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disasters that often result from Indian wars occurred. The savages,
although in great strength, found no opportunity to make an attack. No
prisoners were taken, none died of sickness and every man of the 1,500
Bouquet had in the expedition returned, except one, who was killed and
scalped by an Indian, and who had straggled from camp. The Pennsyl-
vania troops were commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Francis and Lieu-
tenant-Colonel Clayton. Colonel Reid was next in command to Colonel
Bouquet. The provincial troops were discharged and the regulars sent
to garrisons at Fort Bedford, Fort Loudon and Carlisle. Colonel Bou-
quet arrived in Philadelphia in January, 1765, and received a compli-
mentary address from the Legislature of Pennsylvania and also one from
the House of Burgesses of Virginia. Before these resolutions reached
England the King promoted Bouquet to be a brigadier general and he
was sent South, as commander of all the troops in the Southern colonies.

The Shawanese prisoners that were brought to Fort Pitt in March,
1765, were delivered to Colonel Croghan, deputy agent of Indian affairs
there. Some of those reclaimed rememjpered their names. Others had
been given Indian names ; some retained only a given name ; a few were
described. Thus we find in the list of those returned to Fort Pitt in
November, 1764, such names as Soremouth, Crooked Legs, Qen, David
Bighead, Ebenezer, Betty (black eyes or hair), Sour Plums, Magdalen,
or Pagathou, Molly Wetch, Whitehead and "Girl With a Sore Knee."

Another list in the Bouquet papers is of eighty-two prisoners from the
lower Shawanede towns, or those on the Scioto river. This is a list of
adults ; a man's name is given followed by the statement, "wife and three
children,'' etc. One is nameless — ^the record simply **A Dutch girl."*

Language indeed can but weakly describe the scene, one to which
the poet or painter might have repaired to enrich the highest coloring of
the variety of the human passion ; the philosopher to find ample subject
for serious reflection and the man to exercise all the tender and sym-
pathetic feelings of the soul. There were to be seen fathers and mothers
recognizing and clasping their once lost babes ; husbands hanging around
the necks of their newly-recovered wives ; sisters and brothers unexpect-
edly meeting together after a long separation, scarcely able to speak the
same language or for some time to be sure that they were the children of
the same parents. In all these interviews joy and rapture inexpressible
were seen, while feelings of a very different nature were painted in the
looks of others flying from place to place in eager inquiries after relatives
not found ; trembling to receive an answer' to questions ; distracted with
doubts, hopes and fears on attaining no account of those they sought, or
stiffened into living monuments of horror and woe on learning their un-
happy fate.



8A complete list of these prisoners seems not to have been kept C A. Hanna found
several incomplete lists in the "Bouquet Papers/' containing 142 names, which he has
inserted in his work, "The Wilderness Trail f Vol. II, pp. 387-388^ See "Olden Time;"
Vol. I, p. 250, where the total is given 206.



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5o6 HISTORY OF PITTSBURGH

The Indians, too, as if wholly forgetting their unusual savageness,
bore a capital part in heightening this most effective scene. They de-
livered up their beloved captives with the utmost reluctance, shed tor-
rents of tears over them — recommending them to the care and protection
of the commanding officer. Their regard for them continued all the
while they remained in camp. They visited them from day to day,
brought them com, skins, horses and other matter that had been be-
stowed upon them while in their families, accompanied with other pres-
ents and all the marks of the most sincere and tender affection. Nay,
they did not stop here, but when the army marched some of the Indians
solicited and obtained permission to accompany their former captives to
Fort Pitt and employed themselves in hunting and bringing provisions
for them on the way.

A young Mingo carried this still farther, and gave an instance of love
which would make a figure even in romance. A young woman of Vir-
ginia was among the captives, to whom he had formed so strong an
attachment as to call her his wife. Against all the remonstrances of the
eminent danger to which he exposed himself by approaching the frontier,
he persisted in following her, at the risk of being killed by surviving
relatives of many unfortunate persons, who had been taken captive or
scalped by those of his nation.

Among the captives, a woman was brought into camp with a babe
about three months old at the breast. One of the Virginia volunteers
soon knew her to be his wife. She had been taken by the Indians about
six months before. He flew with her to his tent and clothed her and his
child with proper apparel. But their joy after their first transports was
soon dampened by the reflection that another dear child, about two years
old, taken with the mother, had been separated from her and was still
missing, although many children had been brought in.

