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de combattre Bonaparte — and without repugnance to contribute his
means to his fall. Comble des faveurs de L'Empereur. He states
that he has been informed by an English Minister* in germany
that the mediation of Russia would not be accepted. Regrets the
event and expresses great interest in the affairs of america where he
had so long resided and received so many civilities. The war cannot
be made a national one in the U States. The exagere of the Federal-
ists take pleasure in the calamities of their country which they expect

1 Admiral Paul Vasilievitch Tchitchagov (1706-1849), who had important commands
in 1812, but failed at the Beresina.

2 See under Au^. 20.

8 Dated Aug. 21. " Writings of Gallatin ", I, 562-564.

* Probably Sir Charles Stewart, envoy extraordinary to Prussia at this time.


will bring them into power. The Exagere of the opposite are pleased
with the disappointment of the mission which they expect will render
the President and Mr. G. unpopular in the Country from the precipi-
tancy of the measure. Too much wealth and egotism among all
classes in America, to allow union and vigour in the prosecution of a
war. The letter concludes with the offer of all services personal or
public in his power to render.

In the evening we went to the Russian theatre and saw a new
national peice in the form of a pantomine. It was taken from the
last campaign, a[nd] brought on the stage a number of french forag-
ing plundering Parties, who are attempting acts of all kinds of
pillage and violence. They are met chiefly by Russian peasantry
armed with broad edged axes who beat their adversaries and recap-
ture their booty and the women they had carried off. The peice was
recieved with great enthousiasm and the success of the Peasants was
greeted with thundering clappings.

Thursday 2. — :Mr. G. read to me this morning the letter he had pre-
pared in answer to the one he had received from Genl. Moreau.^
The main object of the letter was to engage the good offices of the
Genl. with the Emperor in relation to the mission and to obtain
information upon certain points. Dined at the Hotel de Londres and
I'oad out in the afternoon to the mouth of the Neva. In the evening
had a visit from Mr. A. and Mr. H.- The conversation on the poli-
ticks of the Parties in the U. States. Mr. A. of opinion that the
Federalists in general are disposed to disunion. Firmly of that
opinion as to those in N. E. and particularly Massts. N. E. states
will not pay the taxes if imposed. Believes a separation will take
place within 5 years. Civil war to be expected and not to be depre-
cated. There will be no subordination in the Country till produced
by the sight of Bayonets. These opinions controverted. Conversa-
tion animated and continued till after one oclock.

Friday 3d. — We had an appointment to day to visit the Institution
of St. Catherine an establishment under the patronage of the Em-
press Mother for the education of Young Ladies of noble families.
The Lady Directress received us very civillj^^ and conducted us thro
all the Apartments. The establishment contains 250 Ladies all of
noble families. They are divided into two classes and each class into
three divisions. Tho classes are distinguished by the appellations
of Les Grandes and Les Pettittes. Six years completes the course
of education. Three years in each class and one in each division.
They are taught reading, writing, arithmetic, geography. Logic,

1 Writings of Gallatin ", I, 576-581. Moreau died on Sept. 2.
• See Adams, " Memoirs ", II, 522.


Physics, embroidery, music, dancing and three languages Eussian,
German and french. The classes were examined at considerable
length before us, in geography, arithmetic, translation of Russian
into French and recitation. One was the Princess of Jakoisky who
went thro a long series of figures in extracting a cubic root, but she
went thro the task with skill and facility. After spending two hours
in attending to these examinations we were led into the salle a
dancer, which is a very spacious Apartmt. and in which we found all
the young Ladies assembled. There appeared to be about 240.
They were standing in two rows and the Directress conducted us be-
tween them to the head of the room. We were saluted by a curtesy
by all as we passed. At the head of the room chairs were placed and
the good Lady seated herself, requesting Mr. G. to take the seat on
one hand and myself, on the other. The young Ladies were formed
into a half circle before us and a forte plana placed in the centre.
A master played a number of tunes and was accompanied first
by ^. They then accompanied the instrument in chorus.

When the music ended the dance began. The figures were handsome
and gave the Ladies an opportunity of displaying all their graces.
The dancing was a good deal in the style of the stage.

