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Holoquiflcalus lu^bris lugubris (Swainson)

t[Gracvia] hariia Linn. Syst. Nat. ed., 10, 1758, 109.

Qtiiecalus lugubris Swainson, Anim. in Menag, 1838, 299. — Bubm,
Syst. Ueb. 3, 1856, 283.— Taylor, Ibis, 6, 1864, 84.— Cassin, Proc
Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1866, 408.— Sclatbp, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862,
141; Ibis, 1884, 162; Cat. Birds Br. Mus., 11, 1886, 402.— Chapman,
Bufl. Am. Mus. N. H., 6, 1894, 37.— Phelps, Auk, 14, 1897, 364.—
Bbrlepsch & Habtbbt, Nov. ZooL, 9, 1902, 33.— Hbllmatb, Nov.
Zool. 13, 1906, 21.— Berlbpsch, Nov. ZooL, 16, 1908, 124.

Qluiscdus] lugtibria Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 1, 1850, 424, 38.— Pbnard
& Pbnard, De Vog. v. Guyana, 2, 1910, 380.

IQuiecalus] lugubris Sclatbr & Salvin, Nom. Av. Neot., 1873, 38. — Gray,
H.-L., 2, 1870, 38, no. 6526.

* Wetmore, Auk 33: 1910, 419.
Mbid. 34; 1917, 62.



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^^^- mf^"] Pbtbbs, Grackles of Ihe Genus HdoquUcalus. 447

Chalcopkanes Itigubria Finsch, P. Z. S., 1870, 677.
Chlalcophanes] lugubria Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, 1851, 197.
HoLoqvdscalus lugubria Ridgwat, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 8, Apr.

15, 1901 ,161; Birds No. & Mid. Am. 2, 1902, 225.— Shabpb, H.-L.

1909, 510.— Braboubnb & Chubb, The Birds of S. A., 1 (all published),

Dec., 1912, 440.— Cherbie, Bklyn. Inst. Mus. Sci. Bull., 2 (6), 1916,

211.
Chlaleophanes] jamaicenna (not of Daudin) [«cf'] Cabanis in Schom-

burgh's Reise, 3, 1848 (» 1849!) 683.
Chlcdcophanet] mim>rt=91 do.; Mus. Hein., 1851, 197.
Quiscalus harita Lbotaud, Ois Trin., 1860, 268.
Qinscalus sp.7 Tatlob, Ibis 6, 1864, 84 (Br. Guiana).

DescripUan. — Adult male: In general form and coloration resembling
the adult males of H. j. jamaicenna but much smaller with more slender
and decurved bill. Above and below ^oesy violet Uack becoming
bluish on the greater and median series of wing coverts; secondaries,
retrices and exposed margins of primaries stron^y glossed with bronze-
green. Wing, 112.5-122 (117.25) mm.t tafl, 106-116 (110) mm.; cul-
men (from base of forehead), 29-30 (29.5) nun.

Adult female: Above dark smokey brown becoming sooty on the rump
and upper tail coverts; quills Uackish brown faintly glossed with green-
ish. Below Ught smoky-brown becoming blackish on the flanks and under-
tail coverts and shading into grayish brown on the throat. BiU, legs and
feet black; iris pale yellow. (BerL & Hart. Nov. Zool. 9, 1902, 33.)

Type localiiy. — '* Brazil'', Swainson. British Guiana substituted as
type locality in piace of Brazil by Berlepsch and Hartert, Nov. Zool.,
9, 1902, 33, foot-note.

Range. — Trim'dad & Tobago, French, British & Dutch Guiana, Ven-
ezuela.

Remarks. — It is possible though by no means certain that this
is Gractda harita of the 10th edition of linneaus. In this edition
Linneaus first used the name for a bird based on Dr. Rolander,
there are no references to any published works or plates, and the
description has various discrepancies; the range given is " America, "
a rather large one but somewhat restricted by the statement that
the bird devours bananas. It can be still further restricted when
we know that Rolander visited Surinam and St. Eustatius. Rather
than resurrect this old name of doubtful application, the use of
which by early authors together with Gracvla harita of the 12th
edition has produced much confusion, I prefer to follow all recent
authors in the employment of Swainson*s name lugvbris.

