenue boats and after-

1 Blank in the manuscript.

- Helsingborg.

= The castle of Kronberg was built by Frederick II towards the end of the sixteenth
century, and was restored by Christian IV about the middle of the seventeenth.

* In March, 1801, just before the battle of Copenhagen ; blank in the manuscript.

" As a matter of fact the Sound dues, paid to Denmark by foreign vessels passing
through the strait since the fifteenth century, were not abolished until 1857, when, after
a conference of the interested powers at Copenhagen, a compensation of about $20,000,000
was awarded to Denmark.



DIARY, JUNE, 1813. 399

wards a Quarantine boat came along side and threw upon our deck a
green flag and left us without explanation. From the experience we
had had at Gottenburg, we determined not to hoist it and the Capt.
went on shore to laiow if we could land. He was at first forbidden to
land, but the commanding officer being sent for, all obstruction was
removed. The officer who was the naval commander of the Port upon
learning the character of the vessel and of the Persons on board, im-
mediately proposed to send a public barge to convey us on shore.
This was declined by our Capt. who stated his ample means for our
accommodation. Shortly after the return of the Capt to the ship,
who was accompanied by Mr. Ellah who has acted as Amn. consul at
Elsinuer, one of the kings boats with six oars and the Officer second
in command came along side. The officer upon coming on board pre-
sented the compliments of the Commander with a request that he
should be allowed to take us on shore. The civility was answered
with equal civility but declined. Our own boats being ordered the
Ministers and suite went on shore and upon landing met a consider-
able concourse of people on the wharf. Mr. Ellah was our conductor
and in return for the civility of the Commander, we made him a visit.
From thence we proceeded to Mr. Eilahs house and being desirous of
seeing the castle, it was suggested by Mr. E. that we had better pay a
visit to the Governor, in which way alone we could gain admission.
This I knew to be a fact from the statem'ts made by Porter in his
travels who could not get admission. We immediately proceeded un-
der the conduct of Mr. E. to the castle and were introduced to the
Governor who received us with great curtesy. Our visit v>\as short but
it obtained us a view of this famous castle which to an Inhabitant of
the new world furnished a view of reality which he had before only
seen in prints and description. The entrance is along a narrow
winding way frequently intersected with motes which were passed
on draw bridges; ramparts and battlements and ditches and arches
closed by gates, are objects attracting attention. Upon the termina-
tion of the passage we entered a large square area of about 200 feet.
In the whole route we encontred soldiers passing to and fro. We
were announced and immediately admitted to the apartments of the
Governor. They were the same as those in which the unfortunate
Queen Matilda the sister of George the third was confined.^ It was
impossible to be in them without recalling her story to recollection
and sympathizing in her fate. The Governor appeared to be a man
of about 60 years of age named % a Major General in the Dan-

ish service. He spoke f rench with facility but not English and his man-
ners were mild and polished. Upon leaving the castle we proceeded

» The queen of Christian VII. a Blank in the manuscript.



400 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION^.

to a scene of infinitely greater interest, one rendered almost an en-
chanted scene by the pen of the immortal Shakespeare. It was the
garden of Hamlet. Who that has read Shakespeares tragedy can
tread without enthoiisiasm the grounds which are the scenes of even
poetic history so highly and deeply wrought.

Friday 25. — This morning Mr. Forbes ^ who had been left by Mr.
Irvine^ at Copenhagen as agent of the United States in cases of
Capture came on board the ship and offered his services for our
accommodation, understanding we intended to land. He informed
us that he had engaged rooms for us in one of the best hotels in
Copenhagen. About 12 o'clock we went on shore accompanied by the
Captain in two boats. Upon landing we were stopt for a moment by
the guard but on an explanation from Mr. Forbes were allowed to
proceed and were conducted to our lodgings. On our way we passed
a fine bronze statue of Frederick V on horseback upon a lofty pedes-
tal which we stopt to view with great pleasure. It is in front of
the palace occupied at present by the King.^ The palace is a large
and handsome structure but in its exterior appearance exhibiting
nothing splendid. The morning was spent in walking round the
battlements and viewing the streets and we returned to dinner at
Mr. Bascalants about 5 oclock. In the evening we all repaired to
the Kings gardens, which we founded crowded with a great concourse
of company. We heard some indifferent music and after passing
thro the principal walks returned to our lodgings.

