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Tuesday i;?.— According to appointment Mr. A., Mr. G. and myself
went in full uniform to deliver our Letters of credence to Count Ro-
manzoff. As we passed one of the city guards consisting of about 30
men, we found them turned out under arms. This is an honor limited
to very few and on particular occasions, but it is always paid to Mem-
bers of the imperial family.

We were received by the Count in great state. The different halls
thro which we passed were filled with servants in waiting. The
Count was in full dress with his blue ribband ^ and the decorations
of different orders. The Letters were delivered by Mr. A. who seemed
disposed to make a short address. But he was interupted by the
Count who seated us all and soon began a familiar conversation, re-
marking that he was already in possession of a copy of our Letters of
credence. At the end of an half an hour we rose to take our leave and
the Count remarked, " from this moment Messrs. you have your dip-
lomatic existence and shall possess all its rights and privileges." In
the conversation he informed us that the Emperor, had approved of
all the Steps he had taken to give effect to the mediation, and directed
him to proceed in the same tract, and appeared satisfied, that no im-
pression had been made on the Emperor by the British Government
tending to impair the interest he took in the affairs and well being
of the United States.

Wednesday 13. — The day dark cold and raining. In the morning
we had a visit from Col. Eapportel ^ aid De Camp to the late Genl.
Moreau and at present aid to the Emperor. He came to the city to
attend the remains of the Genl. which are to be interred in the Cath-
olic Church. He was within three steps of the Genl. when he re-

1 Note in the manuscript : " Order of St. Andrew the highest in the empire."
= Col. Rappatel, who had been in this country with Moreau, had returned to Russia In
1812 and had been instrumental in inducing Moreau to join the czar. It fell to him to
complete the letter to Madame Moreau, then in this country, which Moreau began after
he was mortally wounded.


ceived the wound of which he died. The Emperor of Russia was at
about the same distance upon the other side of him. They were mak-
ing a reconnoisance of the french position before Dresden. There
had not been more than five shots fired, when the unfortun[at]e Mo-
reau was struck with a canon Ball. He was on horseback. The Ball
struck on one knee, nearly severed the leg passed thro the body of the
horse struck the other knee and shattered the bones of both thighs.
Both legs were amputated above the laiees. He was wounded the 15
of August and died the 21, O. S. The horse fell on him and when
relieved from the pressure he said to Col. R. "Je suis un homme per-
due." He had only arrived at the Head Quarters ^ days preced-
ing. He mentioned to the Col. before he died, that observing the en-
emy were firing at them that the words were on his lips to desire the
Emperor to change his position. The Col. was much attached to the
General and spoke of his death with great feeling.

Thursday IJ^. — I attended this morning the celebration of the fu-
neral service of General Moreau at the Catholic church. The house
was extremely crowded, and it was difficult to obtain admission.
" Les Grands de I'Empire ont assiste a cette ceremonie." The service
was conducted by the metropolitan archbishop of Mohileff and fol-
lowed by a funeral oration. The coffin was covered with crimson vel-
vet bordered w^ith gold lace and trimed with gold fringe. It was
placed on a monument about 7 feet high — " sur un magnifique cata-
falque ", under a superb canopy. Around the monument more than
a thousand candles were burning. The vocal and instrumental mu-
sick were both fine and the whole service solemn and interesting. It
continued from 10 till 2 oclock. At the conclusion there were several
discharges of small arms from a line of 2000 troops drawn up in
front of the church.^

Friday 15. — The weather, dark and raining.

Saturday 16. — Bad weather confined to the house during the day.
In the evening we paid a Adsit to Mr. K. Minister of the Interior.
We found there a small Party. Cards were introduced and a table at
Boston formed. The game was played by four persons of whom Mrs.
K. was one who appeared to understand it better than her guests.

Sunday 17. — This day was appointed for our formal presentation
in our diplomatic characters [to] the reigning Empress. At 11
oclock the three JSIinisters paid a visit to Mr. D Narichkin Grand
Maiter des Ceremonies.^ We were informed that the hour of our
presentation would be 2 oclock and we were requested to be precise

1 Blank In the manuscript. Moreau was shot Aug. 28, twelve days after his arrival at

"See Adams, " Memoirs ",• II, 534-535.
* Ivan Naryshkin.

