Andrew J. Stone Explorations
Arctic and Subarctic America
The American Museum of Natural History
THE ANDREW J. STONE EXPLORATIONS IN ARCTIC AND
The edition of this brochure is limited to one
hundred copies, numbered, of which this is
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Andrew J. Stone Explorations
Arctic and Subarctic America
The American Museum of Natural History
THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, through the issue
of this brochure, endeavors to acknowledge the generosity of those whose
liberal contributions have made it possible for Mr. Andrew J. Stone to
attack the zoological problems of the Northwest. It desires to make known more
generally the scientific results that have attended Mr. Stone's efforts, and it
hopes that the example herein set forth of achievements gained through a com-
bination of men ready to help, with a man ready to do, may result in the organi-
zation of other expeditions to other lands.
SUBSCRIBERS TO THE STOXK i:\PLORATION FUND.
HUGH D. AUCHINCLOSS, New York City.
JOHN S. BARNES, New York City.
CHAS. T. BARNEY, New York City.
R. L. BURTON, \Y\\ York City.
JOHN L. CADWALADER, New York City.
HUGH J. CHISHOLM, New York City.
JAMES M. CONSTABLE (Estate).
E. W. DAVIS. New York City.
CHAS. STEWART DAVISON, New York City.
C. H. DODGE, New York City.
F. G. GOODRIDGE, New York City.
FRANCIS B. HARRISON, New York City.
W. E. MAYNARD, New York City.
J. P. MORGAN, Jr., New York City.
LEWIS R. MORRIS, New York City.
HENRY F. OSBORN, New York City.
HENRY CLAY PIERCE, New York City.
HENRY W. POOR, New York City.
PERCY R. PYNE, New York City.
ARCHIBALD ROGERS, Hyde Park -on -Hudson, N. Y.
Miss PHEBE ANNA THORNE, New York City.
W. A. WADSWORTH, Geneseo, N. Y.
CHAS. E. WHITEHEAD, New York City.
Fig. i. OVISSTONII . j
Fig. 2. Ovis STONEI . . . . 3
Fig. 3. Ovis CERVINA 3
Fin. 4 SKETCH MAP INDICATING GEOGRAPHICAL CORRECTIONS AND OBSERVATIONS;
ALSO SHOWING A PORTION OP MR. STONE'S ARCTIC COAST JOURNEY . 4
Fig. 5. TRANSCRIPT OF PORTION OP EMIL PETITOT'S CHART 4
6. SKETCH MAP SHOWING POSITION OP 'ESQUIMAUX LAKE' AS INDICATED ON
THE U. S. HYDROGRAPHIC CHART No. 1189 5
Fig. 7. ALASKA MOOSE 6
Fii; 8. ALASKA MOOSE (PROM A MOUNTED SPECIMEN) . .... 7
Fig. 9. HOME OF THE ALASKA MOOSE 7
Figs, to, ii. WHITE SHEEP 8
Figs. 12, 13. RANT.IFER STONEI .9
Fig. 14. ALASKA PENINSULA BEAR (IN THE FLESH) .10
Fig. 15. ALASKA PENINSULA BEAR (IN THE FLESH) . . n
Fig. 16. ALASKA PENINSULA BEAR (MOUNTED SPECIMEN) n
Fig. 17. HOME OF ALASKA PENINSULA BEAR . . . . . 12
FigS. l8-20. URSUS DALLI GYAS (SKULL) ... 13
Figs. 21-23. URSUS MERRIAMI (SKULL) . . . . . '4
Fig. 24. URSUS MERRIAMI (MOUNTED SPECIMEN) . . 15
Fig. 25. NORTHERN GRIZZLY ........... 16
FigS. 26-28. URSUS MIDDENDORFFI (SKULL) . ...... 17
Fig. 29. HEAD OF MOUNTAIN GOAT .......... 18
Fig. 30. NORTHERN BUSHY-TAILED RAT 19
Figs. 31.32- LOUCHEUX MAN AND WOMAN . 20
Figs. 33,34. KOUKPAGMIUT MEN ... . .21
Fig. 35. KOUKPAGMIUT WOMEN AND CHILD 22
Figs. 36, 37. RANGIFER GRANTI ... 23
Fig. 38. GROUP OF THE GRANT CARIBOU . . ... 24
Fig. 39. HOME OF THE GRANT CARIBOU . . . 24
Figs. 40,41. OSBORN CARIBOU . . . .25, 26
Fig. 42. BRINGING CARIBOU TO CAMP ... . 27
Fig. 43. CAMP SCENE ON LEVEL MOUNTAIN 28
Fig. 44. DRYING THE SKINS ... . . . . 29
Fig. 45. HOME OF THE OSBORN CARIBOU . .... . . 30
Fig. 46. METHOD OF CAPTURING CARIBOU FORMERLY EMPLOYED BY THE LOUCHEUX
INDIANS ............ 31
Fig. 47. DIAGRAM OF AN IDEAL ESKIMO TRAP FOR THE CAPTURE OF CARIBOU, USED
PREVIOUS TO THE ADVENT OF THE RlFLE . . ... 3!