The young countess Shuvaloff who appeared to be about IT had
her station behind the chair of the Lady Directress. She spoke Eng-
lish very well and held a conversation vv'ith me for some time in the
language. She spoke beside French, German and Russian. Her form
was delicate and her features regular and expressive. She was the
prettiest Russian I had seen. And her manners were very ingenuous
and affable. A girl once entered in the Institution is not allowed to
leave till her education is completed. Her Parents and friends are
at liberty to visit her at the Institution at the[ir] pleasure. The
Princess Jakoisky is the only exception to this rule. She is allowed
to visit her father once in a fortnight. He is in bad health and an
infirm state of mind. This Lady is sole heiress of an estate of
400,000 rubles a year.

The expence of education is 550 per year. And this includes cloth-
ing and every species of expence. It does not always defray the
expence of the establishment and the deficiency is supplied from the
private purse of the Empress Mother who is the Founder of the

Saturday 4- — We went to day to view another Institution estab-
lished for the education of poor female orphans. It was formerly
called Institution des orphelins, but the Emperor Paul gave it the
name of " Marie " after his wife by whom it was founded. No chil-

1 Blank in the manuscript.
62513°— VOL 2—15 29


dren are admitted into it but those who have lost their Parents and
are entirely destitute of the means of support. All the expences are
defrayed from the private purse of the Empress Mother. The estab-
lishment contains 55 girls, from the age of 10 to 18. They are taught
reading, writing, arithmetic, sewing and embroidery. We were
shewn a good deal of embroidery of their work which was very hand-
some. These fruits of their skill and industry are sold, and the pro-
ceeds presented to them upon their leaving the institution, to enable
them to commence life. They remain at the establishment six years.
We were carried into the dining room at the moment they entered
to dinner. They proceeded to their places at a long table extending
the length of the room and turning anci facing an image of the virgin
in the corner chaunted a hymn of about 4 minutes before they seated
themselves at the table. Soup, some sliced beef and black bread, was
the dinner before them.

Upon leaving the Institution of Marie we went to visit the palace
of Tscheme^ built by Catherine the 2d in honor of Count Orloffs
victory at sea over the Turks and presented to him. It stands on
the Peterhoff road about 7 ver[s]ts from the city. It contains a long
suit of Apartments which are decorated with the portraits of all the
Princes of Europe living at the epoch when the palace was built.
This suite of Apartments encircles a very spacious room in the cen-
tre which also contains the portraits of a great number of Kings,
Queens and Princes. The palace is occupied by only a few Domestics.

Sunday 5. — Attended the greek religious service in the church of
St. Isaac's and the Kazan. The churches were crowded with vo-
taries. Some very devout and many quite lukewarm. The Priests
occasionally presented images of the virgin and of saints and figures
of the cross which were eagerly kissed by those who could approach.
The day was as warm as I had ever felt the 4 Sept. in the U States.

Monday 6. — Spent in my chamber. The weather fine. This will
continue it is said for 10 days, when rain and cold commence, and
are soon followed by frost and snow which continue till May. In
the evening rode out with Col. M. to the palace of Strogonoff abt. 6
ver[s]ts and walk[ed] till dusk thro the grounds.

Tuesday 7. — Amused myself in the morning in going thro the
Apartments of the Winter palace and viewing the superb collec-
tion of paintings. Went at 5 to dine with the Princess Belozelsky at
her chateaux in the Country. Mr. G. o.nd myself have an invitation
to dinner here every tuesday. This Lady holds the first rank at
Court and entertains the best company in St. Petersburg. Her
Party to day consisted of 14 persons. There were two Princes sev-



eral Princesses a Spanish Genl. named * in the Russian

service and three Scotch Lords who had lately arrived on a visit
to St. P. One was a Capt. in the Navy .^ Being the only

foreign Minister present I had the honor of leading the Princess B.
into the dining room and being seated next to her and between her and
the Princess ^ a very ancient Lady who spoke only Russian.

After dinner we walked into the grounds which are very extensive
and tastefully laid out. We continued walking till after the moon
had risen and the evening being mild and the atmosphere bright,
the lustre of the moon had an enchanting effect upon the foliage of
the trees the waters which surrounded us and the numerous cottages
with which the grounds are planted.