DIARY, OCTOBER, 1813. 475

in our Attendance. At the time we repaired with our suite to the
Winter palace. At the door we were received by a page richly
dressed and with plumes in his bonnet who conducted us thro a very
long hall and led us up stairs. At the head of the stair we left our
surtouts and servants. A door opened and we v\-ere received by an
officer of the palace, without a livery or uniform. He conducted us
thro his Apartment to the door of another. Upon the door being
opened we were saluted by a chambellan who led us thro the
Apartment to another. In this we were received by Mr. de Swis-
tounoff^ chambellan actual de S. M. and passing thro it, in an-
other we were received by Mr. Narishkin Grand Maitre des cere-
monies. He conducted us to another Apartment and delivered us
into the hands of Le Grand Chambellan Nuryschkin,^ who at-
tended us to the door of the Apartment in which we found her
majesty. The Empress was standing and the Countess *

behind her. In approaching her majesty we had three bows to make,
which she returned by a slight inclination of the body. The audience
continued about five minutes. She expressed her regret that she had
not had it in her power to receive us before. Enquired about our
passage from America and the nature of our climate and terminated
the audience by expressing a hope that we should pass our time agree-
ably at St. P. We each kissed her hand and retired. After we left
the palace she came into the room in which we had left our suite
and each Gentleman was presented to her. In the afternoon we went
to dine with the Count Eomanzoff, who gave a grand diplomatic
dinner on the occasion of the presentation of Madame Bardaxi the
wife of the Spanish Minister and of ourselves. The company con-
sisted of Ladies as well as Gentlemen and exceeded forty.

Monday IS. — After a minister has been presented at Court, he is
furnished with a list of names to whom he is to make visits. These
visits excepting to the Chancellor may be paid by sending cards, but
the visit to the Chancellor must be en personne. We paid our visit
to the chancellor and sent out upwards of 200 cards. Mr D. left
us to day and set out about 3 oclock for Abo.*

Tuesday 19. — Dined with the Princess B. The Party numerous.
A number of the first nobility at the table. She has opened her win-
ter establishment in the city. Her establishment is among the first
in the city in splendour and expence. I was seated at the table
between the Princess Gallitzin and Madame Luning. These Ladies
both spoke french as their native tongue, and were both extremely
affable and communicative. Madame K. had a daughter at the table

* Nicolas Svistounov. » Blank in the manuscript.

■ Alexander Naryshkin. * George Dallas. See p. 248. Abo in Finland.


one of the greatest Belles in Russia. She is young, accomplished and
rich, but not handsome. She speaks irench, Italian, German, Eng-
lish, and Russian languages. Has travelled over the greater part of
the Continent, and has had every advantage of education. She is
proprietor of ^ slaves and of course is much admired. Letters

were received by the mail of yesterday containing information, that
Mr. G's nomination had been negatived in the Senate.^

W ednesday 20. — The weather dark cold and rainy and in conse-
quence we have been shut up all day in the House. This morning
Mr. T. communicated to Mr. G. the rejection of his nomination in
the Senate but he did not think proper to make it a subject of con-
versation between us.

Thursday 21. — Wretched weather, cloudy, cold and raining. In
the after noon we rode out to the glass manufactory. We saw the
process of making tumblers in which the glass is heated to the point
of being malleable and yields upon pressure to any form designed to
be given to it. The establishment belongs to the Emperor and is
carried on chiefly by his slaves. In the evening Mr. G. and myself
had a conversation upon the subject of the rejection of his nomina-

He felt no mortification he said as it regarded the Russian Govt,
or the Society of St. P. because his appointment had been asked by
this Govt.

The President had not intended to appoint him, but he requested
the appointment. The President remarked, that he could not spare
him from the Treasurj''. He replied, he could be of no service there,
because if the war continued another year it would be impossible to
support public credit, that money could not be obtained, but if sent
abroad, he might be useful to the Govt, by the means he would employ
to make peace, knowing as he did the want of means to support the
war. He attributed his rejection chiefly to Mr. King,^ whose talents
he spoke highly off.

Friday 22. — Bad weather and confined to the house.

Saturday 23. — Same.

Sunday 2Ji. — Same.

Monday 25. — Same.