The type-locality "Brazil," given by Swainson was doubtless



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448 Peters, Grackles of the Oenus Holoquiscalua, [j^

an error and Berlepsch and Hartert^ are quite right in substituting
British Guiana. Hellmayr' in 1906 also substituted British Gui-
ana for Brazil^ a proceeding which was rendered unnecessary by
reason of its having been done four years before.

Holoquiscalus lugubris insulariB (Richmond)

Quiaealus instdaris Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18, 1895, 675. —

Clark, Auk, 19, 1902, 265.— Lowe, Ibia, 9th ser., 1, 1907, 570.
Holoquiscalus instdaris Ridgwat, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 8, Apr. 15,

1901, 151; Birds No. & Mid. Am., 2, 1902, 225.— Cobt, Field Col.

Mus., Om. Ser. 1 (5) 231 (Los Te8tigos)248 (Margarita Id.)— Sharps.

H.-L. of Birds 6, 1909, 510.— Braboubnb & Chubb, Birds of S. A. 1

Dec. 1912, 440.
HdoqvMcaluB luminoius (not of Lawrence) Lowe, Ibis, 9th ser. 3 1909,
321.

Adult male: Similar to H, I. lugubria but larger. Wing, 125 mm.; tiil,
]20 mm.; culmen ({torn base of forehead), 32 mm.

Adult female: Similar to adult female of H, I. lugubris but larger. Wing,
104 mm.; tail, 88.5 mm.; culmen, 27.25 mm. Feet, legs and bill black; iris
pale yellow (Robinson on label).

Type locaUty. — Margarita Id., Coast of Venezuela.

Range. — Margarita Id., Los Testigos Ids.

Material — ^Two specimens, J adult cf*i 1 adult 9 .'

Remarks. — The Margarita Grackle is an insular race with rather
limited distribution. Lowe refers birds from the Testigos to H. L
luminoaus with the remark that they are identical with Grenada
birds, but Cory refers them to insularis, stating that they are some-
what intermediate. In all probability birds from the Testigos would
be more nearly related to the Margarita form.

Holoquiscalus lugubris orquillensis (Cobt)

Hdoqyiecdue orquiUensia Cort, Field Col. Mus., Om. Ser., 1 (5), 227

(diagnosiB), 254 (distribution).
Hcioquiecalue insvlarie (not of Richmond) Lowe, Ibis, 9th ser., 3, 1909,

321.

Adult male:^ ''Similar to H. ir^atdaris from Margarita, but differs in
having the middle tail feathers almost plain black, not decidedly glossed
with green as in that species; rest of the tail feathers showing a slight
greenish gloss but much less than in inatdarie. The single female taken

»Nov. Zool. 9, 1902. 33. Footnore
sNov. Zool. 13. 1906. 21,
» No. 161. 732. ooU. U. 8. N. M.
* Quoted ftrom original description.



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Vol. XXXVni J Pjptbbs, GrackUs of the Genua Hotoquiacalua. 449

apparently does not differ from specimens from Margarita. Wing, 118.3;
tail, 105; ex. culmen 26.7.''

Type locdUty, — Orquilla (Los Hermanos Ids.), Caribbean Sea.

Range. — Orquilla.

Material. — ^No specimens of this race seen by me.

Remarks. — ^Lowe records eight specimens of this race taken on
Orquilla during January, 1908, and gives the following measure-
ments. Five males: wing 118 mm. tail 95 mm, exp. culm, 27. mm.
Three females: wing 102 mm., tail 83 mm., exp. culm. 23 mm.

Boloquiscalus lugubris luminosus (Lawbence)

Quiecaltie luminasua Lawbencb, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1, July, 1878f
162; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1, 1879, 270, 278, 487, 9; 1886, 616.— Obbb,
Camps in the Caribbees, 1880, 247.— Sclatbb, Ibis, 1884, 161; Cat.
Birds Br. Mus 11, 1886, 226.— Cobt, Auk, 8, 1886, 225; Birdb of the,
W. 1 , 1889, 111; Cat. of W. I. Birds 1892, 16 —Wells, ^.uk. 19 1902
346; H.-B. of Grenada, 1904, 147 (Grenada), 160. (Carriaoou), re-
printed (posth.) H..B. of Grenada, 1907, 15J, 164, 1916, 230, 233.—
Matnard, Cat. of Birds of the W. I., Dec. 1903, 19.

