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small wagon, as his pony remained near with the vehicle. He did not
regain consciousness, dying the next day, August 31, 1818, aged eighty-
four.*^ His name has been widely commemorated.

John Penn throughout showed his Quaker love of peace. As early as
April 22, 1774, he wrote Colonel William Crawford, who subsequently
adhered to Virginia. Penn addressed his letter to "Wm. Crawford and
his Associate Justices of the Peace in Westmoreland County.'* Its text

Gcndemen — ^The present alarming situation of our affairs in Westmoreland county
occasioned by the very unaccountable Conduct of the Government of Virginia requires
the utmost attention of this Government and therefore I intend with all possible Expe-
dition to send Commissioners to expostulate with my Lord Dunmore upon the Behavior
of those he has thought proper to invest with such authority as hath greatly disturbed
the peace of diat country. As the Governor of Virginia hath the Power of raising a
Militia and there is not such in this Province it will be in vain to contend with them in
the way of Force. The Magistrates therefore at the same time, that they shall continue
with Steadiness to exercise the jurisdiction of Pennsylvania to the Distributions of Jus-
tice and Punishment of Vice, must be cautious with the officers of Lord Dunmore as
may tend to widen the present tmhappy Breach and therefore as Things are at present
Circumstances I would not advise the Magistracy of Westmoreland County to proceed
by way of Criminal Prosecution against them for exercising the Government of Vir-
ginia. I flatter myself that our Commissioners of Virginia will succeed according to
our expectations and that our Afifairs Westward will soon be put upon a peaceable and
quiet Footing.

Governor Penn wrote the Pennsylvania justices the same day :

Gentlemen : I received your several letters informing me of your Arrest and Con-
finement on Warrants issued by Dr. Connolly and cannot but greatly approve your
Spirit and the Attachment you have shown the Interests of this Province. But as the
Confinement of your persons at so great a Distance from Your Homes must be injur-
ious to your private Concerns, if you can procure your Enlargement by finding bail, I
shall by no means disapprove of such a step. I shall with all possible Expedition send
Commissioners to Lord Dunmore to apply for your discharge and as Col. Wilson is so
obliging as to offer to call at Staunton on his way home, I have instructed him to pro-
cure for you any security or credit you may stand in need of, and shall do everything
in my Power to free you from your disagreeable situation, or to make it as comfortable
as may be.

I am gentlemen

Your Very Humble Servant,

JoHK Penn.

To ^neas Madcay, Devereaux Smith, and Andrew McFarlane, Justices of the
Peace for Westmoreland County.6

Devereux Smith made affidavit at Hannastown, February 10, 1775,
before Joseph Spear, J. P., one of his majesty's justices for Westmore-
land county, deposing that :

On the 8th instant between 8 and 9 o'c, 12 or more armed men belonging to the
garrison kept up by Lord Dunmore's orders surrounded the house of Devereux Smith
in Pittsburgh in said county of Westmoreland and attempted to break open his doors

^"History of Westmoreland County;" George Dallas Albert p. 223.
•"Olden Time;" Vol. I, p. 470.

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and windows to the great terror of his family, at the same time telling him what the
Virginia boys could do. That with the violence of their throwing stones they split one
of his window shutters and continued about the street until near 12 o'c during which
he was under necessity of sitting up in arms to protect his infant family.7

Colonel William Crawford was blamed for many such outbreaks, as
he was a violent partisan of Virginia. In the archives of Pennsylvania
there are records of Robert Hanna, of Hannastown ; William Lochry, a
justice of the peace ; John Carnaghan, sheriff of Westmoreland county ;
James Smith and Samuel McKenzie, citizens, complaining to Governor
Penn of acts of violence of the Virginia partisans.

Much data is found in these archives published by the State, includ-
ing Governor Penn's letter to the Assembly of the province; letters to
Arthur St. Clair at Ligonier, and messages of Penn to the Shawanese
and Delawares, concerning troubles brought about by Virginia, in the
summer of 1774. There are also instructions to James Tilghman and
William Allen, commissioners of Lord Dunmore, regarding the bound-
ary dispute ; letter to Sir William Johnson, the king's superintendent of
Indian affairs at Fort Stanwix, New York ; letters to Dunmore concern-
ing the danger of a general Indian war and remonstrating against con-
duct of Connolly; letter to St. Clair on the danger of Indian war and
suggesting measures to prevent it — all these items are to be found in
the "Fourth Series, Messages of the Governors of Pennsylvania," to
which reference is invited.®

The Pennsylvania people came back at Connolly under the sheriff
of Westmoreland county and George Wilson, a Pennsylvania justice.
These, with a posse raised at Hannastown, came to Pittsburgh in June,
1775, released the Pennsylvania justices Connolly had imprisoned and
carried off Connolly to St. Clair's house in Ligonier, but this adventure
promising trouble the Pennsylvania committee released Connolly, who
remained about Pittsburgh until July 25, when he left to join Dunmore.

