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bellies in snow. We frequently met trains of loaded Kibitkas drawn
by one horses of 25, 50 and 100 in succession. Some times we stopt
and let them pass us, but if the number was small the postillion with
a thundering voice ordered them out of the road, which was always
obeyed, tho the horse sometimes disappeared in the snow and the
Kibitka and he were overturned together. We left Iggafor about
10 o'clock and pursued our [journey] with a view of reaching Dorpat
where we were informed comfortable lodgings were to be had, but
we did not arrive at this place till 6 oclock in the morning, altho
only 23 verts. We went to bed at 7 oclock and rose at 10. Havinsr a
letter from the Minister of the Interior to the Head of the police of

< Vaivari. * Nennale.

• leroa. * Peipus.



500 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION.

this Town, he called upon us and offered all the services he coujd
render and in which we stood in need. The Podoroshince ^ which
we obtained at St. P. was for only 12 horses which we there thought
enough but on the road we were obliged to augment the number to
20 and the snow had now become so extremely deep, that we re-
quested a new podoroshince for 12 additional horses, which gave us
24, eight for each carriage. For the number of horses w^ich the
traveller takes not included in his order for horses he pays double,
and this we had been obliged to do for 8 of our horses.

Monday 31. — It had ceased snowing yesterday, but on rising this
morning we found the snow falling in great abundance. Dorpat is
a small Town containing about 12,000 Inhabitants, including the
environs, situate [d] 324 versts from S. P. We determined to rest our-
selves here till the afternoon. At four oclock we proceeded on our
journey and arrived at Addern^ a distance of 25 versts at 10. We
remained here 2 hours to procure fresh horses and set out at 12 with
8 horses in each carriage to prosecute our route. This was a fright-
ful stage. It snowed very hard. The tract of the road was scarcely
to be discovered. The horses were bad and the Drivers worse.
After proceeding about 10 versts the horses failed and it was with
great difficulty they could be forced on at the rate of a mile an hour.
In the course of the stage they stalled 30 times and with the aid of
8 men it was difficult to start them each time. At the end of 1,3
hours we reached Kukatz ^ a distance of 24 versts.

Tuesday^ 1st of Feby. — We remained at Kukatz till half past three
and resumed our journey with better horses and Drivers and arrived
at Tielhetz* 22 versts at 8, where we took refreshment and started
again at ten and arrived at 12 at Gulben a distance of 18 versts.
Thence we set out at 2 and reached Stakeln 24 versts at 4, remained
till 5, and proceeded to Wolmar 18 versts where we arrived at 7.

Wednesday, 2 Feby. — At 9 oclock we left Wolmar and arrived at
Lenzenhoff at 12. 18 versts. From thence we proceeded at 1, and
made 22 versts to Eoop by 6. Having taken our dinner we went on
to Engilhardshof 21 versts where we found ourselves at 11. The
distance from thence to Hilkensfer 19 versts was accomplished by 5
oclock. We were refreshed here by a dish of coffee and proceeded to
Neuenmuhlen 15 where we arrived at 8.

Thursday S. — From the last station to Riga is but 11 versts which
we performed by 11 oclock.. We determined to remain at Riga to
rest ourselves and to arrange our pecuniary affairs for the immedi-
ate part of the journey which was to follow. The money we had
used from St. P. was the paper Ruble, which was not current beyond
Riga. We had brought a letter of introduction from Mr. Harris to the

1 Order for post horses, » Kuhikatz.

• Uderne. * Tiplitz.



DIARY, FEBRUARY, 1814. 501

Marquis Paulocci^ Governor General of the Provinces of Livonia
and Courland. He is by birth an Italian and has been in the Rus-
sian service about 6 years and has risen very rapidly in the esteem
and confidence of the Emperor. He is a man of polished manners
and extremely civil in his conduct. In the afternoon the Marquis
sent his aid de camp to Mr. G. and myself with an offer of any
service in his power and with an invitation to accompany him and
to take a seat in his box at the theatre. And in the meantime he
would be happy to see us. In an hour after the Aid returned with a
message that the Governors coach 'would call for us at 5 oclock.
Accordingly at that hour the coach was at the door and conducted us
to the palace where we were led thro a long train of Apartments to
that in which we found the Marquis and his wife. They received us
with great curtesy and after sitting about an hour we proceeded with
the Marquis and his Lady to the theatre.