Fig. 48. CACHE OF SPECIMENS ......... 32
Fig. 49. MR. STONE'S CAMP IN THE NORTHERN ROCKIES . . 33
Fig. 50. ON THE CARCAJOU RIVER . . . . . . . . . -34
Figs. 51,52. BRINGING BEAR SKINS TO CAMP ...... 35
Fig. 53. BUILDING A BOAT . . * . . . -36
Fig. 54. ON THE LIARD RIVER . . ... 37
Fig. 55. CAMPING ON THE ARCTIC COAST . . . -38
Tlu- edition <>f this lirochurr, limited to one hundivd nuinU-ivd copies, is
ilistrilmti-il ;is follows :
Ail i \. I >K | A
.\MKKIC\N Mi H < M .11 NATURAL HISTORY,
AMI i "r.KAPiucAL SOCIETY.
ANHKRSOS. A A
AUCHINCI.I.SS. HUGH D.
B ARM :>. JOHN S.
BARNEY. CHARLI -,s T
BOONE AMI ('KIM KI IT CLUB.
BkAiNKRD, COL. DAVID S.
BKIDCEMAX, H. L.
BROOKS. Ai i KM> II
BROWN. PROK. ARTHUR EKWIN.
BROWM i i :. HON. W. H.
Bu.Mpfs. PROF. HEKMON C.
BURTON. R. L.
CADWAI.ADER. JOHN L.
CHILBERG. J. V.
CHISHOLM, HUGH J.
-TABLE, FREDERICK A.
CURTIN. E. S.
Ct-RTis. CARLTON C.
DAVIS. E. W.
DAVISON, CHAS. STEWART.
DAY, ROBERT W
DODGE, CLEVELAND H.
ELLIOT, PROF. D. G.
ELPHI \STONE, LORD.
GOELET, ROBERT W.
GOODRIDGE, FRED G.
GOULD, GEORGE J.
GRIN-NELL, GEORGE BIRD.
HAN-BURY, DAVID T.
HARRIMAN. E. H.
HARRISON. FRANCIS BURTON.
HAZARD, R. G.
HILL. JAMES J.
HORNADAY. WILLIAM T.
JESUP, MORRIS K
KIDDER, JAMES H.
v, HON. JOHN E.
LA FAROE, C. GRANT.
LAMONT, COL. DANIEL S.
l.viu KKI R. RICHARD.
M v, \ \KII. WALTER L.
MclNDOE, CAPT. J.\-~
Mi KRIAM. DR C. HART.
MILLS. DR. \V. P.
MINI R. JOHN.
MOORE. ('HAS. ARTHUR, JR.
MoRC.AN. J I'lERPONT.
MIIRI.AN. J I' . JR.
MORRIS, DR. LI-:\VI> R.
MORRIS, ROBERT C.
MORRIS, DR. ROBERT T.
NELS..N. E. W
NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY.
OSBORN, PROP. HENRY FAIRFIELD.
OSGOOD, WILFRED H.
PIERCE. HENRY ("LAY.
POOR. HENRY W
PYNE, M TAYLOR.
PYNI :. IV KCY R.
R AMI R CLUB.
ROOSEVELT, HON. THEODORE.
RUSSELL. ARCHIBALD D.
SCOTT, PROF. W. B.
SHI I.DON, CHARI.I
SPRAGUE, COL. CHARLES E.
STONE, ANDREW J.
STONE, GRANVILLE H.
THORNE. Miss PHOEBE ANNA.
TOWNE. E. S.
TOWNSEND. CHARLES H.
UNDERWOOD, F. D.
UNIVERSITY CLUB, SEATTLE.
VON PLESSEN, BARON.
WADSWORTH. MAJOR W AUSTIN.