Tuesday 26. — It is a long time since we have seen the sun and the
weather cold and rainy. The snow which fell a few days ago has dis-
appear'd and rendered the walking bad. To day we gave orders to
Capt. Jones to leave Cronstadt imm.ediately and to repair to Gotten-
burg where it is expected that the Neptune will winter.* We are

» Blank in the manuscript.

* Gallatin's nomination was rejected in the Senate July 19. " Sen. Ex. Journ.", 1805-
1815, 388.

3 Rufus King, senator from New York, had introduced the resolutions asking whether
Gallatin still held his cabinet position. " Sen. Ex. Journ.", 1805-1815, 348-349.

* See p. 245.

DIAEY, OCTOBER, 1813. 477

impatiently waiting for the return of the Courier sent with despatches
relating to our mission the 29 August.

The time ordinarily allowed for a passage from St. P. to London
is 20 days. The danger we apprehend is that the Court of St. James's
will temporize and avoid giving a decisive answer. This suspence is
extremely painful. Ivnowing our powers to be limited to the media-
tion of Russia it is our anxious desire if the mediation be not excepted
that we should be placed at liberty to return to our Country. In a
few days, it will be scarcely practicable to leave Europe during the
Winter. And we can scarcely hope that events will possess such a
definitive character as will justify the abandonment of the objects
of the mission which could be justified alone on the ground of utter

Wednesday 27. — Still bad weather. And no expectation of good,
till winter has taken complete possession of the Country. The last
year several days before this time winter made her appearance and
the Neva was frozen across and passable on the ice. But that winter
is remarked for its early commencement and severity. The present
is oonsidered as the most disagreeable season of the year. The sun
is not to be seen, the atmosphere is damp and chilly, the ground wet,
and the appearance of everything calculated to inspire sombre

Thursday 28. — The weather continues as bad as ever and almost
kills one from the ennui and want of exercise occasioned by confine-

We are still without information from England and entirely
ignorant of the intentions of the British Cabinet in relation to the

Friday 29. — Upon rising this morning I found the houses and
ground covered with snow which had fallen last night. The clouds
however had disappeared and we had a very brilliant day. The
atmosphere was remarkably clear but the cold very peircing. I have
iiad occasion to make the remark, that the same degree of cold here
does not freeze or create snow, as in the U. S. in the Lat. of 40.
This may be caused by currents of different temperature in the
A [t] mosphere or by different causes.

Saturday 30. — A clear bright day. Wind from S. W. very cold.
We have not yet heard whether or not our Capt. has sailed from
Cronstadt. Since he left St. P. the wind has been constantly ahead.
And there is some reason to apprehend that he may be detained by
the ice. This would be a serious embarrassment, as we should be
obliged let events occur as they may to remain here probably till
the month of June.

Sunday 31. — The Empress mother with her family having come
to Town from Gratchina, the Count Romanzoff sent us a note in-


forming us that at half past one, we should be presented at the
winter palace. At the time appointed we proceeded to the palace
and were received with more parade than when presented to the
Empress. In one of the Halls we passed a file of soldiers in very
splendid uniforms who saluted us in passing. Before we reached
the Hall of audience we passed thro a large chamber, where we
found a croud of great Men who were officers of the Household.
We were delivered over in succession by the different officers till we
( ame into the hands of the Master of ceremonies and then of the
Grand Master of ceremonies and finally of the Grand Chambellan.
We were informed by the Grand Master of ceremonies, that we must
be careful in leaving the audience chamber not to turn our back
upon the Empress. Upon entering this chamber we found the
Empress standing near the door with a lady in waiting behind her.
She received us in succession, and spoke of St. P., the different public
institutions, of the Neva which she affirmed to be "la plus belle
revierre du Monde," tho she observed we had larger. She spoke of
the regulation of prisons in the U. S. which she understood t[o] be
excellent and very civilly remarked that there were many analogies
between the Russian and american characters. The empress mother
is above the common size a good person and a majestic deportment,
with all easy in her manners. In conversation she is very eloquent
and professes a cultivated mind and excellent dispositions. Her
name is "Marie Feodorowna." She was Princess of Wurtenburg
and born the 26 Octr. 1759. She supports her years extremely well.
Upon leaving the Empress we were admitted to the honor of kissing
her hand and that ceremony terminated our audience and according
to our instructions we were careful to liach out of the chamber.
Upon quitting the Apartment of the Empress we were informed,
that we were to be presented to the Grand Dukes Nicholas Pavlovitch
and Michael Pavlovitch.^ We were according conducted thro a
long suite of rooms till we were ushered into their apartment by the
Master who introduced us separately by name. Nicholas was born
the 7 July, 1796 and appears to have already attained his full
hight. He is tall, slender, well made, graceful and fine expression
of countenance, Michael was born the 9th of February 1798, and is
well grown for his age. He is rather more robust than lys brother,
and is at present at least 5 feet 8 or 9 inches high. He is not as
handsome nor as graceful as his brother. This audience lasted but a
few minutes and the Dukes were both c[i]vil enough to say to us
each, " Mons. J'ai bien de plaisir in f aisan votre connaisance."