The house was of common size, not very brilliant in its decorations,
but had an excellent orchestre. It was extremely crouded. Three
small piece were performed. The last a ballad. The performances
ended at 8 oclock. And the Governor conveyed us in his coach to the
Hotel de St. Petersburg where we had taken lodgings. Before we
left his house he had invited us to dine with him the ensuing day.
We endeavoured to excuse ourselves.^

ISH. Fehy. 21.^ — Arrived at Berlin. Snow had been falling all
day and the weather very cold — put up at the Hotel de Russie.

Tuesday 22. — Called upon our Bankers Messrs. Schinckler and
Brothers to arrange funds for the journey to Amsterdam. These
men were destitute of every form of civility, requested to call next
day. In the evening went to the Theatre. The Scenery very superb.

Wednesday 23. — Yesterday and to day w^e ran over the town to take
a view of streets and houses — visitted the church of St. Marie built
500 years ago. Shewn in the vault the body of a child dead 480 years.

Thursday 24- — We had a visit yesterday from the Baron Alopeus,"*
who requests to be rememberd to Messrs. Monroe and Pinckney.
Today we made our arrangements with our Bankers and got our
money for our journey, reed, a letter from Mr. Bourne^ our consul

^The Marquis PauluccI had been chief of the general staff in 1812.

' In a smaU note-booli among the Bayard Papers there is a record of Bayard's
Journey from Dorpat through Riga, Mittau, Memel, Konigsberg, Marienwerder, Frankfort-
on-the-Oder, to Berlin. The travellers left Dorpat Jan. 31»and arrived at Berlin Feb. 21.
The entries are the briefest jottings and it suflBces to note that the journey was a very
hard one through heavy storms and over deep snows. The Vistula was crossed on the ice.

^ The diary from Feb. 21, 1814, to Apr. 3, was kept in a small green note-book, and,
as will be seen, in much more incomplete form than the preceding diary (see preface,
p. 8).

'Maxim Maximovltch Alopaeua (1748-1822), whose diplomatic service began in
1789, had been in London in 1807 and had probably met Monroe and Pinkney there.

* Sylvanus Bourne.



502 AMERICAN HISTOBICAL ASSOCIATION.

at Amsterdam stating that he had advice from Mr. Beasly ^ in Lon-
don that the Brit Govt, had proposed a direct negociation at Gotten-
berg which had been accepted by the President and that we were ap-
pointed Comrs. We determined to proceed immediately to Amster-
dam by the shortest route and accordingly set out at 6 in the evening
on the road to Potsdam. Arrived at Potsdam at 10 where we re-
mained during the night. Yesterday there were 18 degs. of cold and
the weather is equally rigorous to day.

Friday 25. — The cold continues with a clear sky and seems to have
increased. Took a carriage and' went to see the old and new palace
of Sans Souci. It was [here] the old Fredk. the G. died.^ We were
shewn the room and spot where he breathed his last. He died with-
out a struggle in an arm chair. The valet de chamber who was pres-
ent at his death shewed us the palace. The old pal. is a mile and the
new two miles from Potsdam. The new extremely magnificent, cost
10 millions Thalers. At the old pal. are the tomb stones of 11 dogs
of Fred., their names inscribed. Shewn a clock which run down at
the time Fred. died. The hands have not been changed since 20
min after in morng. Were shewn the gallery of paintings at old
pal. A great many fine paintings at new pal. Saw the bed room
and bed of the Queen ^ several portraits and busts of her, the room
in which Alexander and Napoleon slept in succession. Visitted the
pal. of Potsdam. Many fine paintings and magnificent halls. In the
new pal. was a hall called the grotto. It was 100 ft. by 60, ceiling
50 high, incrusted with shells. The Exp. of the mornings excursion
was 20. 12. Potsdam a neat and pretty Town, population 15,000.
Houses chiefly built by the King, uniform, some very handsome,
many not occupied — given to Individuals who will inhabit them.