Connolly was placed under arrest at Frederick, Maryland, by the
Continental officers in November, 1775.® With other Tories he was kept
closely confined until the winter of 1 780-1 781, when he was exchanged
and immediately proceeded to Canada and endeavored to put into effect
his expedition against Fort Pitt, but was frustrated. Dunmore fled to the
British and was more or less active against the colonies. As showing
how utterly repugnant to Washington's estimate of Connolly was the
man's real character, we have a competent witness in John Ormsby, the
sterling Pittsburgh pioneer of previous mention in these pages. Wash-
ington, who met Connolly in Pittsburgh in 1770, said he was "a sensible,
intelligent man ;" probably with some reason.*^ Elroy M. Avery, char-
acterizes Connolly as "a man not easily to be admired ; his violence and
outrages had brought even white men to the verge of open war." Con-
nolly tried to embroil John Gibson in his nefarious schemes, but failed.

7«01dcn Time," Vol. I, p. 517.
8Sce the "Olden Time;" Vol. I,

. pp. 457-524, where Craig has published about all
the official matter enumerated above.

•"Wilderness Trail;" Hanna, VoL II, p. 78.
lojoumal, 1770, Nov. 22.

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John Ormsby left a book of his ownership in which he inserted
copious notes. This book was entitled "The History of the Civil War in
America," and of London publication. Neville B. Craig had Ormsby's
copy and extracted the following in regard to Connolly as Ormsby set
it down :*^

Dr. Connolly was born and bred near Wright's Ferry on the Susquehanna. Hi»
father was a grubber among the farmers, who found the secret of pleasing a Quaker
orderly widow of the name of Ewing. This match as might be expected proved very
disagreeable so that he left nothing to commemorate his memory but the above villain-
ous Doctor. The fellow had traversed the Illinois country until he could subsist there no
longer, so that he appeared a few years before the commencement of the Revolution.
He was introduced to Lord Dimmore here who traveled through the Western Country
to sound the inclinations of the inhabitants as well as the Indians. Connolly, like a
hungry wolf, closed with Dunmore a bargain that he would secure a considerable inter-
est among the white inhabitants and Indians on the frontier.

In consequence of this agreement my Lord made him a deed of gift of 2C00 acres
of land, and 2000 more to Mr. John Campbell, late of Kentucky, both of which grants
are now owned by the heirs of Col. Campbell Connolly immediately set himself
to work in disseminating his hellish insinuations among the people. He employed an
adjutant to drill the militia, and had the audacity to engage artificers to repair the old
fort, and in every respect acted the part of a tyrant He sent runners among the
Indians far and near, with large promises of soon supplying them with goods and
money. Having thus paved the way for his atrocious designs, he met Dunmore at
Alexandria, where they concerted the infernal scheme of massacreing all those on the
frontiers who would not join in their work.

Matters being thus arranged, Dumore sent Connolly to General Clinton in New
York,! 2 who approved the scheme and appointed Connolly a lieutenant-colonel and
commander of two or three regiments of whites and Indians, with authority to draw on
the pay-master general for cash. Upon this exultation the great and mighty Connolly
set out for Baltimore, where he joined the persons who were taken along with him, and
who, no doubt, were as sanguinary villains as himself. A report was whispered among
the minute men at Hagerstown, etc., of Connolly's schemes so that they had a sharp
lookout for him, and happily succeeded in arresting him and his comrades and all the
commissions for the new regiments, with the general plan of their operations were
found upon him, upon which he was committed to prison. This news you may be sure
was joyfully received on the frontier and especially at Pittsburgh, where the writer of
these lines resided with his family.