In the course of the afternoon we had paid a visit to Fredericks-
berg,* which is the summer residence of the King. The palace is a
spacious building situated on an eminence, and commands a hand-
some view of the Sound. The grounds are handsomely laid out and
covered with a variety of trees and shrubs. The trees are not lofty
but display the most luxurient foliage, which at this season furnishes
the walks with a very refreshing shade. Fredericksberg is distant
about two miles from Copenhagen and is connected with it by a very
fine road.

Saturday 26. — Mr. Forbes had proposed to us to ride out to a place
called the "Park," which is about 12 miles from Copenhagen, and
was to send a carriage for us immediately after breakfast. In con-
sequence we remained at home expecting him, but we saw nothing
of him till after two oclock. He apoligized for the detention, which
had been occasioned by the necessity of despatching some letters by
the Post to Hamburg which was to leave town during the day. It



1 John M. Forbes, American consul at Hamburg, temporarily serving at Copenhagen.

2 George W. Erving, of Mass., special minister to Denmark from January, 1811, to May,
1812.

3 Frederick VI.
* Frederiksborg.



DIAEY, JUNE, 1813. 401

was now settled that we should take dinner before we set out upon
the excursion. This being accomplished, about four oclock we
mounted a stool waggon and set off for the Park. These waggons
have nothing to recommend them, except their capacity to carry a
great number of persons as they are capable of conveying from 10 to
16 persons at a time. The body is long and uncovered and is formed
of the willow twigs worked like the common basket. Within this
basket is hung three or four seats constructed like the round bodies
of the chaise. These are attached by leather straps to the basket
and furnish the only spring you find in the carriage. We arrived at
the Park about 7 oclock, where we had been promised a sight of the
King. . But his Majesty was not to be seen and scarcely a single per-
son of decent appearance. They told us there [were] some deer in
the Park but we saw none, nor anything else worth observation. In
short it was nothing more than a pleasant walk thro fine woods. The
Country between Copenhagen and the Park exhibits beautiful scenes.
The ground is well cultivated and apparently fertile and is now
covered with rich crops of rye, barley, oats and other grains. I saw
no wheat. The fields are not separated by fences and you find the
grain in many places growing upon the side of the public road,
without being defended by any thing from the inroads of cattle.
They did not appear however ever to have been disturbed and the
cattle which we saw grazing in different places, we supposed to be
tied. Mr. F. conducted us from the Park to a small country House
where he had rooms for the summer called Belle vue.

It is a place of a considerable resort. The ground is high and
commands a fine view of the sound and of the coast of Sweden.
The gardens are common and furnish no other entertainment than a
game of nine pins. After enjoying the prospect of the sound for
some time and taking a dish of Coffee, we set off for Copenhagen,
where we arrived at 11 o'clock, but it was what we call in America
before dark.

Sunday ^7.— We were invited to day to dine with Mr. De Konink
at his Country seat about 13 miles from Copenhagen. We left
the Town about 12 oclock and reached Mr. De K. about 2. The day
was fine and we rode thro a beautiful country highly cultivated and
promising a speedy and abundant ha [r] vest. We passed thro several
villages and saw many handsome houses. At Mr. De K. we were
introduced to Madame De K. and several other Ladies. Madame
De K. was the first female to whom I spoke since the time I left the
U. States. Immediately after our introduction we were invited into
another room to breakfast. We had breakfasted before we left Town,
but it was now two oclock, and there was no difficulty in making a
second breakfast especially as we expected that our dinner would be

62513°— voL-2— 15 26



402 AMERICAN HISTOKICAL ASSOCIATION.

proportionately late. The breakfast consisted of ham and other
meats, crawfish and pastry. Several different kinds of wines were
on the table. This would have passed very well for a dinner in the IT
States. After our repast we returned to the apartment into whicn
we were first introduced, and were soon after invited by Mr. D K.
to view his grounds. Mr. D K. devotes his time entirely to the im-
provement of his farm which is very large and valuable.