WALCOTT. HON. CHARLES D.
Wi \THERBEF. EDWIN H
WHITEHOUSE. WILLIAM F.
WINSKR. JOHN H
The Andrew J. Stone Explorations in Arctic
and Subarctic America.
LKSS than ten years ago \vry few s]>eeimens of the larger game animals of
Aretie and Subarctic America were to be found in any natural history
museum, and in none were any of the species satisfactorily represented.
In 1896 Mr. Andrew J. Stone visited the Cassiar District of northern
British I'olumbia on a hunting trip and among the trophies of the expedition
brought to New York several specimens of a new species of Bighorn Sheep, since-
described as Ovis stonei, in honor of its discoverer. These specimens were pur-
chased by the late James M. Constable, First Vice -President of the American
Museum of Natural History, for this institution, and they formed the beginning
of its present collection of the large game animals of boreal America. As
some of the species were becoming rapidly extirpated, it seemed of the utmost
imjiortance that steps should immediately be taken to secure specimens not only
for exhibition, but for scientific research. Accordingly, Mr. Constable, with his
accustomed liberality, contributed largely to the support of a second expedition
by Mr. Stone to Arctic America with this object especially in view.
With this encouragement Mr. Stone left Seattle, Washington, early in July,
1897, for Fort Wrangel, Alaska, on an expedition of more than two years' dura-
tit >n, and which was to prove memorable in the annals of Arctic exploration. The
amount of hardship and travel involved was exceptional, but the expedition re-
sulted in important contributions to our knowledge of the distribution of the
game animals of the high North, and of the geography of the Arctic coast to the
eastward of the Mackenzie Delta,' besides adding to the Museum's collection of
mammals a considerable number of specimens, including six species new to
Mr. Stone's trip from Fort Wrangel was northeastward up the Stickine River,
across the divide to Dease Lake, down Dease Lake and Dease River to the Liard
Rivi-r. down the Liard to the Mackenzie, down the Mackenzie to the Delta, then
west by dog sled along the coast to Herschel Island and back to Fort McPherson,
thence eastward for about i ,000 miles to beyond Cape Lyon, and back to Fort Mc-
Pherson. The return journey was westward -across the Rocky Mountains to Bell
River, down Bell River to the Porcupine, down the Porcupine and Yukon to St.
Michael, and thence by steamer to Seattle. Side trips were made from the head
of the Stickine River to the Cheonnee Mountains; from the head of Dease Lake
1 See "Some Results of a Natural History Journey to Northern British Columbia, Alaska, and the North-
west Territory, in the Interest of the American Museum of Natural History." By A. J. Stone. Bull. Amer.
Nat. Hist.. Vol. XIII. IQOO, pp. 31-62, with sketch maps.
into the Cassiar Mountains; from the Liard River up the Black River to Walker
Mountains; from a lower point on the Liard River to the Nahanna Mountains;
from Fort Norman, on the Mackenzie, westward into the main chain of the Rocky
Mountains; and again westward from Fort McPherson into the Rockies.
The trip to the Cassiar Mountains resulted in securing a good series of a new
species of Caribou, since described as Rangtfer osborni, the largest and finest of
Fig. i. Ovis STONEI.
From photograph of a mounted specimen (the type, No. 12721 Am. Mus.), taken in the
Cheonnee Mountains, Northern British Columbia, August 10, 1896.
the Caribous; these specimens were carried on the backs of Mr. Stone and his
men for sixty miles to the nearest point of shipment at the head of Dease Lake,
and did not reach the Museum for more than two years after they were captured.
The trip to the Nahanna Mountains was for White Bighorns and several speci-
mens were secured, and a much larger series of the same species was obtained
later in the main Rocky Mountains (lat. 66 30' N.), on the trip westward from
Fort Norman. The trip into the Rockies from Fort McPherson was for Caribou,
l>ut ]>n>ved unsuceessful, the animals having moved too far southward from their
summer range to he overtaken. The win tor trip along tho coast westward to
Horsi-hcl Island was mainly to secure information regarding the country and the
Musk-ox ranges to tin- eastward. The intense cold precluded the preparation of
specimens, although two sjH-oies of Lemming were procured.
I-Yi.in information obtained at Herschel Island Mr. Stone was le<l to In-lieve
that the ranges of the Musk-ox could be easily reached by a trip eastward along
the Aretio east. and that the specimens when procured could he shipped hy
whaling vessels direct from ('a]** Bathurst to San Francisco. It proved, how-
ever, that these animals had retired further south than usual, and while "signs"
were met with at several points, particularly south of Cape Lyon, they were not
Fig. 2. Ovis STOXEI.