But it must not be deemed there were not some, even grown persons,
who showed an unwillingness to return. The Shawanese were obliged
to bind some of their prisoners and force them along to the camp and
some women who had been delivered up, afterwards found means of
escape and went back to the Indians. Some who could not make their
escape clung to their savage acquaintances at parting and continued
many days in bitter lamentations — even refusing sustenance.

[The matter in the five paragraphs immediately above is largely
adapted from the work, "An Historical Account of an Expedition Against
the Ohio Indians."]

A number ot these restored prisoners were brought to Carlisle, and
Colonel Bouquet advertised for those who had lost children to come
there and look for them. Among those that came was a German woman
named Hartman, a native of Rentlingen, in Wuertemberg, Germany, who
with her husband had emigrated to America prior to the French war and
settled in Lancaster county at Tulpehocken, since in Berks county, where
two of her daughters, Barbara and Regina, were abducted by the Indians.
The mother was now unable to designate her children if they should be
among the number of the recaptured. With her brother, the distressed.



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HENRY BOUQUET, SOLDIER OF FORTUNE 507

aged woman lamented to Colonel Bouquet her hopeless case, telling him
how she used to, years ago, sing to her little daughters hymns of which
they were fond. The colonel requested her to sing one of these hymns,
which she did in German, beginning:

AUein und doch nicht ganz alletn.
Bin Ich in meiner einsamkdt
In English :

Alone, yet not alone am I,

Though in this solitude so drear,

I feel my Savior always nigh.

Regina, the only daughter present, rushed into the arms of the
mother. Barbara was never restored.

This affecting incident has been widely published in Pennsylvania
history and variously told. Some versions state that Colonel Bouquet,
deeply affected with the mother's tears and her despair, observing her
walking from one captive to another, suggested that she sing the songs
of childhood, as they made always a deep impression on tender minds.
Whereupon the mother sang the old hymn of the Reformed Church, of
which Bouquet himself was a communicant, for there is evidence of his
baptism in the records of the church at Rolle, Switzerland, his native
place. At the first words of the old hymn one of the young maidens
brightened, listened intently and before the verse was concluded sprang
into her mother's arms.*

General Bouquet left for his command in the South in the summer of
1765. Reaching Pensacola, Florida, August 28th, he died there of yellow
fever nine days afterward. Gallant, sturdy Bouquet 1 It is dishearten-
ing to learn that after his victory at Bushy Run he died so soon, in the
forty-seventh year of his age.

Among the Bouquet-Haldiman papers in the Library of the British
Museum there is an inventory of the personal effects of the deceased
general, by his former secretary and administrator, Francis Hutchinson.
Among the items was this curious one : "Paid six soldiers for carrying
corpse to the grave. For furnishing railing around the grave, £41 5
shillings." There is nothing to indicate the burial place, but in an outline
or ground plan of the fort. Bouquet's monument is marked in the center
of a space between two ranges of soldiers' barracks. This monument,
from the scale of the map, stood near the margin of the bay. This fort,
named George, was captured by the Spaniards, May 8, 1781, after a long
sieg^. Much of it was destroyed. The Spanish retained Florida until
ceded to the United States in 182 1. Bouquet, a Protestant, could not be
buried in the Catholic cemetery, hence it is not strange that his lone
grave was soon lost.*'



<See 'Tennsylvania, the Keystone State," S. W. Pennypacker, p. 74; **Henry Bou-
quet, His Indian Caaapzigns," J. C. Reeve, M. D., LL. D., in "Ohio Archaeological and
Historical Quarterly," Oct., 1917, pp. 503, 504; "Bouquet and His Campaigns/' Csrrua
Cort, p. 72, quoting the Rev. Reuben Weiser ; "History of Western Pennsylvania, etc.,"
p. 174 ; Parkman, and Cyrus Townsend Brady, in his "Indian Fights and Fighters," t^l
of Regina Hartman.

B'^IIistory of Colonel Henry Bouquet and the Western Frontiers of Pennsvlvania,
1747-1764;" collected and edited by Mary Carson Darlington. Privately printed, Pitts-
burgh, 1920^ by Mary O'Hara Darlington, pp. iii-iia.