[Then follow brief jottings of a journey through Prussian, Hano-
verian, and Dutch territory to Amsterdam.]

Saturday 5 [Mar.'\ — At Amsterdam. Being much fatigued re-
meind at home — reed, visits from Mr. Willinck and son.* In the
eveng. reed, the despatch by Mr. Strong of the Secretary of State
of the 31 Jany.

Sunday 6. — Wrote to Mr. Adams sending a copy of despatch and
the original documents, viz. Presidents message of 6 Jany. and Let-
ters of Lord Castlerea^h, Mr. Monroe, and Ld. Cathcart.^ Went
out to see the town port and navy yard.

1 R. G. Beasley.

2 Frederick the Great died here Aug. 17, 1786.

* Queen Louise, probably.

* The firm of Willinls and van Staphorst had long been bankers for the American
government.

6 "Am. St. P., For. Rel.", III., 621-623.



DIABY, MARCH, 1814. 503

Monday 7. — Remained at home on acct. of bad weather dined at
6 with Mr. Willinck the father.

Tuesday 8. — Snowing all day, remained at home. In evening vis-
itted the french Theatre.

Wednesday 9. — Bad weather snow and cold — saw different parts
of the Town. Went to the evening to dutch Theatre — house crowded.
French very thin. House spacious and handsomely finished, scenery
fine, dancing good.

Thursday 10. — Mr. Harris arrived at Amsterdam to day ^ and brot
despatches from Mr. Adams for Secy, of State and also a letter for
Mr. G. and myself. Snowing during day — weather said to be as
cold as any time during the winter — reed, a visit from Mr. Barens-
feld of the house of Van Stophorst. Invited to dine on 16. Great
number of importunate beggars. Number of Canals. Expence of
living great. •

Monday H. — Went with Mr. Bourne our Consul to view the State
House. This building which is very spacious still contains the Bank
of Amsterdam. It formerly was appropriated to the public uses
of the Country but King Louis ^ erected it into a palace and had
it furnished for his personal residence. There are several mag-
nificent Halls, ceilings of great altitude (one 120 feet) — walls marble.
It is now fitting for the Prince of Orange.^ We were shewn a col-
lection of fine paintings of the Dutch and flemish school.

Tuesday 16. — Visitted different parts of the Town and in the
evening the french Theatre.

Wednesday 16. — Dined with Mr. Barensfeld, partner of Van Stap-
horst and Co. The dinner served partly in the Russian and partly
English fashion. The name of each guest written and laid on his
plate. Ladies and Gentlemen leave the table at the same time. The
hour of dinner ^ past 4 and 5 o clock.

Thursday 17. — The morning spent in traversing the Town viewing
the canals, quays, Bridges, houses, and shops. Went to the evening
to the dutch Theatre.

Friday^ 18. — Went to visit the navy yard, several ships of 74 and
80 guns on the Stocks, besides frigates. Shewn the model room which
contains a great number of beautiful models — one very large one of
adml. De Ruyters * ship. Saw his sword. One model so constructed
as to open and shew all the interior distribution of a 74.

1 Harris had left St. Petersburg Feb. 9. *

2 Louis Bonaparte, king of Holland since 1806, had abdicated in 1810. The old Stad-
huis (town-house) of Amsterdam is now the royal palace.

8 William I (1772-1844), see p. 248, note 6.

* Michael Adriaanszoon de Ruyter (1607-1675), admiral-in-chief of the Dutch fleet
and commander in the war with England, 1665-1667.



504 AMERICAN HISTOEICAL ASSOCIATION.

Saturday, 19. — Walked out about 5 miles on the Naarden road.
The Town, about 10 miles from Amsterdam, in possession of the
French and blockaded by the dutch. Heard many canon. Some
dead and wounded, brought into Am'm. from beseiging camp. Passed
over the march and a large sheet of ice to the dike which defends
the Country from the Zuyder sea. Had a full view of the sea which
is frozen for miles out. Dined with Mr. John Willink (Jansen)
John's son.