Wednesday 8. — Spent the morning in visiting and viewing ditf(*r-
ent parts of the city. Dined with Mr. Kremer who resides in the
quarter of Wibourg. Mr. K. is a German, who has been long settled
as a merchant in St. P. and is married to a Russian Lady. The
language of the House is English, tho the whole family speak rus-
sian and german. They have been always remarked for their hos-
pitality to the English and Americans. Mr. K's partiality is on the
side of England in her controversy with America. And this is the
prevailing sentiment in St. P. The English Party generated by the
collisions and war with France are evidently a Party as much against
the U States as against France. They know nothing and are not
disposed to enquire as to the nature of our dispute with England,
but consider us as the Friends of France and dislike us accordingly.

Upon our return in the evening from Mr. K's, we received a very
polite note from Count Romanzotf, informing us that the Empresses
would be in Town on Friday, Saturday and Sunday and that we
might avail ourselves of the occasion to visit Paulowski and grat-
china.^ And that the Empress Mother had given particular orders
that every thing should be shewn to us in a manner the most gratify-
ing. This is a rare act of civility not heretofore experienced hy any
Foreigner. The Count had sent a courier to know the Empress's
pleasure on the subject in consequence the Empress gave orders for
our reception, and sent her answer accordingly to the Count who
communicated it to Mr. Harris. This civility is connected with some
circumstances. Saturday the 11 (30 Augt. O. S.)^ a gi'and proces-
sion with the Empresses at the head moves from the winter palace
to the Cathedral church of St. Alexander Newski.

1 Blank in the manuscript.

2 Pavlovsk, seventeen miles, Gatchina, twenty-nine mUes, south of St. Petersburg. The
former today attracts many visitors because of the beautiful parks by which it is sur-

3 The feast-day of St. Alexander Xevskl.


Mr. H. in a conversation a few evenings ago was requested by the
Count E. to desire the Am. Min. G. and B. to attend the procession
and to appear in their diplomatic dress, observing that he would
make an arrangement for their being noticed by the Empresses. This
was approaching as nearly to a formal recognition of their diplo-
Diatic character as etiquette would allow. In a conversation the
Count subsequently had Avith Mr. G. he appeared to have altered his
views on the subject and to have thought he had gone too far. Mr.
G. enquired if we were to attend in our diplomatic character. The
Count had not given the invitation in that character and that a
place would be assigned us but not with the diplo[ma]tic corps.
The difficulty was suggested of appearing in our diplomatic dress,
when the character was not attributed to us. The ,Count saw the
impropriety and said the thing could not proceed in that course.
He afterwards remarked that upon the celebration of the anni-
versary it was usual for the Chancellor of the Empire to give a
formal diplomatic dinner and as we had not yet been received by the
Emperor he could not possibly invite us. He enquired however
if some of the young Gent, with us were not only nominally attached
to the mission. This was said to be the case as to Mr. Todd and
Mr. G's son. The Count proposed inviting them, to the dinner as
strangers as they had no public character. Mr. G. remarked that
in fact Col. M. and Maj. D. had no public character and the Count
instantly proposed inviting them. But the same consideration ex-
tended itself to the JSIinisters who under circumstances might be
invited as strangers, but which renewed the former difficulty and
in the end the whole scheme of attending the procession or being
present at the diplomatic dinner on the part of the mission or any one
of the suite was given up, and in place of them we were invited to
visit the palaces of Paulowski and Gratchena. The Count R. has
studiously endeavoured by every attention and civility on his part
to prevent any unpleasant inference being drawn by Mess. G. and
B. from the circumstance of their having remained so long in the
Capital, without having been in any form noticed by the Emperor.
He supposes that the Emperor being in the field at the head of his
armies (toujours a cheval his own expression) may not have ad-
verted to the dispa[t]ch which announced our arrival. He is assured
that the sentiments of the Emperor are friendly to the U. S. and
that no neglect could be intentional. It is to be remarked that the
count himself in his official character and correspondences addresses
us in our diplomatic characters. A second courier has been des-
patched to announce our being in the city.

Thursday. 9. — This day spent at home. Our Capt. came to dine
with us and set with us till late in the evening.