We had now to be presented to the Grand Duchesse Anne Pavlovna
and were accordingly conducted thro another suite of Apartments to

» Nicholas (179G-1855), afterward the czar Nicholas I; Michael (1798-1849).

DIARY, NOVEMBER, 1813. 479

her chamber. We were introduced to her in succession by the master
of ceremonies, and after a few words to each we kissed her hand and
retired. Anne was born the 21 of January 1795 and has little claim
to beauty.^ She had the too[t]hach and her face was bound with a

The Gentlemen of the suite were not presented with the ministers
nor in the same hall. A station was assigned them and" the Empress
came out of her Apartment, spoke a few words to each and retired.
The different presentations occupied upwards of an hour.

Monday 1 November. — The weather has become extremely cold
and ice is forming in the Neva. By the thermometer there were 5
deg. of frost. Mr. H. informed us that Mr. Baily ^ the British con-
sul had called upon him three times in the course of the daj'', but
did not find him at home till the last time. That Mr. B. told him that
he was authorized by Lord Walpole^ the British Minister (who ar-
rived from the h[e]ad quarters on the 29 Octr) to inform him that
the Russian Mediation had been explicity refused by the British Gov-
ernment. And that Lord Cathcart had communicated the refusal
to the Emperor at the head quarters who replied that the British
Government having made their determination in the case, he had
nothing more to do in the business,

Tuesday 2. — Mr. G. to day by appointment waited on Count
Romanzoff to state to him that he did not consider himself any longer
a Minister of the U States, his nomination not having been approved
by the Senate. He explained the reason of his rejection to arise
from his being Minister of finance, and the President preferring to
retain him in that character to his remaining at this Court and the
Senate insisting that the offices were incompatible, the rejection by
the Senate was the consequence. He took occasion to mention to the
Count the communication which had been made by Lord Walpole.
The Count expressed much surprize, as he had a letter from the
Emperor in his own hand writing of the 22 Augt. N. S. approving of
the course he proposed to take of renewing the offer of mediation to
the British Govt. He stated however that he had recently received
a despatch from Count Leiwen* at London by which he was in-
formed that he had declined delivering to Lord Castlereagh, the
letter which had been sent to him, containing the renewed offer of
mediation assigning as a reason that the state of things did not
allow the offer to be renewed and of which he count R. could not
be apprized.

'Anna Pavlovna (1795-1865), afterward queen of William II, king of the Nether-

2 Daniel Baily.

» Sec p. 261, note 2.

* Lieven.


He said that he had designed to have sent for one of the Comm.
and make the communication of the fact, altho he did not feel himself
at libert}^ from anything that had occurred to say to us officially that
the mediation was at an end. That he had already sent Count
Liewen's letter to the Emperor, and that he designed immediately to
despatch a Courier to Head Quarters for the express purpose of
learning the pleasure of the Emperor as to our mission. He stated
to Mr. G. that he being accreditted to this Court, he should consider
him as Minister till he presented letters of recall. That he did not
understand the constitution of our Government but that by the usages
of nations nothing but letters of recall could be noticed by a foreign
Govt. He observed however if Mr. G. was desirous to depart he
would at any time obtain for him an audience of leave. To get out of
Eussia at this moment is next to impossible. The gulf of Bothnia
cannot be passed. Three fourths of the time of the last month it has
been raining. The ground is not yet frozen and the roads are cut to
peices. A journey to Gottenburg to go round No. by Torneo, would
be 1500 Miles, to go South more than 2000. Our ship had sailed
from Cronstadt, and we must find our way to Gottenburg. We must
now wait for the snow and the roads may not be passable for a

Till the winter has set in and the easterly winds prevail, the
weather is from this time cloudy and dark. The day has become very
short, and diminishing rapidly. The sun sets about 4 oclock. At the
shortest day at St. P. the sun sets 46 minutes after 2 o'clock.