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So8 HISTORY OF PITTSBURGH

The Rev. Dr. Cyrus Cort, long an eminent divine in the German Re-
formed Church, recently deceased at an advanced age, is acknowledged
to have been one of the best historians of Bouquet. Bom near Bushy
Run, a lineal descendant of Andrew Byerly, he dedicated his book, "Bou-
quet and His Campaigns," to Beatrice Byerly, the heroic wife of An-
drew, whose timely escape has had mention in this chapter. In 1883 he
was mainly instrumental in bringing about the great celebration on
Bushy Run battle ground on the occasion of the 120th anniversary of
the conflict. This was an historical event of more than extraordinary
interest, of which Dr. Cort has handed down a concise account in his
books.^ At least ten thousand people attended these ceremonies.

The sesqui-centennial of the battle was celebrated August 5 and 6,
191 3> when the principal speakers were the Rev. Dr. Samuel Black Mc-
Cormick, then chancellor of the University of Pittsburgh ; the Rev. Dr.
Henry W. Temple, Professor John Kennedy Lacock, and Colonel John S.
Mallory, U. S. A. These addresses, with an historical account of the
battle and a brief biography of Bouquet, were published by the West-
moreland Historical Society the same year. The celebration was held on
Gongaware's Hill, on the same ground as that of 1883. Craig records
that he and his friends frequently visited the battle ground; also a re-
quest to publish in the August number of the ''Olden Time'' notice of a
militia encampment there September 9, 10, and 11, 1846, in commemora-
tion of the battle^

In the book by the Rev. Dr. William Smith, provost of the University
of Philadelphia, long since the University of Pennsylvania, entitled "An
Historical Account of the Expedition Against the Ohio Indians, under
the command of Henry Bouquet, Esq., Colonel of Infantry, now Briga-
dier General in America, etc.,*' printed in 1769, there is to be found some
personal description of Bouquet, the principal character of the work.
Dr. Smith say3 :

I intended to write his life, and to do so with success, I relied upon the aid of the
letters written by Col. Bouquet himself, to his parents and various friends. He man-
aged the pen as well as the sword, and that is saying much; so that I did not despair,
in availing myself of his own colors, of painting him in a manner worthy of him. But
that which has preserved to posterity the papers of so many other great men, their
intrinsic value, has brought disaster to those of Colonel Bouquet. Everybody wished to
read his letters; so that as they arrived they were seized; they passed into various
hands, those to whom they were addressed, have not been able to recover them« finally
they disappeared, and although I have used much exerti(Mi, I have not recovered a single
one. All I have succeeded in getting, are the dates of some of the principal events of
his life, which I here introduce, with the little that I recollect to have heard related in
company by some of his friends.

Henry Bouquet was of a majestic stature, of great genius, and under a cold and
imposing appearance, possessed a sensitive heart. He sought not the good opinions of
others, much less did he solicit it. They were forced to esteem him, and on that account
many tradespeople greatly relied upon his integrity and fidelity to his engagements.



<^"The Bouquet Celebration on Bushy Run Battlefield in Westmoreland County,
Pa., August 6, 1883; Speeches, Poem, etc.;" by Rev. Cyrus Cort, of Greencastle, Pa.,
in bdialf of the Bouquet Memorial Committee, Lancaster, Pa., 1886. "Col. Henry Bou-
quet and His Campaigns, 1763-1764;" Cyrus Cort

T«01den Time;" Vol. I, p. 384.



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HENRY. BOUQUET, SOLDIER OF FORTUNE 509

Firmness, intrepidity, calmness, presence of mind in the greatest dangers, virtues so
essential to a commander, were natural to him. His presence inspired confidence, and
commanded respect, it encouraged his soldiers, .it confounded his enemies.^

The brief biography that follows here has been extracted from Dr.
Smith's introduction:

Henry Bouquet was bom at RoUe, a small town in the canton of Vaud in Switzei -
land. Together with the greater part of the Vaudois territory, it was formerly under
the government of Berne, and regarded as a part of that canton. It is on the northern
border of the Lake Geneva. In 1736, being then seventeen years old, he was received
as a cadet in the regiment of Constant, in the service of Leurs Hautes Puissances, the
States General of Holland. In 1758 he obtained the commission of ensign in the same
regiment Thence he passed into the Roquin, in the service of the King of Sardinia,
and distinguished himself, first as first lieutenant, and afterward as an adjutant, in the
memorable and ably-conducted campaigns of the wars which that great prince sustained
against the combined forces of France and Spain. At the battle of Coni, being ordered
to occupy a piece of ground at the brink of a precipice, he led his men thither in such a
way that not one of them saw that they were within two steps of destruction should the
enemy force the position. Meanwhile, calmly watching the movement of both armies,
he made his soldiers observe, in order to distract their attention, that these movements
could be seen much better by the light of the moon than in broad daylight.