Fig. 3. Ovis CERVIX A.
Fig. 2, same specimen as Fig. i ; Fig. 3. Rocky Mountain Bighorn, from Montana. Both
photographed to the same scale.
recent, and no animals were seen. The provisions for both the men and the
dogs finally became exhausted in the long search, and further quest had to be
Including the trips westward to the Rock}- Mountains and Herschel Island, the
whole long Arctic winter was given up to travel with dog sleds. In October and
the early part of November, 1898, a trip of 500 miles 250 miles and return-
was made westward to the most northerly reaches of the Rocky Mountains; in
November and December, again westward to Herschel Island and return a
journey of 500 miles; in January and February, 1899, local trips, of between 200
and 300 miles, were made in the region of the head of the Mackenzie Delta ; and
finally, in March, April, May, and June, a journey across the Delta and eastward
for 1000 miles along the Arctic coast to beyond Fort Lyon and return. The t< .tal
132 131 130 121* 126 127 186 186 184 183 122 121 120
135 134 133
Fig. 4. SKETCH MAP INDICATING GEOGRAPHICAL CORRECTIONS AND OBSERVATIONS; ALSO
SHOWING A PORTION OF MR. STONE'S ARCTIC COAST JOURNEY.
The dotted lines indicate Mr. Stone's route. See Bulletin Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.,|Vol. XIII,
1900, pp. 38-41.
I GEOOIUPBIE I/ 7 "
Fig. 5. TRANSCRIPT OF PORTION OF EMIL PETITOT'S CHART.
sledge ji.unu-ys t" tlu- wiiitrr of 1898-99 aggregated about 3330 miles, an<l \\vre ac-
complished in 180 days, including 155 days of actual travel. Among tin- n suits of
these journeys was a valuable series of photographs and anthropometric measure-
ments of representatives of two tribes of Indians, the Tahltan and Loucheux, and
of two tribes of Eskimo, the Nunatagmiut and KoukpagOtiut, tin- measurements
comprising a total of 86 individuals '; much information about the general char-
acter of the country and the ranges of the large game animals; and the correction
i >f i^n >ss ern >rs in the current maps of the region bordering the Arctic coast between
the mouth of the Mackenxie and Cape Lyon. The area indicated on the U. S.
Fig. 6. SKETCH MAP SHOWING POSITION OF ' ESQUIMAUX LAKE ' AS INDICATED ON THE U. S.
HYDROGRAPHIC CHART No. 1189.
Hydrographic Chart No. 1189 as "Esquimaux Lake" (see Fig. 6), he found to be
simply low country interspersed with small lakes; he crossed this area twice and
found it to be land and not water. Other charted lakes and rivers were also
found to have no real existence, and others that had been overlooked were for
the first time charted and named by Mr. Stone. (See the sketch maps in Mr.
Stone's paper already cited, here reproduced as Figs. 4, 5, and 6.)
The natural history of the region traversed by Mr. Stone being only superficially
known, it was natural that his explorations should add greatly to our knowledge
of the ranges of the larger mammals in these high northern districts, not only
through his own observations but by information derived from various officers
of the Hudson Bay Company, and from intelligent white and Indian hunters.
' See "A. J. Stone's Measurements of Natives of the Northwest Territories." By Franz Boas. Bull.
Amor. Mus. Nat. Hist . Vol. XIV, 1901, pp. 53-68, pll. vii-ix.
Much new and definite information was thus secured in reference to the Wood
Bison and the Musk-ox, both of which are rapidly declining in numbers, and
becoming each year more and more restricted in their ranges. Our exact knowl-
edge of the ranges of both the White and the Black Bighorn Sheep was also
greatly extended, and a new form of the latter was discovered which still awaits
Fig. 7. ALASKA MOOSE (Alces gigas).
From a mounted specimen in the Museum, collected by Mr. Stone on the Kenai Peninsula,
in September, 1900.
description, the White Sheep of the Nahanna Mountains and the extreme north-
ern part of the Rockies proving to be not the true Ovis dalli, as, until recently,
supposed. Of this new form ' the only specimens extant in an}' museum are
those in this Museum, collected by Mr. Stone in 1898.