When Lord Dunmore arrived at Pittsburgh he lodged at my house and often
closeted with me, as he said for information respecting the disposition of the inhabi-
tants. He threw out some dark insinuations as to my usefulness in case I would be
concerned, but as he found, I kept aloof. When he divulged his plans to Connolly,
(and I suppose to Campbell,) else why give him the aforesaid grant of land which he
enjoys and which is very valuable? Had Connolly and his associates reached Pitts-
burgh, there were a great many drunken, idle vagabonds waiting to join him. The
savages were also in high expectation that they would soon glut their vengeance on the
distressed frontier inhabitants, but the. Almighty Lord showed himself to be our pro-
tector against all the machinations of our European and American foes. Connolly and
Arnold, both of whom merited a halter, are now in half pay in the British establishment

Craig gives no date to these extracts, evidently Ormsby penned them
after the war, to be inferred from the allusion to Benedict Arnold. Con-
nolly, according to Washington, was George Croghan's nephew, but how
is not clear. Hanna has attempted to reason it out and puts his investiga-
tions in these paragraphs :

ii"01den Time;" Vol. II, pp. 93-94.

12 An erroneous statement Connolly went to Gen. Gage at Boston.

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It has sometimes been stated that George Croghan and William Trent were
brothers-in-law. How they became so is not clear. William Trent's only sister, Mary,
married Nathaniel French, of Philadelphia. Trent himself married Sarah Wilkins, pos-
sibly a daughter of one of the Indian Traders of that name. Croghan's nephew, it will
be remembered was Doctor John Connolly, the Loyalist. Connolly was the son of John
Connolly Sr., a native of Ireland, and of Susanna Howard, sister of Gordon Howard,
one of the early Indian Traders of Lancaster County. She first married James Patter-
son, the Trader, and after his death. Dr. Thomas Ewing, of Lancaster. John Connolly,
Sr., was her third husband. Dr. Connolly, their son, married Susanna Semple, daugh-
ter of Samuel Semple, the innkeeper of Fort Pitt, who furnished Washington such
good entertainment in 1770. If Croghan's wife was a Wilkins, and sister to William
Trent's wife, it is possible that she may have been a sister to Samuel Semple's wife,
the mother of Susanna Connolly; and this would have made Connolly Croghan's
nephew, by marriage. The name of Croghan's own daughter, as shown by his will, was
Susanna; which was also the Christian name of Connolly's mother, as well as that of
his wife. But it is difficult to see how Croghan could have been a brother-in-law to
Trent, who married Sarah Wilkins, and also to John Connolly Sr., who married
Susanna Howard, the widow of Doctor Ewing, unless indeed, Sarah Wilkins and
Susanna Howard may have been half-sisters, and one of them Croghan's wife's sister.

We have seen from what has been printed in the earlier part of this chapter, and
from the abstract of Croghan's will, that he was a half-brother of Major Ward, the
man who surrendered the Virginia Fort to the French in 1754; and that he was also a
cousin to Major Thomas Smallman, another prominent trader at Fort Pitt; and also
a kinsman of William PowelL It is unlikely, though not impossible that Croghan and
John Connolly were also half-brothers.i8

Hanna in his chapter on Croghan is complete with the account of
Connolly's action in Pittsburgh and has recorded much of the same
matter as Craig has in the "Olden Time." The story of Logan comes in
the record also. Although Connolly was a nephew of Croghan, it seems
strange that -^neas Mackay wrote Governor Penn from Pittsburgh:
"Mr. Croghan, who has been grossly abused by our Bashaw (Connolly)
lately ; is gone to Williamsburgh to represent every part of his conduct
to the Governor and Council in its true light. Altho' others doubt, I
am certain Mr. Croghan is earnest and sincere respecting that intention,
for he joins the rest of the inhabitants in charging all our present calam-
ity to the Doctor's act." Hanna says further :

December 6, 1774, Lord Dunmore had issued a new commission appointing magis-
trates for the county of West Augusta, including the district around Pittsburgh and on
the 2ist of the following February a number of the new justices west of the mountains
met at Fort Dunmore (the name which Connolly had given to Fort Pitt) and held
their first Court They were George Croghan, President, John Campbell (Croghan's
surveyor), John Connolly (Croghan's nephew), Thomas Smallman (Croghan's cousin),
Dorsey Pentecost, John Gibson, (korge Vallandingham and William (joe. Other jus-
tices who were present at subsequent meetings of the Court, included Edward Ward
(Croghan's half-brother), William Crawford (Washington's land agent), John Canon,
John Stephenson, John McCullough, Silas Hedge and David Shepherd. The records of
the Courts of West Augusta and of Yohogania (one of the counties into which West
Augusta was subsequently divided by Virginia) have been printed in large part by Mr.
Boyd Crumrine in his History of Washington County, Pennsylvania. These records,
for Augusta County, extend from February 21, 1775, to November 20, 1776; and for
Yohogania County, from December 33, 1776, to August 28, 1780. They are practically
the only records of the civil government of the country around the Forks of Ohio dur-
ing most of this times; as the jurisdiction of Westmordand County, Pennsylvania,

i8"The Wilderness Trail;" Hanna, Vol. H, pp. 84-85.