He drew our attention to the structure of the w^alls of his out
bouses, which were formed of earth pounded in moulds and were
about 18 inches thick. He stated that they were made at little ex-
pence and soon became as hard and durable as brick. They were
whitened with lime. The cattle in general were small, but w^e [were]
shown a Bull which had been brought from Holstein which was fi
huge animal. After viewing the grounds which were finely laid out
and cultivated, we returned to the mansion, and we found that we
were to dine at Mr. De K's brothers who lived about a mile and a
half off on part of the same estate. Mr. De K. gave us the election
to walk or ride and he and myself set off on foot, the rest of the Com-
pany preferring to ride. An artificial walk was made from one
house to the other which is cut thro woods and shrubery nearly the
whole distance. Madame De K. house is situated on elevated
grounded which gradually slopes to an enchanting lake, many miles
in circumference

Close in with the shore we espied two small sloops at anchor, one
of which bore the American and the other the Danish flag. AVe felt
the compliment as it was intended.

Madame D. K. to whom we were introduced was from Holland but
had resided 40 years in Zeeland. She had been long a widow, and
could count a number of great grand children. She possessed how-
ever much vivacity and did the honours of her table with great ease.
It was about 5 oclock when we arrived at the House and remained
but a few minutes before we were led into the dining room. The
room was spacious and handsomely finished. The dinner was served
wholly in the french style. The meats were cut up, put on plates and
then handed round in succession to each guest. No toasts or healths
were drank, but every one help[ed] himself to his wine as he did to
his bread. At the end of the repast ISIrs. De K. rose and the whole
Company followed her into [the room to] which we were first intro-
duced. This room was on the ground floor, and had two beds in it.
The curtains were of green silk and drawn close. We remained but a
short time in the House and v\'ere led over the grounds by Mr D. K.
They were delightfully laid out affording occasional views of the
lake, which were quite romantic. We met with numbers of statues
and several monum.ents raised to the Memory of Members, of the



DIARY, JUNE, 1813. 403

family. There are three sons who are settled on the estate, which is
the handsomest and one of the most valuable on the Island. Upon
our return from our walk, it was proposed to make a second visit
to the Park, Avhere we were promised a sight of the King and of
Princes and Princesses. We accordingly set out for the Park, where
we arrived about 9 oclock, where we found a crowd of peasantry in
their Sunday clothes, but scarcely a person of genteel appearance.
The females among the peasants were singular [ly] dressed in short
petticoats which stuck out as if supported by a hoop, but we learnt
that this protuberant appearance arose from the quantity of cloth
plaited into a petticoat, which was usually about 36 ells. The crown
of their bonnets was very richly embroidered, and their dresses were
sufficiently alike to pass for a uniform. There was nothing of grace
or beauty about an;v of them. We found nothing very attractive at
the Park and after parading the walks for a short time we returned
to Copenhagen, at about 11 oclock. It was still light and the gates of
the city were still open.

Monday 28. — Capt. Barron^ who had previously paid us a visit,
had made arrangements to introduce us to the Kings Librarian, and
to procure for us a view of the Library. AVe accordingly this morn-
ing paid a visit to Mr. Thorkelin, who is a native of Iceland, but has
long resided at Copenhagen and has the reputation of being a man
of learning. He is a Professor in the Kings academy of ^

We were introduced to him at his chambers and found him equally
polite and affable. He put into my hands a latin copy of Terence, in
which the name of the Chevalier Bayard^ was written in his own
hand. He shewed us in another Book the name of Franx:is 1st of
France of his own hand writing. We were then conducted to the
royal library, which is kept in a part of the burnt palace, which es-
caped the memorable fire which consumed the principal j^art of the
Building.* The library it w^as stated to us contained 300,000 vol-
umes. We were shewn some of the most ancient books in print and
a great number of old manuscripts, written wdth surprizing neatness
and beauty. The letters and lines were as regular as print but in-
finitely more handsome. I remarked a manuscript prayer book
which had belonged to one of the Queens of Denmark, written in a
manner not to be distinguished from print, but by its superior

1 This must have been Captain James Barron, of the " Chesapeake and Leopard " inci-
dent. Suspended for five years, he had engaged in the merchant service, then, though
the five years had expired, remained in Europe, and was in Denmark in 1812 and 1813.
See his letter to Decatur, in Mackenzie's " Life of Decatur ", 422. 423.