Friday 10. — We made our arrangements for visiting Pavlofsky
to day. We had three chariots each with six horses. In one were
Mess. H. and T. in another Mess. G. and D. and in the third, Col. M.
and myself. The distance is 26 versts and this we rode in two

When we arrived at the palace we were su[r] prized to find after
the formal communication made to us by the Chancellor of the
Empire, that no orders had been given for our reception. The Em-
press mother and Director of the palace had gone to the city but had
left no directions respecting us. However the chief valet of the
Empress undertook to shew us all the Apartments, not excepting the
Empress's bed room. On the sides of the Empress bed were two
square mahogany cases, on which were written ara noctis. I was
not hardy enough to open them to see what they contained. This
palace like the others consists of a long suite of Apartments very
richly and elegantly furnished. The ceilings painted and gilded
and the walls of many of the chambers hung with very rich tapestry.

After viewing the palace we went to walk in the grounds, attended
by a servant in scarlet Avhich is the Court livery, with his chapeau
de bras and sword. He conducted us thro the grounds, till our
limbs were wearied or our curiosity satisfied. Fine shady walks
skirting and passing on bridges numerous canals occasional views of
artificial ruins, of cottages and of grecian or Chinese temples were
the objects which attracted attention. About three oclock we re-
turned to the palace and in a room assigned to us spread a table for
a cold collation which we had very providently taken with us. Din-
ner ended about 4 oclock Mr. G. and D. set out to return to St. P.
(Mr. G.'s son being unwell) and Mess. H. and T. and the Col. and
myself to prosecute the excursion to Gratchina. This was 27 virsts
from Pavlofsky. We arrived at Gratchina at 6 oclock, and found
here as at Pavlofslry that they were not apprized of our visit. We
were however readily shewn the palace. It was built by Paul and
was his residence during the life of Catherine.

It soon became too dark to examine the Interior of the building
which in fact presented little to view as the furniture is chiefly
removed and the palace inhabited only by a few Domestics. We
descended to look at the exterior and the grounds. The building is
of vast extent and capacious eno' to lodge ten thousand persons.
The walls are of hewn granite and their mossy appearance would
seem to put even time at defiance. The grounds which surround the
palace are very beautiful and in a small artificial lake was a ship
of apparently 300 tons pierced for 20 guns and not far off a sloop
of about 100 tons. The interspersion of the grounds with canals
and lakes is universal in country seats of all descriptions. We con-


tinued our walks here till the night closed upon us, when we retired
to a public house and made a pleasant supper upon what remained
of our cold collation. Between 11 and 12 oclock our horses being
refreshed we entered our carriages to return to the city. We had
44 virsts to ride and this we accomplished without stopping in about
3^ hours. It was three oclock when we were set down at our lodgings
and having rode and walked more than 100 versts in the day, I
hastened to bed.

Saturday 11. — This being the Emperors name day or the day in
the Calender of the Saint after whom he was called, St. Alexander
Newski, it was celebrated with great pomp and solemnity at the
Church of St Alexander Newski. The ceremony continued about
three hours, and was conducted by an archbishop and a great num-
ber of Dignataries of the church clothed in very rich costumes and
wearing caps sparkling with diamonds and precious stones. The
two Empresses, two of the archDukes and an archDuches were pres-
ent.^ Towards the conclusion of the ceremony the archbishop and
his clergy approached the Empresses and each in succession after
bowing with great reverence were permitted to kiss their [hands?],
the Empresses curtesying at the time. The Empresses then ascended
the steps of the shrine — the Queen first, and three times knelt and
three times kissed the figure of the Saint, which is at full length on
the face of the monument, then curtesying to the Archbishop who
stood on the opposite side of the monument, returned to their places.
They were followed in succession by the archDukes and archDuches.
Upon the conclusion of the ceremony the crowd opened into two
rows forming a broad passage, thro which the Imperial family with-
drew to their carriages, constantly bowing very graciously to the
persons on either side of them. The two Empresses entered the
same carriage, Avhich was a very splendid coach the whole body of
which was plated with gold, and was drawn by eight bright bay
horses. They were followed by a great number of carriages with six
horses and an immence train with four. This was the day the Chan-
cellor was to have given his diplomatic dinner, but being invited to
dine with the Empresses it was postponed till Sunday for which day
Mr. G. and myself had an invitation.