[QutseoZus] luminoeuB Cort, List of Birds of the W. I.. 1886, 14, rev. ed
1886, 14.

HcioquiUealus luminoeua RmowAT, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 8, Apr. 16«
1901, 161; Birds No. & Mid. Am., 2, 1902, 226, 232.— Clabk, Proc.
Boet. Soc. N. H., 82 (7), 1906, 284— Shabpb, H.-L., 6, 1909, 610.

Quiecalue inflexiroslris (not of Swainson) Cort, Cat. W. L Birds, 1892,
111, 146, part (Grenada, Grenadiaes).
DeacriptUm. — ^Adult male: Similar to H. I. inevlarie, but bill much

longer and more slender. Wing, 117-126.6 (121.9) mm.; tail, 109-116

(113) mm.; culmen, 34-36 (36) mm.
Adult female: Similar to the female of H. I. insidaris, but a trifle

paler both above and below; bill much longer and more slender. Wing,

99.6-106.6 (102) mm.; taO, 86.6-91 (88.3) mm.; cuhnen, 28-31.6 (30.26)

mm. Bill, legs and feet black.
Type localUy. — Grenada, W. 1.
Range. — Grenada and the Grenadines (Carriacou, Union, Bequia, Petit

Martinique, Mustique, Tobago Keys).
Material. — ^Fifty-three specimens, 36 males and 18 females, all in the

collection of the Museum of Comparative Zoology.
Remarks. — ^The best character for the identification of this form

is the long, much decurved and relatively slender bill.
Yowig females are much paler below than adult females, the

throat practically white; young males resemble the females except

for patches of sooty black feathers, particularly on the back and
scapulars.



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450 Pbtebs, OraekUa qf the Oentu Holoqmacalui. \f^

Holoquiflcalut luffubrit inflaziroftrit (Swainson)

Quiacalus inflexiroatrU Swainbon, Anim. in M^ag, 1838, 300, fig. 52.—

Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 18, 1866, 407.— Sglatbb, Proe.

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, 175, part (St. Lucia); Ibis, 1884, 160, part (St.

Lucia); Cat. Birds Br. Mus., 11, 1886, 401, part (St. Luda); Cobt,

Auk, 8, 1886, 224, part (St. Lucia); Birds W. L, 1889, 111 put (St.

Lucia); Cat. W. I. Birds, 1892, 15, 111, 146, part (St. Lucia).— Rido-

WAT Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 12, 1890, 130.— Matnabd, Cat. Birds W.

I., Dec. 1, 1903, 19, part (St. Lucia).
Qluiscalus] inflexiraairia Bonapabtb, Consp. Av. 1, 1850, 424.
IQuiscaltut] infiextrostria Gbat, H.-L., 2, 1870, 38, no. 6525.— Sclatir

and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 38, part (St. Lucia). — Cobt, List

Birds W. I., 1885, 14 (rev. ed., 1886, 14) part (St. Lucia).
Hoioquiacalua inflexiroatria Ridgwat, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 8, Apr. 15,

1901, 151; Birds No. A Mid. Am., 2, 1902, 225, 226, 230.— Nicoll. Ibis,

8th ser., 4, 561, 1904.— Shabpe, H.-L., 5, 1909, 510.— C^labk, W. 1.

BuUetin, 11 (3), 1911, 183.
Quiacalua lugubria (not of Swainson) Sclatbb, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond ,

1871, 271; Semper, 1872, 650.
Quiacalua luminoaua (not of Lawrence) Allen, Bull. N. O. C, 6, 1880,

166.

Adult male: Similar to H. I. luminoaua but with the bill shorter and
stouter. Wing, 120-127.5 (122.12) mm.; tail, 104-118 (110.62) mm.,
cuhnen, 31-31.5 (31.12) mm.