The ranges of the different forms of the Caribou group were also outlined in
considerable detail. He says, in speaking of these animals in his paper published
1 Soon to be described by Mr. Wilfred H. Osgood of the U. S. Biological Survey, who has in hand a criti-
cal revision of the forms of Ovis inhabiting northern British Columbia, the Northwest Territory, and Alaska.
Fig. 8. AI.A-KA MOOSE.
An exceptionally fine specimen, taken by Mr Stone the latter part of September, 1903, on the
Kcnai Peninsula, Alaska.
\'\K. 9. HOME OF THE ALASKA MOOSE.
A t\ -pii -a I Moose range on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Photographed by Mr. Stone late in
Fig. 10. WHITE SHEEP.
A White Bighorn, taken by Mr. Stone in the Rocky Mountains, west of the Mackenzie River
(lat. 66 30' N.), in August, 1898. This specimen afforded the first food the party had secured
for forty-eight hours after reaching the mountains.
One of the finest White Bighorn rams ever taken,
tains, west of the Mackenzie, in August, 1898.
Fig. ii. WHITE SHEEP.
Secured bv Mr. Stone in the Rockv Moun-
in the Museum 'Bulletin' in April, 1900: "I therefore feel safe in saying, after
my limited personal observations, that the Caribou are the least known of anyjof
the more important North American mammals; and that they present a most
inviting field for study, with excellent possibilities of ample reward for the labor
expended; and I may further add that the time for their investigation is limited.
To successfully prosecute such work would necessitate the expenditure of a con-
.>.-. lisfc-r 5 - .^>VA^ ~'V^~:>^^9sas!B^S vK?!H^
Sjfe: %.,-* ^'^gffS&y :^^m^^^^^^
JKTjfc"* - ^ '" ''''fi^ *^^ v *#. >>'"-" V*jji.-.-? ^'Jr'ftS
r > t^Jhte . y <.' -*- '...''- . .>>".. i..'-^\'^>*!.SiiSSS
Fig. 14. ALASKA PENINSULA BEAR.
Ursus dalli gyas, killed near the head of Muller Bay, late in May, 1903. An old male, No.
21802, Am. Mus.
siderable sum of money, and require a vast amount of pluck, perseverance, and
patience, and entail on the part of the explorer the endurance of much privation
In the fall of 1900 a short but very successful trip was made by Mr. Stone to
the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, to secure for the Museum a good series of specimens
of the Alaska Moose, up to this time wholly unrepresented in its collections. He
also obtained a single specimen of a new species of Caribou (described later as
Fi^. 15. ALASKA PENINSULA BEAK.
Another view of the specimen shown in Fijj. 14
Fig. 16. ALASKA PENINSULA BEAR.
Same specimen as shown in Figs. 14 and 15.
L. Clark, >one of five specimens prepared for a
Mounted at the Atnrriran Must-urn by James
Tin- skull is shown in Fi^s. 18 20.
Rangifer stonei; see Figs. 12 and 13, p. 9) and several Bears, representing two
The extreme desirability of securing for the Museum a satisfactory representa-
tion of the mammal life of northern North America before the inroads of big game
hunters, miners, and other visitors to these northern regions should render its
attainment impossible, led to steps being taken, early in 1901, to raise a fund
among the friends of the Museum for the systematic prosecution of this work,
under the leadership of Mr. Stone. Thanks to the interest and energetic efforts
of Mr. Madison Grant, Secretary of the New York Zoological Society, an annual
Fig. 17. HOME OF THE ALASKA PENINSULA BEAR.
Coast of Bering Sea, near head of Muller Bay, Alaska. From a photograph taken by Mr.
Stone late in May, 1903.
sum sufficient for the purpose, for the period of three years, was soon pledged.
That the supporters of this enterprise have reason to feel satisfied with the results
due to their liberality is clearly apparent from the summary here presented of the
work of Mr. Stone and his assistants during the field seasons of 1901, 1902, and
1903, in northern British Columbia and Alaska.
The expedition of 1901 outfitted from Seattle and reached Homer, Alaska, June
21, and work was continuously prosecuted till October at different points on
the Kenai Peninsula. Mr. J. D. Figgins of the American Museum, and Mr. A. H.
Mehner of Seattle, accompanied Mr. Stone as field assistants, their special work
being the collecting of small mammals and birds, as opportunity offered, while
Flf . iS.
FigS. l8-20. URSUS DALLI GYAS.