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which nominally covered all of Southwestern Pennsylvania, did not actually, at that
period, extend much farther west and south than the present limits of the county;
although three or four of the Westmoreland justices continued to reside in Pittsburgh:!^

Incidental to the boundary troubles was the murder of the Logan
family, the great chief and friend of the whites, especially the Pennsyl-
vanians. All historians dilate upon this phase of border history, and
Thomas Jefferson, in his "Notes on Virginia," sought to immortalize it,
and succeeded. Subsequently a controversy arose over its genuineness.
In 1797 one Luther Martin, an able lawyer and son-in-law of Captain
Michael Cresap, alleged to have murdered Logan's family on the Ohio
river, near Yellow creek, in the spring of 1774, wrote to one James Fen-
nell, a public declaimer in Philadelphia, protesting against the use of
this speech as a calumny upon the Cresap family and attacking Jeflfer-
son for his part in incorporating the speech in literature. Cresap was
said not to have murdered the family of Logan, and not to have been
near the locality where it occurred. Martin's letter is very long. It is
reproduced by Craig in the second volume of "The Olden Time," also
the voluminous correspondence that ensued — long letters from Jefferson
to General John Gibson, to whom Logan entrusted the "alleged speech"
to be given Dunmore.^*^ Jeflferson demanded of Gibson all the particu-
lars of the affair and Gibson replied with a long affidavit :

Allegheny County, State of Pennsylvania, ss :

Before me, a justice of the peace, in and for the said county appeared John Gihson,
Esq., an Associate Judge of same county, who being duly sworn deposeth and saith that
in the year 1774, he accompanied Lord Dunmore on the expedition against the Shaw-
anese and other Indians on the Sciota ; that on their arrival within fifteen miles of the
towns they were met by a flag and a white man by the name of Elliott, who informed
Lord Dunmore that the chiefs of the Shawanese had sent to request his lordship to
halt his army and send in some person who understood their language; that this
deponent, at the request of Lord Dunmore, and the whole of the officers with him,
went in ; that on his arrival at the town Logan the Indian came to where this deponent
was sitting with Cornstalk, and the other chiefs of the Shawanese and asked him to
walk out with him ; that tfiey went into a copse of wood where they sat down when
Logan, after shedding abundance of tears delivered him the speech nearly as related
by Mr. Jefferson in his Notes on the State of Virginia, that he, the deponent told him
it was not Colonel Cresap who had murdered his relatives and although his son, Capt
Michael was with the party who killed a Shawanese chief and other Indians, yet he was
not present when his relatives were killed at Baker's near the mouth of Yellow Creek,
on the Ohio ; that this deponent had on his return to camp, delivered, the speech to Lard
Dunmore, and that the murders perpetrated as above were considered ultimately the
cause of the war of 1774, commonly called Cresap's war,

John Gibson.
, Sworn and subscribed April, 1800, at Pittsburgh before me,


The assertions as to the delivery of Gibson's reproduction are italicized
nevertheless Craig thinks the language vague. There is no language that

i4^hc Wilderness Trafl ;" Vol. II, p. 77>

i»See "Olden Time;" Vol. II, pp. 49, et seq. "Notes on Virginia;" Jefferson
(Memorial Editbn, 1903), pp. 304-3^

leThis name is "Baker" in Craig's "Olden Time;" Vol. II, p. 58. Jefferson has it
rightly "Barker " for Jeremiah Barker was prominent in the town of Pittsbttrgfa in those

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can be construed to state the real case whether the speech was written
or spoken, he argued.