Adult female: Similar to the adult female of the preceding but larger
with shorter and stouter bill. Wing, 111.5mm.; tail, 101 nmi.; cuhnen,
27.5 mm. Bill, legs and feet black.

Type locality. — Described by Swainson in 1838 as "Inhabits 7"

Attributed in 1873 by Sclater and Salvin^ to St. Lucia and Martinique.
There can be little doubt that the bird described and bill figured by Swain-
son is the one in question.

Range. — Island of St. Lucia, West Indies.

Material. — ^Five specimens, 4 males and a female.

Holoquiflcalus lugubris guadeloup^nsis (Lawrence)

Quiacalua guadelaupenaia Lawbence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, Apr. 22
1879 457.— ScLATEB Ibis, 1884, 160; Cat. Birds Br. Muu., U, 1886,
401.— Cobt, Ibis, 5th ser., 4, 1886, 474 (Marie GWante?); Auk, 3,
1886, 226, 8, 1891, 49; Birds W. L, 1889, 113; Cat. W. I. Binls, 1892,
15, 111, 147.— Maynabd, Cat. W. I. Birds, Dec. 1, 1903, 19.

[Quiacalua] guadelaupenaia Cobt, List W. I. Birds, 1885, 14 (rev. ed., 1886,
14) (Guadeloupe).

Hoioquiacalua guadelaupenaia Ridgwat, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3, Apr

1 Nom. Av. Neotr. 1873. 88.



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Vol XXXVnij Pbtbbb, Gracklea of the Genus HoloquUcalus. 451

15, 1901, 151; Birds No. & Mid. Am., 2, 1902, 225, 226, 232.-«HABnB,

H.-L., 5, 1909, 510.— NoBLB, BuU. M. C. Z., eo (10), Aug.. 1916, 383,

384.
Hdoquiecdlue marHnicensis Ridgwat, Proo. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3, Apr.

15, 1901, 15]; Birds No. & Mid. Am., 2, 1902, 225, 226, 231.— Mat-

i«ABD, App. to Cat. Birds W. I., Deo. 1, 1903, 37.— Shabps, H.-L., 5,

1909, 510.— NoBU, BuU. M. C. Z., 60 (10), Aug. 1916, 383 (crit.).
Quiaealue infiexirostns (not of Swainson) Lawbbncb Proo. U. S. Nat.

Mus., 1, 1879, 355, 487.— Sclatbb, Proo. Zool. Soo. Lond., 1874, 175

part Martinique); Ibis, 1884, 160 part (Martinique); Cat. Birds Br.

Mus., 11, 1886, 401, part (Martinique).— Cobt, Auk, 3, 1886, 224,

part (Martinique) ;4, 1887,96 (Martinique) Separates published Feb. 3,

1887; Birds W. I., 1889, 111, part (Martinique); Cat. W. I. Birds,

1892, 15, 111, 146, part (Martinique) Matnabd, Cat. Birds W. I.,

Deo. 1, 1903, part (Martinique).
t[Q\d8calu»] inflanroetrieScLATMR k Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr , 1873, 38,

part Martinique).— CoRT, List Birds W. I., 1885, 14 (rev. ed., 1886,

14) part (Martinique).

QuMcalue mexieomw^ Cabsin, Proo. Acad. Sci. Phila., 13, Dec., 1866,

403.

Deeeriptian. — ^Adult male: Similar to H, I. inflexiraetrie but smaller
and with a much shorter and stouter bill. Wing, 118.5-125 (120.95)
mm.; tail, 101.5-lt)6 (103.5) mm.; cuhnen from base, 29-31 (29.5) mm.

AduH female: Similar to H, L inflexiroedris but smaller and paler, with
a shorter and stouter bill. Wing, 102-107.5 (105.3) mm. ; taU, 78-92 (848)
mm.; cuhnen, from base, 24r-27 (25.6) mm.

Type locality, — Island of Guadeloupe, West Indies.

Range, — Guadeloupe, Martinique, Marie Galante?

Material, — ^Twenty-one specimens, 13 males (8 ad. 5 jiw.),8 females
(some not quite adult).