Sunday 12. — The morning spent in my chamber. Being invited
by card to dine with the Chancellor to day we of course put on our
embroidered coats, but it was for the first time since they had come
from the Tailors.- They appeared sufficiently fine for republicans
and especially without comparison with others but they were quite

^ The Grand Dukes Nicholas and Michael, and the Grand Duchess Anna. See
Adams's account of this celebration and of the dinner on the 12th, " Memoirs ", II,

2 Sec page 217.

DIARY, SEPTEMBER, 1813. 4-55

plain when they came alongside of the Chancellors guests who were
invited for the day. The company was very numerous, not less
than 45 or 50. The greater part were Princes or Counts and all
of the nobility excepting a few Foreigners. The dinner was very
sumptuous. The plates of silver or of china most costly. A pro-
fusion of gilt ornaments covered the table. The desert knives, forks
and spoons of gold.

While we were at dinner a note was brought to Count from the
Empress Queen announcing a great battle fought at Trepolitz^ not
far from Dresden in which the Emperor of Kussia had beat the
French, taken 66 canons and 7000 prisoners. The table, as well
might be expected, where the chief part of the company was in the
service of the Emperor, resounded with acclamations and the Chan-
cellor rising from his seat proposed as a toast the health of his
Majesty which was drank by all the company standing. The Count
afterwards proposed as a second toast, " His Majesty and the glori-
ous victory which he has gained." This was drank as the former. It
deed not strike me that the event was so heart-felt as national suc-
cess generally is in the United States.

MoTiday 13. — Te deum was ordered to be celebrated at the church
of " Not^e Dame " for the victory announced yesterday. It was un-
derstood that the service commenced at 11 oclock.

Having never been present at such a ceremony I was glad of the
opportunity to attend. I went to the church at 12 and foimd it
crowded by people of all descriptions. In the front of the alter the
officers of State in splendid uniforms were assembled in a group
pressed in by columns of people of motley appearance on either side.
A Passage was kept open to the great door of the Church for the en-
trance of the Empresses. A multitude of Priests occasionally shelved
themselves in the sanctuary and on the platform before the screen.
They were covered with very rich and costly robes, and most of them
wore very splendid caps. None were without beards which some
appeared to have carefully arranged so as to render them as bushy
as possible. Before the ceremony commenced the Lords of the Court
did not appear to pay much respect to the holiness of the place in
which they were assembled or the purpose for which they were met.
They were as merry and as noisy as if they had been in a coffee
house. The Empresses did not arrive till nearly 2 oclock and dur-
ing the time they had been expected, nearly 3 hours, every one had
been on their feet. There is no place to set down in a greek church.
I pitied the old Priests, who could not have borne the fatigue but
from habit. I saw many women have the appearance of fainting but
no one seemed to depart before their Majesties made their appear-

iTepUtz. The battle was fougbt at Kuiin Aug. 30.


began bv one Lady after another taking a Gentleman's arm and
marching around the room with a common step and from one room to
another, with no other plan than following each other, then return-
ing to the iDlace they set out from and separating with a bow. This
was followed by a very simple but crowded contre dance which they
call the polonaise. We understood there would be supper at one
but the hour being rather too late Mr. G. and myself called our
carriages a little before 12 and returned to the city. The servant
in calling up the carriages used the words " Americanski Posalo-
nick," ^ the russian words for american ministers.

Thursday 16. — What is called in Russia the fine weather still con-
tinues, but has it is said continued beyond its usual period. In
this country however I find differences of opinion on the subject as
there are in all others. More than two weeks ago I was told on a
rainy day that the fine weather was done till the Month of May next
(O. S.). But the rain ceased with the day, and with occasionil
clouds we have enjoj^ed delightful weather since. Yesterday I was
told, that the fine weather may continue for two or three weeks
longer. In fact the Evenings and mornings are not as cold at St.
P. at this time as usually at the same season in the 40 Deg. of Lat.

Online LibraryAmerican Historical AssociationAnnual report of the American Historical Association (Volume 1913, v.2) → online text (page 51 of 64)