Sunday, 20. — Mr. Harris left Am. this morning to pass by the
Hague and Rotterdam to Helvoetsluys, where he embarks for Har-
wich.

Saturday, 26. — Mr. G. and myself and the Consul Mr. Bourne were
presented to the Prince of Orange and reed, with great courtesey.

Sunday, 27. — In the morng we reed, an invitation to dine with
the Prince at 4 and at that hour we repaired to the palace. At the
table Prince, Princess^ (sister of the King of Prussia), the heredi-
tary Prince,^ a younger brother,^ a Prince of Nassau and about 30
persons partly in civil and in military dresses. Table plain — many
attendants — dinner one hour. Remained in drawing room till 8.
Prince and Princess withdrew and compy, dispersed.

Tuesday, 29. — Prince of Orange came from the Hague to Amm. on
the 25 incog. The Princess on the 26 made a public entry escorted etc.
Princess Mother on the 28 escorted etc.

Left Amsterdam at 12 and arrived at the Hague at 7. This day
the Notables met to receive the constitution ; * an Invitation was
given to attend the ceremony. Expected that convention will not
continue more than 3 days.

30. — Spent the day in vistg different parts of the Town. U. S
still hold a house called the Amern. house bought for their ministers
30 yrs ago. I went to see it and found it in a miserable condition,
floors rotten, walls and ceilings delapidating, occupied by some old
women.^ A handsome painting tho much injured over fire place — a
naked venus and cupid etc.

1 Frederica Wilhelmina.

2 William, who ruled as William II from 1840 to 1849.

3 Prince Frederik (1797-1881).

* The constitution of 1814 for the kingdom of the Netherlands (Holland and Bel-
gium) had been framed by a commission, Dec. 21, 1813. Feb. 14, 1814, a convention of
six hundred notables ratified it.

« The Hotel des fitats Unis was originally a house which the two towns of Alkmaar
and Enkhuysen had maintained for their representatives in the States General of the old
Republic. In 1782 John Adams bought it for the United States (Wharton, V, 207. 243),
aBd Congress ratified the purchase ("Secret Journals, Foreign Affairs", III, 266). Vans
Murray in 1798 reported it to be " large and even handsome, but it is a perfect cave in
dampness and cold!" ("Annual Report of A. H. A.", 1912, 471, 472), and rented a house
in the Voorhout. Later the HStel des fitats Unis reverted to Dutch possession and to its
old name of Hcitel des Deux Villes (De Twee Steden), and a hotel of that name, on the
old site, is familiar to many American tourists.



DIARY, APRIL, 1814. 505

The palace a handsome building, tho not spacious, formerly the
house of Count de Rhone and hot for 80,000 florins. The ancient
palace is larger but of mean appearance. Several handsome streets
and many splendid houses.

The Prince of O makes his entry here tis sovereign Prince on 2
April. Preparations made to receive him.

Most streets have canals and are called grafs^ — if no canal,
straad. The water stagnant and the canals filthy. I am told they
are cleaned in the summer. The travelling in the Schuyts - is at
rate of 3 miles an hour, drawn by a horse, who precedes the boat 100
yards and is attached by a small cord, moves some times in a slow
trot, arrived at Rotterdam in the evening. . . .

[J.;?r.] 3. — Mr. Irving^ a M. J*, sent his compliments to me this
morng and would wait upon me if not engaged. I reed, him and
found him a moderate intelligent and sensible maji. He expressed
much desire for peace between England and Ama. He introduced
me soon after to Mr. Douglass* also M. P. They lodged in the
same house. He gave me an invitation to dine with him which I
accepted and dined with him and Mr. D. and Mr. Ferrier the British
Consul. The afternoon spent in entire harmony tho we touched on
the subject of dispute between the nations. In the afternoon arrived
Mrs. Gore the widow of Genl. Gore killed a few days before at the
assault upon Bergen op Zoom.'' Her situation was interesting. She ,
had with her an infant about 6 wks. old and was attended by a Mrs.
McMickle the widow of a Capt.^ killed the same day.

Jf.. — Mr. Gallatin, his son, and Mess Dallas, Milligan, and Tod
arrived at Rotterdam and informed me of their intention of proceed-
ing next day to Helvs.