Remarks. — Noble' places Holoquiscalus martinicensis in the sy-
nonymy of this species believing the difference between the
two forms to be insuffic^it to warrant a distinction. In this con-
duaion I fully concur.

Young birds in the first plumage appear rather darker above
and paler below than birds in the corresponding plumage of /u-
minasiu; this is particularly noticeable on the throat which in
giuideloupensis is almost pure white.

Holoquiseaius fortirostrii fortirofltria (Lawrsi^ce)

Quisealua fortirostris Lawrence, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1868, 360
428.— ScLATEB, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond , 1874, 175; Ibis, 1878, 334; 1884

> of. Ridgway, Birds No. ft Mid. Am. 2. 1902, 231 foot note.

« Noble, Resident Birds of Ouadeioupe, BuU. M. O. Z. 60 (10) 1916. 483.



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452 Peters, Qraddes of the Genus Hotoquiacaltu. [ j^

161; Cat. Birda Br. Mub., U, 1886, 400.— Cory Ibis, 5th ser., 4, 1886,

472; Auk, 8, 1886, 223; Birds W. I., 1889, 111; Cat. W. 1. Birds, 1892.

15, 111, 134, 146.— Fbilden, Ibis, 6th Ser., 1, 1889, 480, 485.— May-

NARD, Cat. Birds W. I., Dec. 1, 1903, 19.— Anon. W. I. Bull. 4, 1903,

140.— Ballou, W. I. BuU 12, 1912, 220.
[Quiaoalus] fartirostrU Gray, H.-L., S, 1870, 38, no. 6532.— Bclatbb and

SALyiN,Nom. Ay. Neotr., 1873, 38.— Cory, list Birds W. I., 1885, 14

(rev. ed., 1886, 14).
Hdoquiacaius fortiroetrU Ridgway, Proo. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3, Apr. 15,

1901, 151; Birds No. & Mid. Am., 2, 1902, 225, 230; Nichol, Ibis, 8th

ser., 4, 1904, 557.— Clark, Proc. B. S. N. H. 32 (7), Oct., 1905, 220,

227, 282.— Sharpb, H.-L., 6, 1909, 510.

Description, — ^Adult male: Similar in general st^de and pattern of col-
oration to the males of the H. lugubrie group but much smaller with a
short, stout ahnost straight bill. Wing, 102-110 (105.8) nmi.; tail, 91-
107 (99.4) mm.; cuhnen from base, 26-28 (26.75) mm.

Adult female: Similar to the male but smaller in all measuremenU,
metallic gloss duller and washed with deep sooty brown. Wing, 90.5-
94.5 (93.1) nmi.; tail, 86-91 (88.5) mm.; culmen, from base, 23-26
(24.25) mm. Bill, legs and feet black; iris ''straw-yellow in adult, white
in young," Feilden.

Type locality.— Msmd of Barbadoes, W I.

Range, — ^Island of Barbadoes, West Indies.

Material. — ^Ten specimens, 6 adult males, 4 adult females, all in the col-
lection of the Museum of Comparative Zoology.

HoloquiBcalus fortlrottris dispar (Clark) ^

Holoquucalue diepar Clark, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 18, Feb 21, 1905, 61;

Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 32 (7), 1905, 284.
Hdtoquiualue inflexirostrie (not of Swainson) Ridgway, Birds No. & Mid.

Am., 2, 1902, 230, part (St. Vincent).— Sharpb, H.-L., 5, 1909, 510,

part (St. Vincent).
Quiecalus inflexiroetrie (not of Swainson) Cory, Cat. W. I. Birds, 1892,

111, 146, part (St. Vincent); Birds W. I., 189, 111 part (St. Vincent).
Quiecalus ? Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, 1878, 191 (St. Vincent).

Description, — ^Adult male: Similar to adult male of H. I. inflexirostris
but slightly smaller; tail longer. Wing, 119.5 mm.; tail, 121.5 mm.;
culmen from base, 30.5 mm.