Accounts, no less exact than interesting, which he sent to Holland of the operations
of these campaigns, came to the knowledge of his Serene Highness the late Prince of
Orange, and induced him to engage this officer in the service of the Republic. In con-
sequence, Mr. Bouquet entered as captain commandant with the rank of lieutenant-
colonel, in the regiment of Swiss Guards, newly formed at the Hague, in 1748, and was
immediately chosen to go, jointly with Generals Burmannia and Comabe, to receive
from the French the places in the Low Countries which they were about to evacuate,
and to arrange the return of the prisoners of war which France gave up to the Repub-
lic in conformity with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. A few months later. Lord Mid-
dleton invited him to accompany him in his travels in France and Italy.

On his return to the Hague, he devoted every moment which his regimental duties
allowed, to the careful study of the military art, and above all of mathematics, which
are the foundation of it. The intimate relations which he formed with Professors
Hemsterhuis, Koenig, and Allamand, and with several other learned men in every
branch of science, greatly facilitated acquisition of the thorough knowledge which
afterward gave him a yet higher distinction, and caused him to appear with such advan-
tage in the vast theater of the war kindled between France and England in 1754.^

As this war obliged England to send troops to America, it was proposed to raise a
corps under the name of the Royal Americans, formed of three battalions under one
commander, the officers of which were to be indifferently either Americans or for-
eigners, but in all cases men of capacity and experience.10 This plan, favored by Duke
of Cumberland, was carried into execution, though altered and mutilated by an oppos-
ing faction. Mr. Bouquet and his intimate friend, Mr. Haldiman, were the first to
whom those charged with it, turned their eyes, and they were urged to serve in this
brigade as lieutenant colonels.



8See also "The Olden Time;" Vol. I, pp. 205-207.

<>Bouquet always retained his fondness for the society of men of science. When in
command at Philadelphia, he formed an intimacy with the botanist, Bertram. [Dr.
Smith's footnote].

io*'The Royal American Regiment" was to consist of four battalicms of one thou-
sand men each, the ranks to be filled in great measure from the German and other con-
tinental settlers of Pennsylvania and Maryland. Fifty of the officers might be foreis;n
Protestants, but the colonel must be a natural-born subject See "Act to enable His
Majesty to grant commissions to a certain number of Foreign Protestants," 29 George
11^ c V. The first colonel was John, Earl of Loudoun, but Colonels John Stanwix,
Joseph Dussaux, C. Jeffreys, and James Provost, commanded the tour battalions
respectively. The IRayal American Regiment is now the Sixtieth Rifles. [Dr. Smith's
footnote].



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5IO HISTORY OF PITTSBURGH

Both had already reached that ranked at the Hague, and by a singular freak of for-
tune the officer who was to command them in America was their inferior in Europe;
This made them hesitate for some time. Nevertheless, at the urgent persuasion of Sir
Joseph Yorke, and upon a promise being made them that they should be placed imm^
diately, as colonels commandant on a footing of equality with the colonel-in-cfaief of tiie
brigade, they were induced to accept the commission offered them. As soon as dieir
resolution was taken, they were charged to attract into the corps a sufficient number of
good officers, both for the engineer and the artillery service.

To return to Mr. Bouquet : On his arrival in America, his integrity, as well as his
great capacity, soon acquired for him a great credit in the G>]on]es, especially in Penn-
sylvania and Virginia. Respected by the soldiers in credit with all who had a share in
the internal government of these provinces, universally esteemed and loved, he had but
to ask, and he obtained all that was possible to grant, because it was believed that he
asked nothing but what was necessary and proper, and that all would be faithfully
employed for the services of the King and the provinces. This good understanding
between the civil and military authorities contributed to his success quite as much as
his ability.! 1