5. — This morning I left Rotm. and proceed [ed] by Delf-Masesluys
and Bril to Helvoetsluys ^ where I arrived at 4. Distance about 28
miles. The other Gentn. arrived in the evening at about 9. I en-
gaged a passage in the packet for ensuing day for England.

,» * * * * :ii *

I8I4. Wednesday, 6 April.' — ^Left Helvoetsluys in the evening,
could not pass the sands during the night. Lay at anchor in the
mouth of the Meuse.

8. — Arrived at Harwich, 100 miles.

iGracht. •

* Packet boats.

•John Irving, M. P. for Bramber.

* There were three Douglasses In this Parliament : Frederic S. N., for Banbury,
William for Plympton Earl, and William R. K. for Dumfries Burghs.

» See p. 351.
•Capt. McNicol.

' Delfshaven, Maaslandsluis, Brielle, Hellevoetsluis.

■ From Apr. 6, 1814, to Sept. 10 the diary items were made in a small red note-
book (see preface, p. 8).



506 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATIOIT.

10. — Arrived in London, 72. Do. Took lodgings at Blenheim
Hotel.

11, Monday. — Removed to York Hotel, Albemarle St. London
illuminated 11, 12, IS, for abdication of Buonaparte.

12. — Visited St. James and Hyde Park and returned visits.

13. — Visited Westminster Abbey, Hall, and Bridge.

IJf.. — Was presented to Count Leevin the Russian Ambassador and
dined with him. A detailed conversation on the question of
Impressment.

75, Finday. — Engaged a chariot and pair at 30 guineas a month
all expences included except incursions into the Country. In the
evening attended a route at Madame de Staels^ by invitation.
Obliged to retire very early owing to a severe pain in the face.

16. — Reed, a note from Count Leevin appointing \. past six to
present us to the Grand Duchess Catherine.^ We attended at the
hour and were presented. The Count and Countess in Waiting, the
Gr. Duchess abt. 24 handsome, affable, and intelligent.

11. — Visited different parts of the city — Westminster Bridge,
Bl[ack] friars, The Inns of Court, Temple garden etc.

18. — Visitted different parts of the Town.

19. — The House of Commons met and I attended in the evening.
Heard Mr. Steven,^ Whitebread,* Sir S. Romilie,^ Sir J. Mackin-
.tosh,^ Mr. Marriot,'^ Mr. Bathurst,^ etc. Qu. on the analogy of an
mterest in an office and a vested interest.^

20. — This day the King of France Louis 18 made his solemn entry
into London accompanied by the Prince of Wales, escorted by de-
tachments of horse and attended by a vast cavalcade — carriages,
horses, etc. He descended at Gillons Hotel, Albemarle Street, a few
doors from Albermarle HI. where I lodged. We passed thro Hyde
Park where the concourse of people was immense.

21. — The King of France dined to day with the Prince Regent and
proceed [ed] from his Hotel in the Princes coach in great pomp and
splendour. Dined to day with Mr. Mansfield, in company with Mr.

1 Madame de Stael, exiled from France, lived during 1813 and 1814 in England.

2 Fourth sister of Alexander. See above, p. 364.

s James Stephen, M. P. for East Grinstead, author of " War in Disguise ".

* Samuel Whitbread, M. P. for Bedford.

ESir Samuel Romilly (1757-1818), M. P. for Arundel.

«Sir James Mackintosh (1765-1832), M. P. for Nairn-shire.

'' Joseph Marryat, A^ P. for Sandwich.

« There were three Bathursts in this Parliament : Charles, M. P. for Bodmin ; Henry
George, Lord Apsley, M. P. for Cirencester, and William L., M. P. for Weobley. The
speaker to whom Bayard refers was probably William L.

» Both the Commons " Journal " and Hansard's " Parliamentary History " report no
debate on the 19th, but an extended one on the 18th in which all the speakers to whom
Bayard refers took part. The bill under discussion was "An act to prevent the granting
in future of any patent ofiBce to be exercised in any colony or plantation, now or at any
time hereafter belonging to the Crown of Great Britain, for any longer term than during
such time as the grantee thereof or person appointed thereto shall discharge the duty
thereof in person and behave well therein." Hansard, first series, XXVII, 434-438.