Adult female: Similar to adult female of H, L fortirostris but blacker
Oess sooty above), browner (more sooty) below. Wing, 93-935 (93.25)
mm.; tail, 89 nun.; culmen from base, 25 mm.

Type locality. — ^Kingstown, Island of St. Vincent, West Indies.

Range. — St. Vincent.

Material. — ^Three specimens, 1 adult male, 2 adult females (including
the tjrpe). All in the coUection of the Museum of Comparative Zoology.



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v<^ ™viii] Q^^^ ^^^^ 453

Remarks. — The status of this form appears to be some-
what imcertam. The material now before me is too meagre
to form a basis for ainy definite conclusion but it seems to me not
whoUy inprobable that two forms of Holoquiacalus occur on St.
Vincent. The only male specimen is a fine highly colored adult,
scarcely distinguishable from if. /. inflexirostris. He is larg^ than
Barbadoes birds with a longer and relatively more slend^ and more
curved biU. The females on the other hand are almost identical
with females from Barbadoes, but bear not the slightest resem-
blance to any female specimen of the lugvbri$ type.

Holoquiscalus rectirostrls (Cassik)

Quiscalus rectirosiris Gassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 409. —

ScLATEB, Cat. Birds Br. Mus., 11, 1886, 400 (in syn. of Qwiacaltu forti-

rostris witha?). - STONB,Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, 35 (Syn. with

Quisealtis fortirostris ?).
IQuiscalua] rectirostris Gray, H.-L., 2, 1870, 38, no. 6531.
Holoquiscalus rectirosiris Rtoowat, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 8, Apr. 15,

1901, 151; Birds No. & Mid. Am., 2, 1902, 225, 233.— Shabpb, H.-L.,

6, 1909, 510.

Adult male^? " Black, entire plumage with a dark purple lustre

>Ori«tnal diagnols.
very slightly changing to greenish on the wings and tail; bill and feet black



Adult female: Unknown.

Type locdUiy, — ^Unknown.

Range, — ^Unknown.

Material. — No specimens seen by me.

Remarks. — This species is known only from the type specimen
in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and is said to
be "quite distinct."'



OENIRAL NOTES

AmMriean Common Tern Reooyered in West Africa.— A most
striking example of the great value of sybtematic bird banding to orni-
thological science, has been recently received at the office of the Biological
Survey, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.

s cf. Ridgway. Birds No. & Mid. Am X 1902, 233 foot note.



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454 Qenmd NoUs [f^

On July 3, 1913, Dr. John C. Phillips, of Wenham, Maas., iNmded one
hundred juvenal Common Terns, Sterna kinmdo, at Eastern Egg Book,
Muscongus Bay, Me., using American Bird Banding Association bands,
numbered from 1201 to 1300, inclusive. Four years later, in August,
1917, a native of the village of Ikibiri, on the Nun branch of the Niger
River delta, South Nigeria, West Africa, found one of these birds, number
1258, floating in the river,dead. He re^ooved the band and carried it to
the Rev. Oswald N. Garrard, of the Church Missionary Society at Patami,
from whom the infonnation was received. The native informed the Rev.
Garrard that it was a matter of frequent occurrence at that time of the
year to find these birds dead, in the river, although no evidence such as
might account for this statement was forthcoming.

The almost cosmopolitan range of Siema hvrtmdo is, of course, a matter
of common knowledge, but it has no doubt been generally asbumed that
it was the European breeding birds that wintered in Africa, while the
North American colonies would, for the same reason, be presumably in
South America at that season. This assumption is probably more or less
correct although definite data of the character pro'vided by number 1258
has been lacking. However, the case in question proveb that occaskm-
ally, at least. North American birds of this species do make the trans-
oceanic flight to Africa.