-Blank in the manuscript. Grimur .Tonsson Thorkelin (1752-1829), archivist of the
state archives, secretary of the Arnemagnaean Commission connected with the royal
library, member of the Academy of Sciences, and professor extraordinarius. He had
Uved five years in Great Britain and spoke English. " Dansk Biografisk Lexikon ", s. v.

8 There seems to be no evidence that the Chevalier was an ancestor of the Bayard
family of America.

'in 1794.



404 AMEEICAN HISTOEICAL ASSOCIATION,

beauty. It contained the figures of all sorts of animals, executed to
the life with the pen. We saw the edition of Saxo Grammaticus,
from which Mr. Porter in his travels translated the history of Ham-
let/ and an ancient atlas, which had been formed before the dis-
covely of America, and of course does not contain the western con-
tinent in the map of the world. We were shewn some latin manu-
scripts of the third and fourth centuries, written on vellum, but
bound up in the form of our common books. Our time was limited,
and our eyes only could be gratified, with the novelties and the
monuments of learning which M^ere shewn us. We were yet to view
the museum, and were forced to quit the library without seeing many
curiosities to be found in it. We proceeded to the museum and were
conducted to the gallery of paintings. This is a noble collection of
some of the finest peices of the greatest Masters. This was a banquet
I had never before enjoyed. Many of the paintings are several hun-
dred years old; and yet the colours in no degree faded. I only re-
gretted the shortness of the time, that tlie eyes were allowed to feed
upon this superb exhibition. We had engaged the American Gentle-
men who were in Copenhagen to dine with us and at 4 oclock were
obliged to quit the museum. Excepting the paintings it contains in
its collection only the common objects of curiosity to be found ordi-
narily in other museums.

In the evening about 8 oclock Mr. Rosencrantz - the Minister of
State called to return a visit we had paid him yesterday. He speaks
trench with great facility but English badly. He appears to be a
man of intelligence and information and he mentioned that he had
been accredited to three different sovereigns in Russia. He is of the
nncient nobility of Denmark, and is too proud to accept a title from
the King.

Tuesday 29. — Mr. T d and myself went this morning to the

Island of Amag^ in expectation of seeing the King reviewing his
troops, which we were informed was to take place to day.

We were disappointed, and were obliged to content ourselves with
viewing the grounds.

After traversing the Island, we returned to Town, and spent the
morning in sauntering thro the streets which we had not before seen.
In the Evening we visitted the gardens at Fredericksberg and met
the Princess, the Kings only child, on the walk in front of the
palace. Her appearance was common and there was nothing in her
dress, person or countenance to attract notice. She is about 16 years

1 See Robert Ker rorter, " Travelling Sketches in Russia and Sweden ", London, 1809,
pp. 4-9. The library has a copy of the editio pvinceps of Saxo, Paris, 1514, and this is
probably the one here referred to.

2 Niels Rosenkrantz (1757-1824), minister to Russia, 1789-1794 (to Catharine II),
1800-1801 (to Paul), 1802-1804 (to Alexander).

sAmager, an island opposite Copenhagen.



DIARY, JUKE, 1813. 405

of age, but neither her age or rank have procured her any admirers.^
We also met the King whom we passed several times. There is
nothing striking in his countenance or person and without being
told he was a King, there would be little inclination to look at him.

He is in the 46 year of his age and has the reputation of being a
good, tho not a great Prince. He is much beloved by his subjects
^md his reign has been distinguished by the complete abolition of
slavery in Denmark.^

Wednesday 30. — Our intention was to reembark to day and to
proceed on our voyage, but the Capt. informed us that the wind was
£0 directly ahead that it was impracticable to beat thro the sound.
The day was therefore to be spent on shore. We were now informed
that this was the day the King was to review his troops. Mr. Law
an American gentleman offered us his carriage to go to the ground,
which we acepted and again set off for Amag. We had proceeded
but a short distance, before we saw bodies of horse and foot directing
their course to the field of parade. And we no sooner had entered
the Island, than our ears were saluted with a canonade, which had
commenced between two armies — one under the command of the
King and the other of Prince Ferdinand, the Kings Nephew.^

Immediately after we came in view of the troops under the Kings
command who were advancing. The Prince was retreating. The
King had about 50 peices of flying artillery. Each piece was drawn
by 6 horses, and they changed their positions with great celerity.
The horses w^ere generally put to full speed, tho the ground was



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