No reply to Logan is indicated when Gibson sought to vindicate Cre-
sap; the charges against Colonel Cresap stood and yet stand in the
speech. Theodore Roosevelt, always pronounced in opinion, reviews the
whole ground in his "Winning of the West," Vol. I (see Appendix F,
page 347). He says that Logan's speech can be unhesitatingly pro-
nounced authentic. That is enough. Craig came to the same conclusion.
He is vindicated; likewise Jefferson, et al, Jeflferson's version of the
speech is the commonly accepted one, though Craig g^ves the first form
published, stating that he finds two copies in the first volume, fourth
series of the "American Archives," and that the first copy appeared at
Williamsburg, Virginia, in February, 1775. Jefferson has it:

I appeal to any white man to say, if ever he entered Logan's cabin hungry and he
gave him not meat, if he ever came cold and naked and he clothed him not. During
the course of the last long and bloody war, Logan remained idle in his cabin, an advocate
for peace. Such was my love for the whites, that my countrymen pointed as they passed
and said "Logan is the friend of white man," I had even thought to have lived with
you, but for the injuries of one man. Col. Cresap the last spring, in cold blood, and
unprovoked murdered all the relatives of Logan, not even sparing my women and diil-
dren. There runs not a drop of my blood in the veins of any living creature. This
calling on me for revenge, I have sought it; I have killed many; I have fully glutted
my vengeance; for my country I rejoice at the beams of peace. But do not harbor a
thought that mine is the joy of fear. Logan never felt fear. He will not turn his heel
to save his life. Who is there to moura for Logan? Not one.

In February, 1847, i^ the number of the "Olden Time" for that month
(Vol. II, p. 49), Craig says in the opening of his long article on Logan:
"The speech no matter by whom produced has been quoted and admired
wherever the English Language was understood." This opinion was
sixty-eight years ago and the time from delivery was seventy-three years,
the words those which a heart-broken man would naturally say. Now
who was Logan ? A chief, one easily answers. Yes, a chief but with an
English name. Logan is usually referred to as a Mingo. He was a
Cayuga ; the son of the great Shikelimus, or Skikelamy, who resided .at
what is now Sunbury on the Susquehanna, then called Shamokin, and to
be distinguished from the present town of that name. Logan was called
after James Logan, long prominent in the aflfairs of Pennsylvania under
the Penns. Logan, the Indian, became a sot. After Dunmore's war he
became more gloomy and melancholy, drank more and more, and ex-
hibited symptoms of mental derangement. He went to Detroit, where
he remained some time and evinced by his conduct that he was weary of
life. He openly proclaimed life had become a burden. He said he knew
not what pleasure was and thought it had been better had he never
existed. In a state of despondency, he left Detroit, after a brutal assault
on his new wife, while drunk, and on his way to the Miami was mur-
dere4.^'' All the greatness of character of the man was wiped away in
rum, which to be candid, is no respecter of races. Logan lives in the

i7"Historical Collections of Ohio;" Henry Howe (1848), p. 409. See also Ibid,,
pp. 406-^0/7, for two versions of the speech in parallel columns.

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geography of the United States as well as in history and literature.
Thanks are surely due to Jeflferson, who preserved Logan's pathetic

"For many years," says Caleb Atwater, historian of Ohio, "on the
farm of one Wolfe, near Circleville, the oak stood under which the splen-
did effort of heart-stirring eloquence was faithfully delivered by the per-
son who carried wampum."

This is a new version. Where does Gibson come in? John Gibson
was reputed to have married, in the Indian way, a sister of Logan.
Whether she was slain with the others of Logan's kin or had died previ-
ously, historians do not say. Gibson and his brother George were
natives of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. John Gibson was with Forbes at
the taking of Fort Duquesne. Both brothers were in active service in
the Virginia Line during the Revolution. George Gibson was the father
of Pennsylvania's g^eat jurist, John Bannister Gibson. In 1801, John
Gibson was appointed by President Jefferson, Secretary of Indiana Terri-
tory, in which office he served until Indiana became a State in 1816,
when he returned to Pittsburgh. He died at the residence of his son-in-
law, George Wallace, in Braddock, April 10, 1822. This dwelling is still
standing. In it LaFayette was entertained in 1825. It is the large house
adjoining the station of the Pennsylvania railroad to the east of that

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George Croghan, King of the Traders.

Of the pioneers in the region about Pittsburgh previous to the build-
ing of Fort Duquesne, none has received less local mention and none is
less known historically here than Colonel George Croghan, trader, Indian
agent of the crown at Fort Pitt. Croghan deserved his title, for he was
of all the English traders the most. energetic and influential in public
aflfairs affecting the Indians. To understand properly his exact status, it
is necessary to go back and look into the history of the Indian trade as
the English traders developed it. The Five Nations, or Iroquois Con-
federacy, had been friendly to the Dutch from their first coming in 1614.

Online LibraryAmerican Historical Society George Thornton FlemingHistory of Pittsburgh and environs: from prehistoric days to the ..., Volume 1 → online text (page 79 of 81)