The date is also of peculiar significance, indicating that because of poor
condition or other reason, the bird was a non-breeder or that it had bred
early either in Europe or America (7) and had immediately moved back
to its winter quarters. There is, of course, no information as to how long
the bird had been dead when found, but it is extremely improbable that
it had been so for more than a very few days or it would have been dis-
covered and eaten by some carnivorous animal. — ^Fbedebick C. Lincoln,
Biological Survey ^ WaekingUm, D. C,

Swmiia on the Hudson River. — ^Four swans, apparently Olor cofttmfrt-
anue (Ord) were observed February 19, from the window of a bouth4)ound
New York Central train. They were swimming in the open water at the
end of a culvert which connects the Hudson river with a rather extensive
bit of marsh about two miles north of Staatsburg, N. Y. The swans
were on the marsh side of the culvert and seemed not to be disturbed by
the train which passed within a few yards of them. A few crows were
walking about on the ice near the swans and out in the river many ducks
were seen.— S. C. Bishop, State Museum, Albany, N, Y.

King lider (Somftteria speotitbilis) in Michigan Wfttart.— Three
King Eiders spent the greater part of the winter in the St. Clair River
and contiguous waters greatly to the delight and wonder of observing bird
lovers. These handsome birds came down from the arctic about the
middle of November and remained throughout December and the month
of January. They were under observation much of the time and while



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V<»™vmj General Notes. 455

wary and 8im>iciou8 at first, they eventually became quite tame as they
made friends with some domesticated Mallards belonging to Mr. Robert
Chambers, keeper of the Canadian Gun Club near the junction of the St.
Clair and the Basset. King Eiders were also reported at the bird re-
serve of Mr. Jack Miner, near Kingsville, Ont., a few miles south of the
St. Clair.

Records of the visits of the King Eider in Michigan waters are few and
have been usually confined to severe winters; but, as the past winter was
of unusually mild temperature, the cause of this welcome visit remains
problematical.

Another arctic visitor the past winter was the Snowy Owl (Nyctea
nyctea), hundreds of which visited southeastern Michigan, many of them
being taken for mounting and for the Zoo at Belle Isle, Detroit's beautiful
park. — Etta S. Wilson, Detroit, Mich,

An Smrliw Contideration of BoUurus lentiginotus.— With refer-
ence to Dr. Oberholser's remarks about this species (Auk, Jan., 1921, p.
80), as agreement is always a good thing, it may be mentioned that in
1915 in a list of additions and corrections to our 'Hand-list of British
Birds,' it was decided to treat this bird as a distinct species (see 'British
Birds,' Vol. IX, p. 6).— H. F. Withbbby, London, Eng,

Louisiana Clapper Bail in Miflgisaippi.— Among some skins that
Dr. Ob^holser very kindly identified ior me recently, was a specimen of
the Lousiana Clapper Rail (RaUus longirostriB aahwatus), Ilie bird, a
female, was shot by me in a salt marsh at Gulfport, Harrison County,
Miss., on January 18, 1919, and is in my collection.

Sp^iking of the range of this species, Dr. Oberholser says, ''Although
the form RaUw longiroetris eaturatua has been recorded as far east as
Alabama, there seems to be no published record for Mississippi." —
Stbphxn S. Grbgort, Jb., 466 Surf St., Chicago, lU,

The Type Locality of Ortalia y. Tetula - -a Correction.— In The
Auk' for January, 1921, in a revision of Ortalis vetvla, we designated the
type locality of typical vetvla as Tampico, Tamaulipas (p. 46). We have
since received a letter from Dr. Carl E. Hellmayr, who. writes that Wag-
ler's type is in the Mlbiich Museum. He also kindly informs us that the
collector, a Mr. Keerl, did not visit the State of Tamaulipas, according
to the records of the Museimi, but worked in the vicinity of Vera Cruz,
and then went up to the City of Mexico. It is, therefore, nearly certain,
as Dr. Hellmayr points out, that the type was obtained in the neighbor-
hood of Vera Cms, and the type locality of Ortalis v, vetida should be
corrected to "neighborhood of the city of Vera Cms, Mexico." — ^W. dbW.
MiLLEB AND LuDLOW Gbiscoh, American Museum of Natural History,
New York.



Digitized by VjOOQIC



466 Oenmrf NoU9. [IS*

Passanfer Pigeon in ^Htoonsin.— What I believe to be an autiientie
record of the occurrence of the Passengw Pigeon in Wisconsin in 1905
is given me by Mr. O. L. Wetterhall. In the fall of that year, Mr. Wett^ -



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