Wednesday 3. — A dark cloudy rainy day which denied us the sat-
isfaction of even walking on the Boulevard.

Thursday Jf. — A note had been sent by the Grand Master of cere-
monies to the members of the corps diplomatic that Te Deum would
be sung at the Cassan Church for the victory of Leipsick.^ We ac-
cordingly repaired to the Church at 12 o'clock and took our stations
assigned by the Grand Master. About 1 o'clock the Empress, Em-
press-mother, the Grand Dukes Nicholas and Michael and the Grand
Duchesse Anne entered. Their station was in a hollow square
formed by the corps Diplomatic, Ladies of the Court and the Digna-
taries of the Empire. The Empresses stood facing the Corps Diplo-
matic. Behind them stood the Two Grand Dukes and the Grand
Duchesse on one side just in front of the Ladies of the Court. The
reigning Empress was dressed very splendidly and was extremely
interesting from the modesty and softness of her appearance. The
Empress mother was richly dress r-d and sparkled with diamonds but
their was nothing in her appearance to fix or to attract much notice.
The ceremony of the Te Deum commenced as soon as the Imperial

»Oct. 16-19, 1813.

DIAEY, NOVEMBER, 1813. 481

family had taken their places. At one part the whole audience had
to kneel. The Emp. mother required assistance to enable her to rise.
The Ceremony lasted till two oclock and concluded by the adoration
of the image of the virgin Mary by the Imperial family. The
Empress first approached the image, Imelt and bowed her head to-
wards the ground. She rose and knelt a second and third time bow-
ing her head in each instance. She then kissed a part of the image
pointed out by a Priest. She then made several salutations to the
choiristers to the imperial family to corps Diplomatick and returned
to her first station. She moved with great dignity and grace. The
Empress mother then went thro the same ceremony. The Grand Duke
Nicholas then followed. He knelt upon both knees and touched the
floor with his forehead and kissed a different part of the image from
the Empresses. Then came Michael and after him the Grand
Duchesse Ann, who went thro the same forms. The Imperial family
then withdrew and the congregation separated.

At 4 oclock we went to dine with Count Eomanzoff who gave a
grand diplomatic dinner. The table was ornamented and the dinner
served in a very superb style. We remained at the table about an
hour and a half. Lord Walpole was one of the company. Upon
with drawing from the dinner room and being seated in the room in
which coffee was served, I found his Lordship sitting by side me.
He was conversing with the young Count Woronzoff.^ From his
manner I evidently perceived that he was disposed to enter into con-
versation with me, and being desirous of the same thing I commenced
it upon my part. Dining together with the Chancellor of the Em-
pire is always considered as an introduction and no other is re-
quired. I remarked to him that he had been long on the road from
the Head Quarters. He said no, tho he had not travelled in courier.

He immediately after remarked, that he [was sorry he (?)] had
not come sooner, as he could have relieved us from a suspense which
he knew must have been unpleasant, and the effects of which might
have been injurious to our two Countries. He said as early as the
6 July Lord Cathcart had been instructed and the same instructions
repeated by despatches of the 13 July to inform the Emperor ex-
plicitly that Great Britain could in no form accede to the mediation
he had proposed. That this information was communicated to the
Emperor anterior to the 22 of August. For on that day the
Despatches of Lord Cathcart were dated which informed the Brit-
ish Court that he had made the communication. That Great Britain
was willing to treat directly with the U. S., that the Ministry and

1 Count Mikhail Semenovich Vorontsov (1782-1856), afterward prince and fleld-marshal,
already distinguished in warfare, notably at Borodino.

62513°— VOL 2—15 31


People of England were desirous of peace with America and that
the Ministry could not do a more popular act than to make the peace.

Friday 5. — The weather has moderated, but is dark, cloudy, rainy
and altogether extremely disagreeable. The day spent at home.

Online LibraryAmerican Historical AssociationAnnual report of the American Historical Association (Volume 1913, v.2) → online text (page 54 of 64)