DIABY, MAY, 1814. 507

Whitebread, Mr. Broughm/ Mr. Creevy,^ Serjeant Lens,^ etc. In
the evening (Thursday) removed my lodgings to 37 Albemarle St.
In the course of the day we heard of the arrival of Mess. Clay and
Eussel at Gotg.

22. — The Lord !Mayor in his state coach waited on the King of F.
and immense number of the nobility in their robes. The street
has been choaked with carriages the whole day. The number count-
less. Wrote to Mess. C. and E. at Gotg. by Mr. Milligan employed
as spl. messenger.*

^^.— Mr. M. sailed for Gotg.

^Jf. — Visitted Windsor — went thro the Castle.

25. — Visitted different parts of London.

26. — Attended House of Commons.

27. — Visitted the Court of Chancery, vice Chancellor Mr. Romer"
sitting. Court of Common Pleas, Sir Vicy Gibbs,^ Ch. Just. Heath,^
Dallas,* and Chambre,^ on the Bench. Kings Bench in Session,
Lord Ellenborough ^° C. J., Sir Simon Le Blanch," Dampier,^^ ^nd
Bailey," on the Bench.^^ House of Lords in Session, an appeal
from Scotland ^^ — Mr. Horner^" Counsel — present Ld. Chancellor"
and two other Lords. Dined at Hamstead with Mr. Thomas
Wilson.

May 23. — Left London at 7 oclock and arrived at Dover.

Tuesday 24. — At 3 oclock. Tide not suiting to go out of the har-
bour remained during the night.

Wednesday 25. — Left Dover ^ past 1 oclock — strong wind and
heavy sea — 150 Passengers — sloop 80 tons — raining and cold, f pas-

I Henry Peter Brougham, Baron Brougham and Vaux (1778-1868).
« Thomas Creevey (1768-1838), M. P. for Thetford.

*John Lens (1756-1825), noted for the number of offices he had declined. "Sergeant
Lens and the independence of the bar " was a frequent toast of the time.

* See pp. 285-287.

^ The office of vice-chancellor was instituted this year, 1813. The first vice-chancellor
was Sir Thomas Plumer.

•Sir Vicary Gibbs (1751-1820), chief justice of the court of common pleas 1814-1818.

^John Heath (1736-1816), justice of the court of common pleas 1780-1816.

•Sir Robert Dallas (1756-1824), chie/ justice of the court of common pleas 1818-1823.

•Sir Alan Chambre (1739-1823), justice of the court of common pleas 1800-1815.

"Edward Law, first Baron Ellenborough (1750-1818), lord chief justice 1802-1818.

II Sir Simon le Blanc (d. 1816), justice of the court of king's bench 1799.

12 Sir Henry Dampier (1758-1816), justice of the court of king's bench 1813.

IS Sir John Bayley (1763-1841), justice of the court of king's bench 1808.

1* In a letter to Rodney of May 1, 1814, Bayard says : I have seen also the Courts
of Chancery, Kings Bench, and Common Pleas in session. The halls in which they sit are
miserabJe boxes. The whole of them put together would not contain half the number
of the court-room at New Castle. Their appearance was not wonderfully impressive and
I think their long wigs excite rather a ludicrous than a solemn feeling." " Bulletin "
N. Y. Pub. Lib., IV, 243-244.

15 The case was a private one concerning usury, appealed from the Scottish Court of
Sessions. " English Reports, House of Lords ", III, 856-859.

"Francis Homer (1778-1817).

"Lord Bldon.



508 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION.

sengers sick and puking in all parts of the vessel. Made our pas-
sage in 2 hours and 50 minutes, harbour can only be entered when
tide is up — and then difficult. Town crowded with persons retg.
from Paris. Custom house officers strict in search. Seized many
artls. of Mr. Beasly. My trunk escaped by accident. Sudden
change — language, dress, and manners. Got an indifft. lodging for
the night.

The English Govt, had behaved at Dover very civilly having given
an order to ship our goods without search — passage money one



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