Bouquet's fame is altogether that of a heroic soldier and is a fame
resonant of victory. In Pittsburgh he has no fame as a discarded lover
who could not justify his sense of duty by quitting the profession of
arms in the exigencies of those exciting years, even to win the fair Anne
Willing, who returned his affection — ^and so they parted. The records
of the British army show that Bouquet entered that army as lieutenant-
colonel in the 62d Regiment (later numbered the 6oth), January 3, 1756,
and was promoted to colonel of the same regiment, February 19, 1762.
He was essentially a soldier of fortune. When his love affair began he
was thirty-nine years old. That he was a fervid lover appears from his
letters. They are sensible throughout and could have been read before
any jury without causing their writer to hold his face in his handker-
chiei

A magazine article by George Harrison Fisher tells of the fair Anne,
whom Bouquet calls Nancy, these names interchangeable in those years.
The Willing, Shippen and Francis families were prominent in Pennsyl-
vania for many years. Fisher says :

Amie Willing was the daughter of Charles Willing, a well-known merchant of
Philadelphia, by his wife, Anne Shippen. She was 25 years old when the correspondence
began, and her portrait represents a graceful, handsome and intelligent looking young
woman. In the society in which she lived she was considered highly accomplished, and
she had had the^ advantage of a visit to her father's relaticms in England. According to the
tradition in her family, she was very much in love with Bouquet, was engaged to him,
and would have married him had he been willing to leave the army, but she declined
to follow the drum. Bouquet's letters are consistent with this hypothesis, but they do
not exclude every other. It would appear that at least what is called an understanding
existed between the parties to the correspondence. If they seriously thought of mar-
riage, they were not so young and foolish as to be unable to consider all the circum-
stances which would or would not make their happiness probable, and they were not
crushed by their ultimate determination. A year after Bouquet's last letter here printed.
Miss Willing married Tench Francis, and made him an admirable and most loving wife.

i^"An Historical Account of Bouquet's Expedition Against the Ohio Indians in
1764;" reprinted and annotated m the ''Olden Time," Vol. I, p. 203 et seq. Ibid,,
Dumas' translation, Amsterdam Edition, 1769. The original edition was printed in
London in 1766. Ajn American reprint was published by Garke, Cincinnati, 1868, from
the introduction, to which extracts have been made above; pp. xviii-xxiii.



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HENRY BOUQUET, SOLDIER OF FORTUNE 511

Bouqnet remained in the army, where his greatest services to Pennsylvania were still
to be performed. His friend seems to have continued to write to him, after her mar-
riage. Her sister writes to her, ''remember me to Bouquet when you next write; he is
a good creature." Four years later Bouquet, by his will, left his farm in Huntingdon
county, to which one of his letters alludes, to Thomas Willing, the brother of Anne^ and
thus showed that he had no ill feeling against the family.

The question arises, had Bouquet left the army, and married Anne
Willing, who would have been the hero of Bushy Run and brought to
terms the arrogant Delawares and' Shawanese on the Muskingum and
compelled them to deliver up the hundreds of white captives they had
taken and adopted? It is not to be conceived that Pontiac would not
have formed his union of tribes and struck the hated English everywhere
west of the Allegheny mountains. The question above opens a wide field
of conjecture. Pontiac would have struck without Bouquet to oppose
him, and Fort Pitt would have been besieged, and to some other British
officer would have come the fame of a deliverer. The first letter to Anne
is dated at Fort Pitt, November 25, 1758, that is the natal date of Pitts-
burgh, for on that day the British flag was raised over the ruins of the
abandoned French fort, by General John Forbes with Bouquet and his
command present, Washington, Mercer, Armstrong, and other noted
Americans, also.

Bouquet is devout He is philosophical also and apparently happy.
He is a good correspondent. It is to be remembered that these letters
were sent by expresses, that is by special post riders, who took great
chances on the way. It was the custom in sending military dispatches to
send several expresses, to be sure that some one would get through in
safety. What Bouquet says of the frontier inhabitants is not only har-
rowing but probably true of many of them.

Bouquet's references to "Dolly" were to Anne's sister, who had mar-
ried and gone to England. It is to be noted also that Bouquet dates one
letter at Pittsburgh and the next at Fort Pitt, however, the names were
interchangeable in those days. The first letter reads:

Fort DuQuesne, Nov. 25, 17^
D«AR Nancy: I have the satisfaction to give you the agreeable news of the con-
quest of this terrible Fort. The French seized with a panic at our apf>roach have
destroyed themselves—the nest of Pirates which has so long harboured the murderers



Online LibraryAmerican Historical Society George Thornton FlemingHistory of Pittsburgh and environs: from prehistoric days to the ..., Volume 1 → online text (page 72 of 81)