No. 21802, old male, Muller Bay, Alaska Peninsula. J natural size. Three views of the
skull of the specimen shown in Figs. 14-16.
Figs. 21-23. URSUS MERRIAMI.
No. 21807, middle-aged male, Muller Bay, Alaska Peninsula. The mounted skin of this
specimen is shown in Fig. 24, p. 15.
Mr. Stone gave special attention to large game. At the end of the Kanai season
Mr. Stone, accompanied 1>\ Mr. Figgins. made a special expedition to the western
end of the Alaska Peninsula to procure Caribous and Bears. The season's work
at both localities was eminently successful, resulting in a collection of 350 mam-
mals and }oo birds, representing species, with few exceptions, wholly new to the
Fig. 24. URSUS MERRIAMI.
Taken at head of Muller Bay, Alaska Peninsula, May, 1903. An old male, No. 21804. From
a specimen mounted at the Museum by James L. Clark to form part of a group of Alaska Penin-
American Museum collections. The mammals included 5 Moose, 15 Caribou, 14
White Sheep, n Bears, and 8 additional Bear skulls, and about 300 small mam-
mals, consisting mostly of Voles, Shrews, and Squirrels, but including a few Foxes,
Martins, Weasels, and a Wolverene. The Caribous were all taken on the western
end of the Alaska Peninsula and represented a new species since named in honor
of Mr. Madison Grant, in recognition of his interest in securing the funds for carry-
ing on the work.
The journey from Homer to the western end of the Alaska Peninsula, of nearly
a thousand miles, was made when the season was far advanced and navigation
dangerous. But so strongly convinced was Mr. Stone that the form of Caribou
inhabiting this remote point would prove of especial interest that he was willing,
on account of his comparative nearness to the locality, to risk the chances of the
trip. Unfavorable weather caused a delay of ten days in reaching the mainland
Fig. 25. NORTHERN GRIZZLY.
Adult female and male cub killed in the Sheslay Mountains, Northwest British Columbia,
late in August, 1902.
from Sand Point, Popoff Island, only twelve miles distant, but the time was well
improved in forming a large collection of the peculiar Shrews and Voles of this
small island, then only recently described and unrepresented outside of the Na-
tional Museum at Washington. The Caribou, as already noted, proved to be a
strikingly distinct type. Five of the fourteen specimens have been mounted for
a group, as shown in the accompanying illustration (Fig. 38, p. 24).
The season of 1902 was spent mainly in northern British Columbia, Mr. Stone's
chief assistant being Mr. M. P. Anderson, a student of Leland Stanford University.
Mr. Stone, however, first visited the Alaska Peninsula in quest of the big Brown
FigS. 26-28. URSUS M1DDENDORFFI.
No. 19766, old male, Kadiak Island, Alaska. J natural size. One of the largest of a series
of 39 Kadiak Bear skulls secured by Mr. Stone in 1902 and 1903.
Bear discovered there the previous season, and to obtain accessories for the group
of Grant Caribou. But the hunt for Bears proved unsuccessful, and about the
end of June he joined Mr. Anderson at Wrangel, where Mr. Anderson was already
at work collecting small mammals. On July -8 they left Wrangel for the head-
waters of the Stickine River, where work was prosecuted over a considerable
range of country till the last week in October. Later about two weeks were spent
at Kupreanof Island, near Sitka.
Fig. 29. HEAD OF MOUNTAIN GOAT.
Type of Oreamnos montanus columbianus, killed in the Sheslay Mountains, Northwest British
Columbia, August, 1902. No. 19838, Am. Mus.
This season only mammals were collected, of which nearly noo specimens were
taken, including about 45 head of large game, besides a series of 31 skulls of the
Kadiak Bear, obtained at Kadiak Island. The large game comprised 9 fine speci-
mens of the Osborii Caribou (Rangifer osborni; see Figs. 40-45, pp. 26-29), 6
specimens of Moose, 14 fine examples of the Sitka Deer, 9 specimens of the Stone
Sheep' (Ovis stonei), 4 specimens of Mountain Goat, and 3 Bears. These specimens
are all complete (skin, skull, and leg bones), with measurements, for mounting.
Among the thousand specimens of small mammals were five species new to science,
ami large series of several others hitherto rare in collections. One of the Goats
F-.i,'. 29, ]>. iS) forms tin- type of tin- new subspecies recently described as
init>s nwnUinns columhiatius.
In 1903 the western end of the Alaska Peninsula was again visited, win -re about